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Full text of "Three state-of-the-art individual electric and hybrid vehicle test reports, volume 2"

HCP/W1011-03/2 



Volume II 

Three 

State-of-the-Art 
individual Electric and 
Hybrid Vehicle Test Reports 



November 1978 



5<? 



r 



3 ■;, 



V -^ 'M,a r 






Prepared For 

U.S. Department of Energy 

Assistant Secrei^ry for Conservation 
and Solar Applications 
Division or Transportation Energy Conservation 



Under Interagency Agreement No. EC-77-A-31-101 1 

(MASR-CR-162311) THREE STATE-OF-THE-ART N79-32130 

INDIVIDOAL ELECTRIC AND HYBRID VEHICLE TEST 
REPORTS, VOL01E 2 (Jet Exopulsion Lab,) 

3?9 p HC A15/MF A01 Onclas 

G3/65 37745 



HCP/M10n-03/2 
Dist. Cetegory UC-96 



Volume II 

Three 

State-of-the-Art 
Individual Electric and 

Test Reports 



November 1978 



Prepared By 

NASA/ Jet Propulsion Laboratory 

Pasadena, California 



For 

U.S. Department of Energy 

Assistant Secretary for Conservation 
and Solar Applications 

Division of Transportation Energy Conservation 
Washington, D.C. 20545 

Under Interagency Aq'-eement No. EC-77-A-31-1011 



i-'or sail I.' tlie .-uocnMriuli'iii (i( Om imn'tu-, l',,S. tiovi'iiwui'iit I'niiuui; Uilico 

U.khint,'i"", l> ''■ -OIOJ 

-tock Nunilwr iKil-OlXHXtl'JiJ-U 



PREFACE 



The Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development, and Demonstration 
Act of 1976 (Public Law 94-413) required that data be developed charac- 
terizing the state of the art of electric and hybrid vehicles. The 
Energy Research and Development Administration, now the Department of 
Energy (DOE) , which was given the responsibility for implementing the 
Act, established the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development, 
and Demonstration Project within the Division of Transportation Energy 
Conservation to manage the activities required by Public Law 94-413. 

Specifically, the Act states that "Within 12 months after the date of 
enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall develop data character- 
izing the present state of the art with respect to electric and hybrid 
vehicles. The data so developed shall serve as baseline data to be 
utilized in order (1) to compare improvements in electric and hybrid 
vehicle technologies; (2) to assist in establishing the performance 
standards under subsection (b) (1) ; and (3) to otherwise assist in 
carrying out the purposes of this section." This report is Intended, 
however, to give detailed Information regarding the state-of-the-art 
assessment of electric vehicles in addition to the summary type informa- 
tion presented in HCP/haOll already in print. 

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration under an Interagency 
Agreement (Number EC-77-A-31-1011) was requested by ERDA (DOE) to 
develop data in support rf the state-of-the-art characterization. The 
NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory was assigned the responsibility for the 
testing and reporting on the three vehicles ii. eluded in this volume. 

Since the purpose of the state-of-the-art survey was to characterize 
present elec ric vehicles and not to represent any particular vehicle 
technology, vehicles selected for test and evaluation were picked to 
provide a representation of the current state of the art. However, the 
number of vehicles selected was limited by the funding available and 
the time available to complete this phase of the work. Therefore, 
selection was based on: (1) ready availability of a vehicle; and (2) 
its technical representation and the apparent maturity of its construc- 
tion. This report gives detailed information on three of the specific 
vehicles tested. A previous report, "Twelve State-of-the-Art Individual 
Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Test Reports," (Volume I, July 1978 - 
HCP/MlOll-03/1), is also a 'ailable. 

This project was conducted under the overall direction of Dr. Robert S. 
Kirk and Mr. Walter J. Dippold of DOE. The NASA/JPL Project Manager was 
Mr. Thomas A. Barber. The reports represented were prepared by the Jet 
Propulsion Laboratory's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Project Office whose 
members, through their technical skill, enthusiasm, and dedication, made 
it possible to complete this project. 






TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Report # Baseline Tests of the : Section 

1 Fiat 850T Electric Van I 

2 Rlpp Electric Passenger Car II 

3 Volkswagen Taxi Hybrid Passenger Vehicle III 



Report #1 



Fiat 850T Electric Van 



Section I 



900-848 
EVALUATION OF FIAT'S 
ELECTRIC YAH 

December 1977 



Prepiired by 

D.B. Edwards, Ph.D. 
Project Development Section 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 
I would like to recognize J. Solario and H. Callisen for 
their dedication euid invaluable help in processing the data for this 
report. The instrumentation section was written hy J. So*«irio and 
the overview of the data flow path. Appendix D, was written by 
H. CsLLlisen. I would also like to acknowledge W. Rippel for his 
suggestions in writing this report. 



^ i- :^^ KOT FtUMED 



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-*. • .-^ 






TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Section Title Page 

1 INTRODUCTION 1-1 

2 SUMMARY OF RESULTS 2-1 

3 VEHICLE DESCRIPTION 3-1 

k INSTRUMENTATION k-1 

U.l Introduction U-1 

U.2 Vehicle Speed and Distance ^~1 

U.3.1 Current Sensors U-2 

^♦.3.2 Voltage Sensors U-3 

U.3.3 Motor Temperature Sensor U-3 

k.k Time and Weather ^-3 

h.h.l Time l|-3 

\.'k.2 Weather U-U 

U . 5 Energy Measurements U-4 

1*.5.1 Energy into Battery Charger U-U 

it.5.2 Energy out of Battery Charger k~k 

It. 5.3 Energy into and out of Battery U-5 

1*.5.^ Energy into and out of Motor, 

Excluding Shunt Field Energy lt-5 

I+.5.5 Energy into Shunt Field lt-5 

U.6 Energy Counters l+~5 

l+.T DAS Recorder k-1 

5 TEST RESULTS 5-1 

5.1 Range at Steady Speed Tests 5-1 

5.2 Coast Down Test 5-^* 

5.3 Acceleration Test 5-23 



'asW»'& e-^Z(l ^i^ NOT FILMED 



4 



TABLE OF CONTENTS (contd) 

Section Title Page 

5.1* Driving Cycle Tests ,. 5-51 

6 ENERGY FLOW AND PERFORMANCE MODELS 6-1 

6.1 Charger and Battery 6-2 

6.2 Controller 6-5 

6.3 Motor 6-5 

7 OBSERVATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS T-i 

Appendices 

A COAST DO\W DATA A-1 

B ACCELERATION DATA B-1 

C 3-CYCLE DATA C-1 

D DATA FLOW PATH OVERVIEW D-1 



VI 



\ 



f SECTION 1 



i 



.'5. , 

-If. 



■» 






INTRODUCTION 

This report is being written as part of ERDA's program in 
assessing the state of the art of electric vehicles. The vehicle tested 
was a small van made by Fiat. The Fiat van was shipped by air from 
Italy to Cleveland, Ohio, and the tests were conducted at the Transpor- 
tation Research Center, TRC, in East Liberty, Ohio. 



1-1 



t 

* 






i 



SECTION 2 
SU24M/VRY OP RESULTS 

The results of the tests are susraariaed in two tables. The 
energy to the various components as well as the distance traveled is 
given in Table 2.1. The second table. Table 2.2, lists the efficiency 
of the con^jonents . The efficiency calculations and the vehicle energy 
economy are based on the amount of energy used for a 150 aznp-hr charge. 
The reason for using this figure instead of the true recharging energy 
is discussed in Section 6. 

The velocity vs. corrected time curve for cosist down is 
plotted in Figure 2.1 with the coefficient of rolling friction, viscous 
friction, and wind drag shown on the figure. The power and energy con- 
sumption is plotted against velocity In Figures 2.2 and 2.3, respectively. 
The acceleration curves are shown in Figure 2.4 for various levels of 
battery charge, and the gradeabillty vs. velocity figure is plotted in 
Figure 2.5. 



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C = .8250 X 10 



(KpH/iec) 

(Kpl/sec)/Kph 

(KfV»ec)/(Kph)'' 



SLOPE-COIRE'^TED DflTP 

FIRT ELECTRIC VEHICLE 

JPL:HC:7/77 




T 1 r 

0.0 20.0 40.0 60.0 80.0 

TIME (SEC) 



T r 

100.0 120.0 



Figure 2. 1. Coast Down Curve 



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a- 






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\ 

X 

in 
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SLOPE-CORRECTED DPTfi 

FIRT ELECTRIC VEHICLE 

JPL:HC:7/77 



E = + (A + Bv + Cv^) 



A =.78959x10 
B = .61632 X 10' 
C =.12616x10' 
S.O. = .0175 



•1 



(Kw-Hr)/Km 

(Kw-Hr/KmJ/Kph 

{Kw-Hr/Km)/(Kph)' 



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> 



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8.00 - 



0.00 



SLOPE-CORRECTED DATA 
FIAT ELECTRIC VEHICLE 
JPL : HC : 7/77 



80%- 




18.0 24.0 

TIME, sec 



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36.0 



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2-7 



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FinT ELECniC VCHICLE 

JH.1MCIT/TT 




VELOCITY (KM/H) 



Figure 2.5 Percent Gradeability vs Velocity 

2-8 



V, 



1 



SECTION 3 
VEHICLE DESCRIPTION 

The side .>nd rear view of the Flat van, which had a total 
weight of 1986 Kg (4370 Ibm) , Is shown In Figure 3.1 and Figure 3.2 
respectively. The van Is powered by 12 series-connected, 12 volt bat- 
teries manufacture J by Nagnettl-Marelll (6TS 17T) . The batteries are 
located beneath the van. Figure 3.3, in a container which can be raised 
and lowered hydraullcally. The hydraulic lift. Figure 3.4, makes ser- 
vicing and replacing the batteries very easy. The batteries are rated 
at 135 amp-hr for a 5 hr discharge time (27 amps for 5 hr) , and the total 
battery weight is 461 Kg (1014 Ibm). The batteries were about three 
months old when the vehicle was tested and had not been deep cycled. 

The vehicle is propelled by a D.C. separately excited com- 
pound electric motor manufactured by Flat. The rated continuous power 
of the motor is 14 Kw (19 hp), and the motor can deliver 29 Kw (39 hp) 
for three minutes. The rated speed is 2600 rpm, and its maximum speed 
is 6700 rpm. The motor weighs 55 Kg (121 Ibm) . 

The power to the series connected armature and field is con- 
trolled by an SCR chopper while the shunt field power is controlled with 
a transistor chopper. The SCR chopper has a current rating of 320 amps, 
and the transistor chopper has a current rating of 10 amps. A schematic 
of the Fiat's power syfstem is shown in Figure 3.5. The weight of the 
controller is 79 Kg (1T3.8 Ibm) which includes a 30 Kg (66 Ibm) 
inductor . 

The off-board battery charger pperated from a 2U0 V, 
3-phase outlet. The charger supplied was not the charger usually used 
by Fiat. The charger normally used was delayed in the U.S. Customs 

3-1 






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Figure 3.2. Rear View of Fiat Van 



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Figure 3-3. Cross-Sectional View of Fiat Van 



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Figure 3.I4. Hydraulic Lift 
3-5 



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Office long enough to prevent it from being tested. The charger 
supplied by Fiat had to be hand operated during the charging cycle, and 
it appeared to have £ui efficiency of about 89^. 

Additional information on the van is listed below: 



(1) 



(2) 



Body 

(a) Type and Manufacturer 

(b) Modifications 



(3) Tires 






(a) Type and Manufacturer 

(b) Size 

(c) Pressure 

(d) Rolling Distance per 
revolution 

(e) Weight 



Fiat 85OT Van 
Expanded cargo 
area by removal of 
part of I.e. 
engine housing 



(c) 


Space for Cargo 


3 m^ (106 ft^) 


(d) 


Modifications 


Heavy Rear Spring 


(e) 


Fi'ontal Area 


2. lit m- (23 ft^) 


Axles 






(a) 


Type and Manufacturer 


Slip Joint, Half 




(rear) 


Axle Swing Shafts 


(b) 


Driveline Ratio 


Direct Drive 
11.35/1 



Firestone Brema 

Deluxe F7 

5.60-12 

1+2 psi Front, 

1+5 psi Rear 

1.70 m (5.58 ft) 

11.1 Kg (2U.5 Ibm) 



I 



3-7 



r-- 



e 



SECTION k 
INSTRUMENTATION 

l+.l INTRODUCTION 

A specifically designed data acquisition system (DAS) was 
developed at JPL to aid in the testing of electric and hybrid vehicles. 

The DAS, as configured, had eight inputs: 

1 ) Speed 

2) Battery volts \ 

\ 

3) Battery current ] 

•i 

k) Motor volts \ 

i 5) Motor current ■; 

- '? 

6) Field volts 

7) Field current ", 

8) Motor temperature I 
The system vas electrically floating. The currents were { 

isolated by using hall-effect current sensors; the voltages were iso- ] 

I 
lated by using iso-opamps (Figure 3.5). > 

k.2 VEHICLE SPEED AND DISTANCE | 

A Nucleus Corporation Model NC5 fifth wheel generated a J 

voltage signal proportional to speed. This signal was filtered and -, 

fed to the DAS, where it was digitized and recorded. T'he fifth wheel 

was equipped with a digital readout head, which proved to be a source 

of error. The digital readout drifted considerably and fluctuated so 

;■ much that the driver was unable to maintain a true constant speed. 

JJT Later and during the B cycle tests, the fifth wheel output was fed to a 



I, 









H/P Model ITOOB chart recorder. This analog speed indicator proved to 
be much better than the digital readout. 






•*»).^ ■ 



Speed ./as also periodically checked, using a Kucoom 
Electronics Radarspeed gun. Model UAQ. The gun, however, "cs sensitive 
to aiming angle sind rounded to a lower integer value. 

Average speed wab calculated from the time required for bhe 
test and distance traveled. 

Distance traveled was shown by two indicators: the fifth 
wheel distance totalizer, and markers located one-tenth-mile apart on 
the track. 

Calibration of the fifth wheel was checked by timing the 
duration of steady speed runs over a measured distance. The f'Tth wheel 
ovtput was recorded on the DAS and a chart recorder, and measure- with 
a DVM. 

1+.3 SENSORS 
1*.3.1 Current Sensors 

Manufacturer - American Aerospace Controls 

Model Number - 92J+A-300 

Scale Factor - 5V = 300 AMPS 

Rated Accuracy - +1^ of Full Scale (+6 amps) 

Temperature Coefficient - +0.08^ of Full Scale/°C (+0.U8 
amp/^C) 

Response - 100 [isec 

The greatest single source of error in testing can be 
traced to the current sensors. Environmental temperature effects caused 
offset errors to be introduced. These errors were especially noticeable 
at very low current levels, such as at the end-of-battery chargrlng. 



k^2 



HIT"*" 



•♦.3.2 Voltage Sensors/ Iso-Opainp 

• Manufacturer - Burr Brovn 

^ Model Number - Sit!?? 

.^ Scale Factor (Set) - 5V = 200V 

Isolation - +2000 VPK 
Response (-3db) - 2.5 KHZ 

Nonlinearity (Max) - +0.025/S of output (1.25 m volts) 
Temperature Coefficient - +50ppm/°C 

The isf^-opamps were useful in reducing groundloops , and 
especially in allowing the shunt field voltage measurements to be made. 
U.3.3 Motor Temperature Sensor 

The voltage signal at the node between a 2K 1% resistor and 
a 2K thermistor supplied by a precision 5-volt source is inversely, pro- 
portional to temperature. This signal vas digitized and recorded. 
I The relationship between voltage and temperature is 

In ^ + 13.0lt 



where 

V = volts 
and T = degrees centrigrade. 
It.U TIME AND WEATHL3 
It.ii.l Time 

The DAS used a 1 megahertz crystal as the timing element for 
all recording. 

A stopwatch was used for lap time. A wristwatch was used 



^ 



*r for battery charging time. 



k-3 



n 



U.U.2 Weather 

Weather Information 
Wind Velocity- 
Wind Direction 
Barometric Pressure 
Humidity" 
This information was supplied by the Trsuisportation Research 
Center of Ohio. This data was recorded at one-half-hour intervals during 
tests. 

U.5 ENERGY MEASUREMENTS 
U.5.1 Energy Into Battery Charger 

The energy to the charger was measured by means of a standard 
power-company- type watt-hour meter, Westinghouse Model No. 2U6C700G37. 
The smallest division on this meter was 10 KWH, so readings were approxi- 
mated to +^ 1 KWH. This was a source of considerable error, since the 
total energy drawn from the wall was in the range of 25 to 35 KWH/ 
charge cycle, 
it. 5.2 Energy Out of Battery Charger 

The charger output was measured in several ways. 

1) Periodically - output voltage and current (across a 
calibrated shunt) using a H/P Model 96O DVM. 

2) Continuously - using a H/P Model No. 7100B chart 
recorder with Model 17501A amplifiers. The chart 
recorder tended to drift, so it was periodically 
recalibrated, using the DVM. Offsets were noted and 
recorded. The resultant chart was integrated to 
show watt-hours. 



Jt-U 



■Ifc-- 



if 



» ■ 



3} Continuously - watt-hours, using the DAS. This 

measurement was not too accurate over long time periods 
and temperature ranges due to the sensitivity of the 
KeLLl effect current sensor. 
U.5.3 Energy Out of and Into Battery 

Battery voltage and current were continuously monitored. 
This data was fed to the DAS which computed the elapsed watt-hours. 

The weak link in this measurement, again, was the current 
sensor. However, the results were consistent and the percentile error 
was lower than battery charge data because the current was higher, and 
temperatures were not as extreme. 
U.5.U Energy Into and Out Of the Motor, Excluding Shunt Field 

Energy 

Monitoring of motor energy was perfonned with the DAS, in a 
manner similar to that used in para U.5.3. Again, the current levels 
were high and the percentile error was low. 
U.5.5 Energy Into Shunt Field 

The DAS digitized and recorded the voltage and current. The 
current levels were low so the percentile error was high. 

The energy was computed from this data by means of a digital 
computer. 
U.6 ENERGY COUNTERS 

The iso-opamps and the current sensors supply voltage signals 
that are proportional to voltage and current. These signals are fed to 
scaling opamps and then to a four-quadrant multiplier. 



* 



U-5 



us- V 



"'^•"»^-«o»*i„,^ 



1* ' 



The multiplier output is proportional to instantaneous 
watts; the polarity is correct, i.e., positive for positive-voltage 
positive current, and negative for positive-voltage negative currert. 

The multiplier output signal is fed to two /oltage-to- 
frequency converters: one responds to positive signals, the other to 
negative signals. 

The voltage-to-frequency converters integrates the multiplier 
output to give pulses proportional to watt-hours. 

The pulses drive mechanical totalizers and a digital-to- 
analog converter which outputs a voltage proportional to the sura of the 
input number of pulses. IVhen the number of pulses reaches 255, the output 
is 5 volts. The next pulse resets the converter to volts output, where 
it steps upward at the rate of 0.01953 volts per pulse till it again 
resets. The converter output is then fed to the DAS, where it is 
digitized and recorded. 

The mechanical counters are used as field indicators of 
energy flow, so there are four records of energy for each voltage and 
current sensor pair: 

1) Positive energy flow counter 

2) Positive energy flow recorder 

3) Negative energy flow counter 
k) Negative energy- flow recorder 

The calibration graph shown in Figure U.l was generated 
at JPL under ideal conditions. The voltages were sensed with the iso- 
opamps, but the current sensor output was simulated. 



k.6 



-40 



4% ERROR 




a.\rTt:RY CHARGING AND 
REGENERATIVE BRAKING 



NORMAL OPERATION 





10 


20 


-) 


ACi^L Kmi 


-2 
-3 


%ERRO<( 





-5 

-6 



» 



Figure ^.1. Analog Power Computer Excluding Current Sensor 






h." DAS RECORDER 

The recorder (Figure ^^.2) consists of 7 blocks. 

1) l6-channel input multiplexer 

2) Sequencer 

3) Sample and hold 

k) 12-bit analog to digital convei'ter 

5) Formatter and tape control 

6) Tape transport electronics 

7) Tape transport 

The multiplexer has lb channels of to 5 volt range, common 
ground and 100 megoiim input impedance. The sequencer was a MOS 









h-f 



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h 



I 



i 



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,._-l,^— ^f^" 



Technology 6502, microprocessor based control board which supplied all 
the timing and control functions to the DAS. 

The semple-and-hold circuit has a window time of 150 fisec. 
The 12-bit analog-to-digital converter is a successive approximation type. 

The tapes used had a continuous four-hour recording capability. 

During this time, 62,000 data points of 12-bit data words plus channel 

I" 

^ number were recorded. Tapes are available with a 120,000 data point 

^ storage. 

t 

■ The DAS recorder specifications are 

%- System Accuracy - +0.025!? of full scale + 1/2 LSB 



v., 

'f:' (Least Significant Bit) 



1". 

I: 



System Linearity - + 1/2 LSB 

A/D Resolution - 12 bits 

System Aperature Time - 50 nanosec 

Operating Temperature Range 10°C to +bO*^C 

Relative Humidity - 10^ to 95^, without condensation 
Shock and Vibration - Ig @ 0-50 cps, all 3-axis 
The watt-hour counters calibration was checked in situ 
during battery charg^ing (Table ^t.l). The output voltage and current of 
the Battery Chargers were accurately measured by means of a DVM, a pre- 
cision current shunt, and a stop-watch. Watt-hours out of the charger 
were calculated and compared with the watt-hour counters. 



i*-9 



% '■.*" ^ 



f-W 



T 



Table U.l. Data System Accuracy Check 



Date 


I 
(aa^a) 


V 
(Volts) 


T 
(Seconds) 


Watt-Hours 
Calculated 


Watt-Hour 
Counters 


% 

Differefice 


5/17 


21.5 


156 


60 


55.9 


59 


+5.5* 


5/19 


23.8 


153 


132 


138.6 


137 


-1.13Jf 


5/25 


2l».5 


16C. 


122 


132.8 


137 


3.13J! 


6/7 


25.1 


162 


119 


13U.9 


12U 


-1.71% 



•', 



U-10 



'f 'i 



SECTION 5 
TEST RESULTS 

The tests conducted on the Fiat van were done in accordance 
with ERDA's document entitled "Elec-^ric and Hybrid Vehicle Test and 

Evaluation Procedure" ( ERDA-EHV-TEP ) . If the test conducted differed 

( 
\ 

j in any manner from the test described in the document, then the dif- 

ference is noted and an explsmation given. An overview of the data 
flow path is given in Appendix D by H. Callisen. 
5.1 RANGE AT STEADY SPEED TESTS 

The range at constant speed tests were conducted at 40 Kph 
(25 irph) and 56 Kph (35 mph) , which was the top speed of the vehicle. 
The range for each speed is recorded in Table 2.1 with the end of range 
being determined when the vehicle cannot maintain 95% of the specified 
speed. 

In Figure 5.1.1 the range is plotted against the vehicle 
speec". Since only two range tests were performed, the shape of the 
ciu-ve is difficult to ascertain. The curve was drawn as a straight line 
for lack of further information. A range test at 24 Kph (15 mph) was 
attempted but was terminated because of control problems. The br£ike 
relay of Figure 3.5 is activated at about 25 Kph (15. 5 mph) which 
caused the vehicle to behave erratically. 

The battery and motor information at the first half-mile 

and at a point one-half mile from the end of range is given in 

I 

"4 Table 5.1.1. 

■l 



5-1 



■I 



1> {^ 



ts 



lUU 




1 


1 


1 




90 


- 








- 


80 


- 








— 


70 


- 








— 


^ 60 

E 


- 






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— 


^ 5n 
o ^ 

z 


^ 








' 


^ 40 


- 








— 


30 


— 




X 


Y 


— 


20 


- 




40 


68.9 
73.1 
71.1 


— 


10 


- 


1 


56 


57.8 
58.1 

1 


— 



30 



40 



50 
SPEED (Kph) 



60 



70 



Figure 5. 1. 1. Range at Constant Speed 



5-2 



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5-3 






"«i 



.' , 



5.2 COAST DOWN TEST 

The coast down test was conductad on that portion of the 
test track shown in Figure 5 •2.1. The track has a grade which varies 
from +.500Jf to -.ltl*0/f over its length. The Fiat van was towed to a 
velocity of approximately 6k Kph C^O mph) and then released. The 
easiest way of disconnecting the motor from the wheels was by discon- 
necting the half axles (.Figure 5.2.2), and this necessitated towing the 
vehicle for the test. 

The raw velocity data is shown in Figure 5.2.3. The dif- 
ference in the amount of time it takes for the vehicle to come to a stop 
is attrihutahle to the slope of the track. The longer time is associated 
with the vehicle going downhill while the shorter time occurs when the 
vehicle is going uphill. Since most of the runs occixrred over the por- 
tion of the track with a +.5005? grade, the velocity vs time cixrve was 
corrected by calculating the time difference, At., i-c would have taken 
the vehicle's velocity to change from v. , to v if tb re was no slope. 



V — V 

i i-1 



At. = . 
1 Ac. 



where 



Ac, = Ar. + g sin 9 /+ for uphill \ 

\- for downhill/ 



with 



Ar. a raw acceleration 

Ac. a slope-corrected acceleration 
e = tan"^ i.5% grade/IOC) = .283° 
g " acceleration due to gravity 

5-U 



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PfWP^iWW '■"■■PWWW^— ^^WWTT^iyWi^'PWWyW'wrW^^fWI^^IB^MT^I^^^IPPlB 



P»3^^i^» IIU«.1B^II •<^HiW1«|f»91M«« 




AGE (S 



5-6 



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# 



4 



RPW TEST DPTfi 

FIRT ELECTRIC VEHICLE 

JPL:HC:7/77 



# 



« 



Runs 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7 



;i^ 



J 



*•;■• 



*« 






% 



#'^ 



« 
« 






* i? 



20.0 



H'3.0 



TIME 



80 . !J 

(SEC) 



—I 

100.0 



1 23 , 



I 



figure 5. 2. 3. Velocity vs. Time (uncorrected) 



5-T 



,-*«.• 



**•"# 



•■*-. 



4 



1<- 



The raw acceleration is calculated from the velocity data by taking the 
difference of two ?ur"cessive velocities and dividing thip difference by 
the change in time. 

V. - V. - 

. X i~l 
Ar . = 



i At 
At = 3.2 sec. sample time of data acquisition system 

The coast down runs were normalized to begin at a velocity 
of 56 Kph (35 mph). Tlie velocity v is the first velocity less than 
56 Kph which occui-s after the van is released from the tow vehicle. The 
time associated with the first velocity, v , which is the time it takes 
to coast down froH 5^ Kph to v , is 

v^ - 56 
^1 " "Anj 



where 



V — V 

Ar, = 



1 At 



and 



The coast down test consisted of eight runs made in opposite 
directions along the track with the odd nimibered runs beinc made in the 



s-8 



1^ 






V = velocity point preceding v (v^ > 56 Kph, v^ <_ 56 Kph) i 



The slope-corrected velocity vs time curve is shown in Figure 5.2.U. The 

i 

correction brings the various curves shovm in Figure 5.2.3 together. j 



'A- 



Q 

If. 
CD 






Si' 



o 

0?. 

X 
\ 

^® . 









X- 



SLOPE-CORRECTED DfiTJ^ 
FIRT ELECTRIC VEMICLE 

JPLjHC:?/?'/ 



>- 

_1 

LU 

>Q 

^ . 



to _ 



09 






Q 



0.0 






OS 



— J 

20.0 






«^'4. 









*•» *•• 7* 



jii 



Runs 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7 



•3. 






TIME 



e-s.o 



8? . 

(SEC) 



-•T 



li.:;. 



Figure 5. 2. 4. Velocity vs. Time (corrected) 

5-9 



f. 






U) 



O 
00. 

zi- 



>- 

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>® 



CO. 



00 






o 



? 






% 



0.0 



% 



\ 



1 



«4 



♦"Si 



SLOPE -CORRECTED DflTR 

FIRT ELECTRIC VEHICLE 

JPL:HC!7/77 






Runs 1. 2, 3, 4, 5, 7 and 6 



0^ 

I'*??*- * / 6TH RUN 



— r 

20.0 



1% *' 

™ ait 

T*" 



40. eiVO 80,0 

TIME (SEC) 



103.0 IMO.O 



Figure 5. 2. 5. Velocity vs. Time (corrected) 

5-10 



; V 



SE direction. The sixth aiid eighth runs began with the vehicle going 
uphill on the -t-.^OOyt grade and ended with the vehicle going downhill on 
the -.<(U0}( grade (Figure 3<2.l), and so these runs were not used. In 
Figure 5.2.5 the slope-corrected data is plotted for the good runs and 
also for the sixth run. The velocity vs time curve for the sixth run 
closely follows the other curves until it reaches the top of the hill 
8uad begins to coast down the other side. 

The purpose of the test' is to determine the power and energy 
consumed by the vehicle as a function of its velocity. The forces acting 
on the vehicle determine the amount of power and energy consumed. A 
free body diagram of the vehicle is shown in Figure 5-2.6. 



1 



1/2 ^CpAv^ 




V = X VELOCITY 



A^sin9 



Figure 5.2.6. Force Diagram 



5-11 



I 



m$ 



n 



The force equation is 



2 • 

(M + Jv^r„)v + By + 1/2 P C Av^ + y Mg cos e ♦ Mg sin e = 

Inertia Viscous Wind Rolling Gravity 

Force Friction Drag Friction Force C5.2.1) 



where 



M = mass of vehicle (1986 Kg or 4370 Ibm) 
B = viscous coefficient 
p = density of air 

Cj^ = drag coefficient 

2 2 
A = frontal area of van (2.lU m or 23 ft ) 

y = rolling coefficient 

J = moment of inertia of the wheels 
w 

r = radius of wheels 
w 



now 



2 
J /r w 0.003 M and can be neglected. 

WW 



The external forces acting on the vehicle can he found from the 
acceleration data 



M At. + Mg sin e = - (y Mg cos 6 + Bv^ + 1/2 p C^^ Av^^^^) (5.2. 2a) 



or 



M Ac » - (M Mg cos 6 + Bv^ + 1/2 p Cj, Av^j^^^^) C5.2.2h) 



\ * ^-1 
where v^ = 5 



5-12 



. . .1 



The acceleration, Ar , is the average acceleration over an interval and 
mast te associated with the average velocity over that same interval. 



V- 



The power required \iy a vehicle to travel at a given 
velocity is obtained by multiplying eqA* (5.2.2) by the mean velocity. 



mi 



Pc, - + V . CA + Bv . +CV 2) (5.2,3) 



where 



and 



Pc. = -M Ac. V . = -M (Ar. + g cin 6) v . slope-corrected power 
1 1 mi 1 ~ mi 



A » p Mg cos 9 

C = 1/2 p C A 

" .1} 



The graph of the slope-corrected road power vs velocity (i.e. Pc. vs 

v . ) is shown in Figure 5.2.7. The curve drawn on the graph is a least 
mi 

squares fit of the data to the e^ ation 



Pc » Av + Bv^ + Cv-^ 



and the coefficients were found to Be 

A = .07507 Kw/(Kph) 
B = .8705 X 10"-^ Kw/(Kph)2 
C = .9042 X 10"^ Kw/(Kph)^ 

with. 

S.D, ■ standard deviation r .fiS3(l 



5-13 



■.i i wk.-"jit ' *w^ i j i w. i i ij« w «w f» i> .ij.i«i i iiii^M>lii 9i88HWWWBH? 









oi. 



f 


= Av + B(f^ + Cv' 






A 
B 
C 
S.D. 


= .079D7 
= .08705x10"^ 
= .09042x10"* 
= .6630 


Kw/(Kpli) 

Kw/(Kph)* 

Kw/(Kph)3 


SLOPE -CORRECTED DflTfl 

FIPT ELECTRIC VEHICLE 

JPL:HC:7/77 



V • 



-^ 



Qi.% 



00 



LU 
3 
O 
CL 






« 
s 













— I 1 ! 1 1 1 r — 

0,0 10.0 20,0 35.0 40.0 50.0 60,0 

VELOCITY (KM/H) 



Figure 5. 2. 7. Road Power (corrected) 

5-lU 



\»- 



?>x 



CD. 



® 
Q 



Q 
CM 



® 



O 
Ql 



s 

o 



<s 






ROW TEST OOTfl 

FIfiT ELECTRIC VEHICLE 

JPL-.HC:7/77 



* 
* 



* 



* 






« 



«s 



* *« * ... 



« 






* * « 5J^^ <^., * * 












} 



r i 1 1 

0.0 10. C 20.0 30.0 140.0 50.0 

VELOCITY (KM/H) 
I 



60.1 



Figure 5. 2. 8. Road Power (uncorrected) vs. Velocity 

5-15 






■in^' " 



The rolling and drag coefficients can le calculated from the ahove 
constants. 

y = A/Mg cos 9 « .Olh 



Cjj = C/a/2 p A) = .33 C5.2.4] 



The accuracy of the rolling and drag coefficients are not known. The 
constants could be assigned a confidence level with further computer 
programming. A plot of the uncorrected road power vs velocity (i.e., 
Pa J vs V .) data is given in Figure 5.2.8. The uncorrected road power 
can be written, from eqn. (5.2.2), in terms of the corrected road power 
as 



Pa. = Pc. + (Ma sin e) v , C5.2.5) 

1 1 — mi 



where 



Pa. = -M Ar, v . 
1 1 mi 



The second term on the right hand side of eqn. (5.2.5) causes the 
increase in scatter of the data for the uncorrected road power plot. 

The amount of energy consumed hy the vehicle per unit distance 
is equal tc the external forces acting on the vehicle, see eq,n. C3.2.2I, 



■ Ea, - C+ Mg sin e) s A t B V , + C v .^ (3.2.6a} 
i — mi mi 



or 



where 



Ec^ - A + B v^^ + C v^^^ C5.2.6b) 



5-16 



htr- 






00 



SLOPE-CORRECTED DfiTfi 

FIfiT ELECTRIC VEHICLE 

JPL!HC:7/77 

E = + (A + ftv + Cv^) 

A =.78959x10'' (Kw-Hr)/Km 

B =.61632x10*3 (Kw-Hr/Kni)Aph 

C =.12616x10"^ (Kw^r/Km)/(Kph)^ 
S.D. = .0175 



X 



ci: '-i 



ui 



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—r ( 1 

10.0 29.0 30,0 

VELOCITY 



UQ.'i) 50. 

(KM/H) 



>0 . 



Figure 5. 2. 9- R.oad Energy (corrected) 



5-17 



■MM 












UJ 






U) 
Q 



Q 



ROW TEST DOTfi 

FIflT ELECTRIC VEHICLE 

JPL!HC:7/77 



* 



* 



i $ 



* 
* 



% 



* 



* « « 



« 



^ ^ a. * * 



K 



% 





« 


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* 




* 


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* -R ''^l 



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!««,!, «« 



0.0 



—1 

10.0 



2^.0 -bid. 2 40.0 5Q.0 

VELOCITY (KM/H) 



6 3,0 



Figure 5. 2. 10. Road Energy (uncorrected) vs. Velocity 

5-18 



s 



J! 



and 



Ea =• -M Ar uncorrected road energy 



Ec, = -M (Ar. + g sin 6) corrected road energy 






In Figure 5.2.9 the corrected road energy is plotted against the 
velocity. The curve shown on the figure is a least squares fit of the 
data to the equat ' on 

Ec = A+Bv + Cv 

and the coefficients were found to be 

k = .07896 (Kw-Hr)/Km 

B = .61632 X 10"^ (Kw-Hr/Km)/Kph 

li ? 

C = .12616 X 10 (Kw-Hr/Km)/(Kph) 

S.D. = .0175 

These constants do not agree with those obtained from the power data, 
eqn. (5.2.4). However, the two sets do indicate a range of values for 
the constants. The rolling and drag coefficients calculated from the 
above constants are 

y = A/l>ig cos e = .015 
Cjj = C/(l/2 p A) = .i'6 

A graph of the uncorrected road energy vs velocity is shown in Figure 
5.2.10. The uncorrected road energy data, like the road power data, is 
more scattered then the corrected data. 



5-19 



■ .l ' .r V^l ' 



The force equation, eqn. C5<2.1), can be Integrated to find 
velocity as a function of time. If the force equation is divided by the 
mass of the vehicle, M, then eqn. C5.2.1) can be written as 



with 



g.= -CA +B v + C v^) 
at 



(.5.2.7) 



A = .5166 



CXph/sec ) 



,-2 



B = .1;033 X 10 {Ki)h/sec)/Kph 
c' = .8250 X 10"** CKph/sec)/C.Kph)^ 



The constants shown are the ones found from the least squares fit of 
the road energy data. The road energy constants have been divided by 
the mass and converted to the appropriate dimensions. The solution of 
the differential equation is 



v(t) = 2^ v/4A'C' - B*^ 



tan 



tan 






I n/aa'C - B'^ 



B' 
2C' 



(5.2.8) 



•I 
■'4 



Eqn. (5.2.8) is plotted in Figure 5.2.11, with uhe data points being 
those of the velocitv vs corrected time C Figure 5.2.ii). The agreement 
between the velocity equation and the data points is very good. 

In Table 5.2.1 the direction of run, gracie, wind direction, 
and wind magnitude is tabulated for each run. Th& coast down data used 
for the figures in this section is given in Appendix A. 



5-20 



iw?*- 






(0 






$ = -(A + B* + Cv2) 



A = .5M6 

B = .4033 X 10 

C-.82»xlO' 



,-2 



10 



(KfVi«e) 
(KlVwcyKph 



3- 



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FIRT ELECTRIC XiMCLE 

JPL:KC--.7/7V 



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0.0 20.0 ^0.(3 60.0 80.0 

TIME (SEC) 



100.0 lc0.0 



Figure 5. i:, 11. Formal Solution for v(t) 



5-21 



M M h mJ IIF — H> il l iH :-* 



m w;wjp. i-hir »'»•«««■■»**■«; 



i'>^*y i 'i ■wi »'Hai i a« ' j i'*' i **< 



Table 5.2.1. Wind and Grade Information 



Run No; 



3 
U 



Direction 
of Run 



S.E. 

N.W. 

S.E. 
N.W. 

S.E. 

N.W. 

S.E. 



Grade 



downhill .500* 

uphill . 500X 

downhill .500< 

uphill . SOOjf 

doxmhill .500jf 



uphill . 500? 
downhill .ItUoiJ 



downhill .500? 



Direction 
of Wind 



S to E 



N to E 



N to E 



N to E 



N to E 



N to E 



Velocity of Wind 



8.9 Kph (5.5 mph) with 
gusts to 17.7 Kph 
(11 mph) 

6.h Kph (U mph) with 
gusts to 22.5 Kph 
(lU mph) 



6.1* Kph 'U mph) with 
gusts to 21 Kph 
(13 mph) 

U.8 Kph (3 mph) with 
gusts to 17.7 Kph 
(11 mph) 

It. 8 Kph (3 mph) with 
gusts to 23 Kph 
{lU.5 mph) 

16 Kph (10 mph) with 
gusts to 19 Kph 
(12 mph) 



r. 






f 



5-22 



5.3 ACCELERATION TEST 

The acceleration test was conducted over the same portion 
of track as the coast down test (Fig. 5.2.1). The acceleration runs were 
done at battery charge levels of lOOjf, 6o%, Uojf, and 20jf. The runs 
should have been made for battery discharge levels of 0!f, UO/f, and 80jf. 
The reason for not conducting any runs at the 60% battery charge level 
is due to a misreading of the test specification. The infonnation 
£ obtained from the tests conducted at the kO% and 80? battery charge .levels 



|^ 






will help compensate for not conducting the test at the 60J( charge level. 



^ The calculation by lAich the state of battery charge was | 



determined is based on the amount of energy consumed smd not on the 

J charge used. Since the instrumentation did not include an amp-lir meter, 

? the amount of charge used could not be determined, and the charge 

; levels had to be csuLculated from the used energy. A 20J» battery dis- 

4 charged state occurred when 20% of the energy consumed during the maxi- 

; mim cruise speed, 56 Kph (35 mph), range test had been used. A later 

^ comparison of the different charge levels of the baiitery as determined 

*■' 

\,, bj both the energy and charge methods showed very little difference 

between the methods. 

The results of the acceleration test are presented in 

-^ Figures 5-3.1 througJi 5.3.17. The figures contain four plots each. The 

plots are arranged according to the battery state of charge with the 

first plot associated with the lOOjf charged state while the foiurth plot 

^ is a,t,sociated with the 20il charged state. Since all the plots in a 

, figxire are similar, a discussion of one p3.ot is applicable to all. 



5-23 



In Figure 5.3.1 the velocity is plotted against the uncorrected 
time. The time associated with the first velocity datum, v^ , is calcu- 
lated from the first valid acceleration datum. 



t^ = v^/a. 



where 

h = (V2-Vj^)/At 

and 

At = 3.2 sec 
so that 

(tj^, v^) = (t^ + (i-l) At, v^) 

A graph of the velocity vs corrected time is shown in Figure 5.3.2. The 
time is corrected in the same manner as the time for the coast down data. 



^^ =— A?: — 

1 



and 



where 



t. = t. -, + At = corrected time 
1 1-1 



Ac. = Ar. + g sin 
1 1 — 



Ac. = corrected acceleration 

1 

At. = uncorrected acceleration 
e = tan"-"- {% grade/IOC) 



The spread in the data points for the velocity vs uncorrected time curve 
(Figure 5.3.1) is reduced when a correction is made for the slope. 



5-2U 



^ 



The battery voltage is shown as a function of velocity in 
Figure 5.3.3. THie battery voltage drops slightly at the beginning of a 
run and then stabilizes at about ikOV. The motor or armature voltage 
(figure 5.3.6) increases linearly with respect to velocity until it 
becomes equal to the battery voltage at about 25 Kph (l5.5 mph). The 
battery and motor (armature) currents ao the opposite of their voltage 
counterpai't . The battery current (Figure 5-3.^) increases linesurly 
with respect to velocity whereas the motor current (Figure 5.3.7) is 
approximately constant, although the curve shown may not appear to be 
constant, over the 25 Kph velocity domain. The lines drawn on the graphs 
can sometimes be misleading. The lines are drawn by averaging three 
consecutive points, storing these points, amd then averaging the stored 
points three at a time. When the above process is repeated a few times, 
six times for these graphs, a smooth curve results. It is interesting 
to note that the motor current is larger then the battery current. The 
excess voltage of the battery is transformed into motor current by the 
chopper armature control. 

The graphs of the motor field voltage and current (Figure 
5.3.9 and 5.3.10 respectively) plotted as a function of velocity have 
similar slopes. The two functions are linearly decreasing during the 
first 25 Kph (15.5 mph), and then they rapidly fall until a speed of 
approximately 35 Kph (22 mph) is reached, at this velocity the rate of 
decrease is slowed. At about 55 Kph (3't mph) the field voltage emd cur- 
rent become zero. The accuracy of the field current measurement is 
questionable because of the current sensor used which is not accxirate at 
low current levels . The battery and motor cvirrents also undergo a rapid 



A more complete discussion of the current sensor is given in 
Section 2. 

5-25 



I 



r^^ 






fall at about 25 Kph (15.5 mph) in a manner similar to the field voltage 
and cxorrent. The battery and motor currents drop to a nominal value of 
lUO ajnps after the drop. 

The battery current, motor or armature current, and the field 
current are plotted against normalized time in Figures 5.3.5, 5.3.8, 
and 5.3.11 respectively. The origin of the normalized time corresponds 
to the calculated origin of the velocity curve. In some cases the ctu"- 
rents have nonzero values prior to the defined start, which is obtained 
by extrapolating the velocity data backwards. The reason for these 
nonzero values may be that the extrapolated origin is not very accurate 
or that the time delays between the acceleration pedal and wheels results 
in current siurges before the vehicle moves. The points which occur for 
negative time are not plotted. Another problem the plots with normalized 
time have is that the time is not corrected for slope. The motor 
characteristics are a function of velocity, and the velocity a car 
reaches in a given time depends on the slope so that a slope correction, 
like the one done for the velocity vs time curve, is required. The 
correction is not done because of time limitations. 

The differential equation, which is very similar to 
eqn. 5.2.1, for a vehicxe powered by an electric motor is 



(M + J/r^) V + M(A' + B'v + C'v^) + Mg sin 9 = ~ K 4>i - -i- T, 

W I* S a I* J.OSS 

w w 



(5.3.1a) 



5-26 






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Figure 5c 3. 1. Velocity vs. Time (aacorrected) 

5-27 



X 






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IM. FIBT ELECTRIC VEHICLE 






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Figure 5. 3. 2. Velocity vs. Time (corrected) 

5-28 



%■ 






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Of 

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FIRT ELECTRIC VEHICLE 
JPL.HC.7/77 



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FIDT ELECTRIC VEHiaE 
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Mw«>«fN*4*** 



la* 2«.* 3».» *».» sa.e 
VELOCITY (KM/H) 



2«.a 3».» »•.• E*.* 

VELOCITY (KM/H) 



a 



111 



ca 



FIOT ELECTRIC VEHICLE 
JPL:HC.7/77 



cr 






l-S 



FIOT ELECTRIC VEHICLE 
JPLiHCi7/77 



-• tm • a ■» ^ 



10. » 2a. « 39 • "<'• S^' <*' 

VELOCITY (KM/H) 



la.a le » 3e j uo.a Ea.« sa.a 
VELOCITY (KM/H) 



Figure 5. 3. 3. Battery Voltage vs. Velocity 

5-29 



I 




FiaT ELECTRIC VEHICLE 




JPL.HC.T/Tr 




lOOft 




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VELOCITY (KM/H) 



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Fini ELECTRIC VEHICLE 
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a a la.a sa a sa a ua a se o 

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aw 



a- 

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FIBT ELECTRIC VEHK1.E 
JPL:HC!7/77 




ao 3a a ua a sa a «a 

VELOCITY (KM/H) 



Figure 5. 3. 4. Battery Current vs. Velocity 

5-30 



^Mwy***^.**' 



ii- 



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NORMOLIZED TIME (MIN) 



Figure 5. 3. 5. Battery Current vs. Time (normalized) 

5-31 






-■* 



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4 



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Fini ELECTRIC VEHICLE 
JPLiHC.7/77 



20.0 30 Ma.0 50 

VELOCITY (KM-'Hl 



:. 



Ul 

a 

o 






O- 

r 



8- 



riOI ELECTRIC VEHICLE 
JPL HC 7/77 



10 20 30 41 Se >l 

VELOCITY (KM/M) 



C3 

a 

o 

> 



FIOT ELECTRIC VEHICLE 
JPL.HC.7/77 



10 £|) Ij )k> ') i4j &id &0 

VELOCITv iKtl-H) 



Figure 5. 3. 6. Motor Voltage vs. Velocity 






s- 




MOIk 


FIAT ELECTRtC VEHICLE 
JW.IHC.7/7T 


I 








I 








J- 

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FIBT ELECTRIC VENULE 
JPLiHCi7/77 



•.• I*.* 



z».» 38. a tt.» sa a 
VELOCITY (KM/H) 



S.4 le.a 



2*. a 3«.« na.» Ea.a 
VELOCITY (KM/H) 



o 
a 

a 

a: 

°« 

o- 



8' 



J 



FIBT ELECTRIC VfrilCLE 
JPL HCi7/77 




la.* M.a M.a *».» md ca o 
VELOCITY (KM/H) 



8. 



s- 



o 
a 
q: 

LJ* 
0.(0 



s. 



FIBT ELECTRIC VEHICLE 
JFLiMC.7/77 




la.a 3a. a 3».» ue a s» a ca a 

VELOCITY (KM/H) 



Figure 5. 3. 7. Motor Current vs. Velocity 

5-33 



Nt^iT" 



FIBT ELECTRIC VCHICLE 
JPLiHCi7/77 



«.• 



* * • •» ■•• . -- 



«.i ».3 ».3 ».n a. 5 a.s 

NORMBLIEED TIME (MIN) 



I 
I 



J 
a 
a 
a. 

a.» 

r" 
o 

u 

i-S 

o- 



FirT ELECTRIC vrHICLE 
JPl .he. 7/77 




•.I a. 2 «.3 ».* a.e 

NORMAL I ZED TIME (MIN) 



a. 



%■ 



FIRT ELECTRIC VEHICLE 
JPL iHC, 7/77 



O 

a 
a: 



t-S. 
o- 

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i- 



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'7 * ' ^» *, ■ « «« ■>~<.^_,» 



«.l (.2 (.3 (U «'E 

NORMfiLIJED TIME (MIN) 



o 
a 
a. 



o- 

r 




FIQT ELECTRIC VEHICLE 
JRI. ir';.7/77 



a. I a.i a.s a.u a.s 
NORMRLIZEO TIME (I1IN) 



Figure 5. 3. 8. Motor Current vs. Time (normalised) 

5-34 



m"* 



•M^ .^i>i»OV 



flOT CLfTPlC ȣMlCl.t 
JPt.HC-7/77 




riBT CLECTRIC VCHlaE 
jn.:HC:7/T) 



».» I*.* 



2A 9 34 4 K9.A 5d S 

VELOCITY (KM/H) 




« < la.* 



3« « j*.« u«.« sa.« 
VELOCITY (KM/H) 



FIOI ctECIBiC VEMIC-E 
JPL-HC 7/77 



JPl ;HCT/77 



O 

a 



UJtt. 



a: 

o- 

z: 



« « te n 



VELOCITY (KM/h; 



Ui 

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5 



VEL.'CI ■ 



Figure 5.3.9. Motor Field Voltage vs. Velocity 



-r-fl 



..'. *%^>-^— >■) 



Flat EUCTKIC HtHICl-E 




FIBT ELECTHIC VEHICLE 
J«..MC.7/rT 




• • I« « 



VELOCITY (KM/H) 



HOT ELFCrmC VtMlCl-E 

JPI, MC 7/77 



CT 



o 






a;; 






FIdl EUCIRIC VEHICLE 
JPL:HC 7/77 



,1 



it W « 



VELOCITY 1 KM • (1 



v. 



Figure '^.3. 10. Motor Field Current vs. Velocity 



»■: f 



not tLtCtmC VEHICLE 

jn. Bc 7'^' 




FIQT ELECTRIC VtHICLC 
JH.MC.T/77 



«i » 1 <3 ai us 

NORMOLIZeO TIME iMIN) 




« 1 9 2 Q 3 *.H • 5 

NORMOLIZED TIME (HIN) 



flOT ELt.-I"l;c VEMIC.E 
J^L HC 7 '7~ 




a 



3. 



\ 



rim ELECTRIC utMICLC 
JPLiMC.7/77 



1 



• • • I 



N0RM0LI£FP riME 



1} *} e i 



o £- 5 d 14 5 

NOR'Mn. ; -'to ''IKt .MINI 



Figure 5.3. 11. Motor Field Current vs. Time (normalized) 

5-37 



\ 



where 

A , B , c' = constants from eqn. (5.2.7) 
K = constant of proportionality 
^ = field flux 

i = armature current 

a 

J = moment of inertia of drive train and wheels 
T, = dissipative torques in drive train 

-LOSS *^ 

Equation (5.3.1a) can be written in terms of the currents if the separ- 
ately excited compound motor is operated in the magnetically linear 
region, then 



V = ^f 



(^y^.) 



i. = Shunt field current 

N = number of series field windings 
s 

N_ = number of shunt field windings 



so 



K / N \ , , p 

M{v + g sin 0) = -^ |i^ + i:r i I - M(A + B v + c'v ) \lb) 



The moment of inertia of the drive train and wheels, J, and the 

dissipative torques, "" , of the drive train are neglectea in 

-Logs 

eqn. (5.3.1b). 

The armature or motor current (Figure 5.3.7), and the 
field current (Figure 5.3.10), are used to control the motor. The type 



5-38 



V. 



2 
of control used is discussed in a paper by G. Brusaglino. Below a base 

velocity, which appears to be about 25 Kph (15.5 mph), both the armature 

and field current aie controlled while above the base speed only the 

field current is controlled. The armature voltage is equal to the 

battery voltage for speeds above the base speed. For velocities less 

then the base speed, the field current (Figure 5.3.10) appears to be a 

linearly decreasing function of velocity while the armature current 

(Figure 5.3.T) is approximately constant, I . A constant armature cur- 

rent and a linearly decreasing field current produces an acceleration, 

eqn. (5-3. lb), which depends on velocity in the following way. 



MA = -^ (a, - b, V \+ T^ I 
c r^ [\l 1 ; N^ a 



I t ? 2 

I - K (A + B V *■ C V I 
a 



where 



A = corrected acceleration 
c 



i = a- - b^v linearly decreasing function of velocity 

At low velocities the wind drag term is negligible, and the acceleration 
is a linear function of velocity 



~ = A + B V for V <_ 25 Kph (15.5 n?)h) {5.3.2a) 



"2 

"Fiat's Elef *ic Vans for Enel," Fourth International Electric Vehicle 

SjTnposium, . )l6. 



5-39 



I 



*■■* '■■'''s-ii*. 



The slope-corrected cu:celeration Is plotted against velocity in Figiire 
5.3.12, and a least squares fit of the data to eqn. (5.3.2a) is done for 
velocities under 25 Kph (15.5 mph). 

For velocities above the base speed, the armature voltage 
equals the battery voltage so that the armature current and field current 
are related 

di 

e = K (j) v'+ L —•+ R i 
a a a dt a 



where 



e = armature voltage = K (battery voltage is constant) 



L = armature inductance 
a 

R = armature resistance 



assume 



K 4) 
a 



"=f{'f*5;'.) 



If the inductemce, L , is neglected, the armatvire current as a function 
of field current is 



^a- N 



E^ - K. i. V 



f f 



^fN7--^« 



since R « 1 



^ 



i ^0 «f , «f . 



« a, 



?/^ - ^2 ^f 



5-^0 



fLiWE ... 



t ■ -o.iioi • 10'' (Mt/iKViifii 

S.O. ■ O.I90 



£> 

«• 



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C^DV^lA+F/v' 



• I.Ut K|lvi« 



f - -I.C* . lo' (m'/ik 
F • 4.MS > K)' (M4 Ak 




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rioT E'-E>"iRir vc"ic; t 

JPL MC 7/77 



• --0.t7I.Mr 
S.D. -0.0W 

C-4.47(I«Mm 

O • -0.4*1 a M*' Mt/kM^^ 

].40<>w'm\w< 




VELOCITY 



VELOCITY (KM/H) 






a' 
a: 



CmviSlNIUSKt. 
AT V • 25 V«l> 



A*4.3i4k^MC 

• - -«.4;»4 . 10"' (Ml/™.*/!*!. 

s.r. -o.iu 

C - 12. Jl l«k.'>K 

• .0.1»l iVfK'mVMi 

t --!.»•;. io'ni*)''»<: 

-<.2«9k 10^(k«*i) 'tM 
-0.0(9 



-VC 'DV 'tV >fA 



SLOPE -CORRt^'TEC COTO 

FIBT ELECTRIC VEHICLE 

JPL NC 7/77 



A>4.S4}k|lv4M 



CUnti INtfUKI 

AT V - M 1^ 




^— V • c ♦ Ov » lA ♦ f Ar* 



■ ^* 



» >> I." 



Figure 5.3. 12. Acceleration (corrected) vs. Velocity 



n 



r 

i 



If the expression for the armature current is substituted into eqn. 
(5.3.1b), the form of the acceleration equation is 



- M (a' + b' V + c' v^) 



A reasonable fit of the field current data can be made to the 
following equation 

i^ ss c„ + d„ V + e„/v 



L^ » c^ + d^ V + e^l 



When the expression for the field current is substituted into the 
acceleration equation, the functional form of the acceleration equation 
can be written as 



7r=C + Dv + E/v + F/v^ + G v^ (5.3.2b) 

dt 



for V >_ 25 Kph (15.5 mph) 

Our least squares curve fitting routine was unable to fit eqn. (5.3.2b) 
to the corrected acceleration data for velocities above the base speed. 
The routine was able to fit the above equation when the constant G was 
set equal to zero. The curve drawn on Figure 5.3.12 is a least squares 
fit of the data to the eouation 



A + Bv V <^ 25 Kph 

dv _ " 

^^ ' C + Dv + E/v + F/v^ v > 25 Kph 



5-U2 



(5.3.2) 



»«»** 



The values for the constants are given on the graphs along with the 
standard deviation of the curve fit and the velocity where the curves 
intersect. The uncorrected acceleration is plotted against the velocity 
in Figure 5.3.13. 

The acceleration equation, eqn. (5.3.2), was integrated by 
tic- the computer with the following algorithm 



I". 

^ A V . = 






(A + Bv^_^) T v^_^ < 25 Kph 



^ I C + Dv^_^ + E/v^_^ + F/v^_^ v^_j^ > 25 Kph 



where 



and 



V. = V. , + Av. 
1 1-1 1 



I- 

r 

f ■ maximum speed. 



T = time step 

The integrated velocity curve is drawn in Figure (5.3.1^), with the 
velocity data plotted sigainst the slope-corrected time, A comparison of 
the velocity curves for th? different charge levels reveals very little 
difference between them. One possible explanation for this behavior is 
that the battery voltage does not deteriorate but remains approximately 
constant over the various charge levels. The battery voltage (Figure 
5.3.3) does appear to be about the same for the different charge levels. 
Another reason for the lack of difference in the velocity curves is that 
some of the runs at the lower charge levels which began with the 
vehicle going uphill coald have ended with the vehicle going downhill. 
The vehicle would reach a higl;er terminal velocity going downhill. The 
terminal velocity, which is the velocity at zero acceleration, also 
appears higher than 60 Kph (37.5 mph) which is the manufacturers listed 



5-l»3 



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. ... aLHlCL. 
JPLiHC.7/77 



I* « 2» a 3a e ua a so 

VELOCITV (KM/Ml 



VE'-L':iT\ iKM, H) 



Figure 5.3. 13. Acceleration (uncorrected) vs. Velocity 



*» «»•: ^ 



s 










2- 




MM 


8i.opc-coi»«?ct:d i-qti; 
fi«t clectkic vehku: 

JPL.HC ■*/77 




S 








.^'-'f ' 


s- 






mP""^ 




s 




















"s- 






yi 




> 






/ 




u 




/ 






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3 




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. 


/ 






8 




/ 






»' 


/ 


' 






S 


/ 

L 


1 







»LCI<>E-C0»SECTED 0076 

FIRT ELECTRIC VEHICLE 

.»LiMCj7/T7 



12 18 

TIME 



su.e 
(SfC) 




12 a IS e 2u a 

TIME (SEC) 



Jt^ 



% 




■a . 
w 


«>» 


s 








: 




A. 

3 




>- 

•-8 




HI 


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OP" 




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SLOPt-OOPRtCTcc rJ7a 

Fint ELECTRIC VEn,CLE 

JTLri.: 7.77 



Si 









ft 



SLOPt-CORBECTEO OOTB 

FIOT ELECTRIC VEHICLE 

JPL:HC:7/77 



1 i '--t 



'^I 



Figure 5. 3. )4. Integrated Acceleration vs. Time (corrected) 



5-Vp 



The percent gradeatility is plotted against velocity in 
Figure 5 .3. 15. The velocity is interpret 3d as the maximum velocity for 
which the vehicle can climb the grade. The curve is very similar to the 
acceleration vs velocity curve. Figure 5.3.13, because 



^ grade = ^° (5-3.3) 



/ g - Ac 



and when Ac « g 

% grad. » Ac/g 

For velocities below the base speed, the % gradeability is high, but for 
velocities above the base speed the % gradeability i-apidly decreases . 

The battery and motor power, which does not include the 
shunt field power, are plotted against % gradeability in Figures 5.3.16 
and 5.3.17 respectively. The % gradeability is calculated from the 
acceleration, eqn. (5- 3.3). The acceleration is obtained by substi- 
tuting the velocity associated with a given power into eqn. (5.3.2). 
The power is proportional to the product of the acceleration, which is 
approximately the % gradeability, and the velocity. For a high % 
gradeability the climbing speed is small, and the power is small. At a 
high climbing velocity the % gradeability is low and the power xs also 
low. The maximian power is attained at a velocity slightly lass than ohe 
base speed where the % gradeability is hi h and the velocity is not 
small. The power consumed at Q% gradeability, no slope, and maximum 
speed is close to the continuous rated powpr of the motor. At a higher 
% gradeability the maximum continuous power is exceeded so that a 
prolonged climb could burn the motor out. 



s-ii6 










a: i 



SLOPt-cu^>KE rfc pjr.i 

FIOT ELECTRIC VEHlCLF 
JPLMC I/7-' 




30 I) 

VELOCiT'r 






(I* 

Ua 
O- 

a 
o 



Za 

o 
a; 



SLOPE -COBRtC FED !,a,i) 

riPT ELECTRJC VCHIClE 

JPL »C -"Tl 



. \. 



^ 



SLOPE-CORRECTED DnTfl 

FIOT ELECTRIC VEHICLE 

JPL iHC. 7/77 




*.• I» * 



£9 30 ua S0 

VELOC!T> (KM/H) 



^'J 3c il0 50 <> « () 

VCLOlITV (\M/H) 



Figure 5.3. 15. % Gradeability «rs. Velocity 

5-!47 



a- 


100% 


to . 












5s i 




'-' 




> 




a 




Ui 




i-a^ 






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11 


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or 




111 




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FlflT ELECTRIC VEHICLE 
JPL HC.7/7V 






a 

CD 



3™ 



FlflT EL CTRIC VEHULE 

jPL.Hc ■im 




t 9 6 8 8 8 m 8 i; 

PER CENT GRRDERBILlTy 



U 8 6 8 s 8 le 

PER CENT GRRDEfiBILITv 



3a 



a 

CO 






3(1 

o- 

0. 



FIHT ELECTRIC VEHICLE 
JPL HC 7/77 



."■* t 



t » P» UO su 81? 10 \- •! 

PER CENT GRODEPBIL IT ■! 



a: 



FIOT ELECTRIC VEHICLE 
JPL HC: 7/77 



o- 



I* 14 t> 6 8 H 8 18 

PEP CENi GPfJDERBILITY 



Figure 5.3. 16. Battery Power vs. % Gradeability 



s-;.s 



f It CLECIBIC VEMUXt 



at 

o 



r 

• 
o~ 



3<«, 

o- 




Ai. 


f:0T EitCTnir vchiclC 

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a • 2 « u « e tf s ^ It? :.^ V) 

PER CENT GRODEQBILI . ■ 



PER CENT CRflDt-^BILITY 



FIOI ELECIRIC vtMlCl-E 
JPU MC-7/77 



HOT ELECTRIC vfNICLE 
JPL MC-7/77 



Si 



>v 




PER 



GF;nDt:neiLi T'. 



"X 



311 
O- 



•-•/ 



») ^^4) 



uj hj t)a no i^tj 

Ew JEi\r j;(-,HDtaeiL] ty 



Figure 5. 3. 17. Motor Power vs. % Gradeability 



S-1»P 



* .MtJ,:/^,- 






I In Table 5./?.. I the direction of run, grade, wind direction, 

I 

f and wiiKi magnitude is tabulated for all the runs except those at the 

.if - - - ; 

60j{ charge level. The acceleratio:i data used for the figures in this 

' ' section is given in Appendix B. 



h^ 
f 













Direction 






Direction 






Run Ho. 


of Run 


Grade 


of Wind 


Velocity 


of Wind 


loo:^ 


1 


SE 


downhill 


0.5003f 


HE 


k.8 KiAi 


(3 raph) 




2 


i\iW 


uphill 


0.500? 


HE 


6.2» Kph 


{U mph) 




3 


le 


downhill 


0.500 J 


NE 


5.6 Kpb 


(3.5 mpti) 




k 


SE 


downhill 


0.500? 


N£ 


ll».5 Kph 


(9 mphj 




5 


NW 


uphill 


0.50CJ 


NE 


11.3 Kph 


(7 mph) 


80J 


1 


NW 


uphill 


0.500J 


— 




- 




2 


SE 


downhill 


0.500? 


- 




- 




3 


NW 


i^phill 


0.500? 


- 




- 


- V - 


k 


SE 


downhill 


0.500? 


- 




- 


ko% 


1 


SE 


downhill 


0.500? 


N 


i.2 Kph 


(2 mph) 




2 


NW 


uphill 


0.500$ 


NE-E 


1*.8 Kph 


(3 mph) 




■3 


SE 


downhill 


0.500? 


N-NE 


2.k Kph 


(1.5 mph) 




!♦ 


NW 


uphill 


0.500? 


N-NE 


8.0 Kph 


(5 mph) 


20jt 


1 


•Vii 


downhill 


0.500? 


W-SW 


3.2 Kph 


(2 mph) 




2 


NW 


uphill 


0.500? 


S-SW 


0.8 Kph 


(0.5 mph) 




3 


SE 


downhill 


0.500? 


W-SW 


3.2 Kph 


(2 mph) 




1* 


NW 


uphill 


0.500? 


W-SW 


2.J4 Kph 


(1.5 mph) 



I 



i 



'I - r 

I Table 5.3.1. Wind and Grade Inforaation I , 






5-50 



k 5. J* DRIVING CYCLE ITSSTS 

f 

E The B-Cycle test was the only driving cycle the Fiat Van 

^ could perform. The C-Cycle test was Jizst beyond the van's capabilities. 

% In the velocity vs corrected time curves (Figure 5.3.2) for the accel- 

I. 

|; eration test, the van appears to reach 30.6 Kph (IQ mph) in about twenty 

*? 

t seconds which would be suffic'.ent acceleration for the C-Cycle. However - 

^- when the test was attanpted on the large oval track, the vehicle failed 

i 

fc to accelerate to the proper speed in the allotted time. 

i The inability of the van to accelerate normally could be 

attributed to an uphill grade, a rougher road surface ondition, and/or 

.; a stronger than normal wind. The track where the C-Cycle test was 

attempted had an uphill grade of 0.228%. The road surface of the track 
for the C-Cycle was asphalt whereas the acceleration test was conducted 
on cement. The wind was also low<?r during tho acceleration test then 
during the attempted C-Cycle test. 

The range, number of driving cycles, and the energy to the 
vsirious components of the van are summarized in Table 2.1 for the two 
B-Cycle tests. The range was determined when th » vehicle could not 
accelerate to 30.6 Kph (19 mph) in twenty seconds. The average velocity 
for the first B-Cyole test (i.e., the test conducted on 5/31/77) was 
29.2 Kph (18.1 mph). The second B-Cycle test had an average velocity of 
25.^ Kph (15.8 mph). A cedibration error resulted in the first B-Cycle 
test being run at a high velocity. The van was accelerated to a 
velocity of 39 Kph (2U.5 mph) instead of 32 Kph (?0 mph). 

i * 

" . The results of the B-Cycle tests are summarized in Figui'es 

^, 5.^.1 through 5.^.l'*. Si.-..'-' the B-Cycle tests were conducted at dif- 

ferent speeds, the beginning cycles and last cycle are shown for both 



5-51 



., « 



V \ 



h 



S» 



s 



»ocuww 



riat CLEcraic «CHia.f 



»->«t« 



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y^*rr* 




t.m • 2 •« • C • • I • 12 

N0RM0LI2ED TIME (HIN) 



"a 






ri«T (LCcnic iCHicu 




NORMALISED TIME (MIN) 



i 



s- 



h 



ga 



sun or 

■-OOItMl 



Fiat ELCCroic %iHio.c 



• . • • •» 




(.2 •.« «.« « • I.* 

NORMfiLIZED IIME ■»IN) 



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5-53 



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5-55 



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5-56 






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5-62 



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5-63 



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5-65 



i 



testa in each figure. The first few cycles of both tests vere erratic 
because the driver was inexperienced. The cycles chosen to best repre- 
sent the average conditions for the beginning of the test were 5« 6, 7* 
and 9 for the first B-Cycle and 6, 7i 8. and 9 for the second B-Cycle. 
Only the last cycle was used to demonstrate conditions at the end of the 
test. In Figure 5. '♦•2 the laist ten cycles of the first B-Cycle test 
are shown, and only the last two cycles deviate from the others. The 
last cycle is different enough from* the second to the last cycle to 
prevent the use of even two cycles to characterize the end conditions. 
Since the first B-Cycle wsis run at a velocity higher then 
specified, the question arises as to how many more cycles could have 
been completed had the test been conducted correctly. In Section 6 
the total number of cycles for the first B-Cycle test, if that test 
was driven at the proper velocities, was estimated to be 120. The 
calculation was based on a motor efficiency which was assumed to be 
the same as the one found for the second B-Cycle test. 



5-66 



SECTION 6 
ENERGY FLOW AND PERFORMANCE MODELS 



An energy flow diagram of the electric vehicle is shown in 
Ficure 6.1.1. All the blocks (. " the figure will be characterized by an 
efficiency except for the regenerative braking. The vam produced very 
little regenerative power during the B-Cycle testing. The regenerative 
braking system employed by Fiat contains a relay, called the brake relay 
in Figure 3.5, which closes at about the base speed, 25 Kph (15.5 n?)h). 
When the relay closes it opens a path to ground through a resistor 
giving the braking effect of an internal combustion engine. The power 
generated by the motor is dissipated in the dynamic braking resistor 
(Figure 3.5) for velocities below the base speed. In the B-Cycle tests 
the braking occurs after the vehicle has coasted for four seconds from 
a velocity of 32 Kph (20 mph). The velocity at which braking begins is 
not much higher than the base speeds so that very little power is 
r«;turned to the batteries. 




REGENERATIVE 
BRAKING 



Figure 6.1.1. Energy Flow Diagram 



6-1 



6.1 CHARGER AND BATTERY 

The charter efficiency and the battery efficiency are not 
independent since they are both a function of the charging cycle. The 
energy loss in the charger, E (Figure 6.1.1), is due to resistive 
losses, IR , and voltage losses, IV (i.e., V is a constant voltage 
drop). The energy loss in the battery, E., is due to the battery's 
Internal resistance; back potential losses resulting from the diffusion 
layer; and hydrolysis. The charger should be compatible with the bat- 
tery so that a charging cycle which Is efficient for the battery is also 
efficient for tne charger. 

The battery manufacturer, Magnetti-Marelll, supplied a 
charging curve. Figure 6.1.2, which could not be followed with the 



1-30 



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HOURS 



10 



Figure 6.1.2. Magnetti-Marelli Charging Curve 



6-2 



charger furnished by Fiat. If the charging curve could have been 
followed, the total charge into the battery would have been 11*8 amp-hrs 
and the energy to the battery would have been 2h .'J Kw-hrs. 

The charger and battery data is listed in Table 6.2.1. The 
actual energies used in charging the batteries are given in columns one 
Eind two of the table. The energy into the battery fluctuated widely 
because of the initial necessity to overcharge the batteries to 
equalize the cells and also because of operator error. A charging curve 
which was different from the battery manufacturers recommended curve but 
which produced a charge of ISO amp-hrs was developed. Unfortunately, 
the battery charger had to be hand operated during the charging cycle 
and this introduced operator error. 

Since 150 amp-hrs was the intended charge, the amount of 
energy used to produce this charge \rill be considered the energy to the 
battery, column five of Table 6.1.1, smd the overcharge will be sub- 
tracted. The charger efficiency was calculated to be 8Q* so that the 
energy to the charger, column four, is obtained by dividing the energy 
to the battery by 0.89. The efficiency of the charger is based on a 
charge where a wattmeter measured the energy from the wall. The watt- 
meter was used because the resolution of the energy meter used for 
measuring the energy to the charger was +^1 Kw-hi . However, the accuracy 
of the wattmeter might not be much better since the current sensor of the 
wattmeter was temperature sensitive and also had a resolution problem; 
it was rated at 150 amps full scale but the currents during charging were 
below 20 amps. The charger efficiency and thus the energy to the 
chargei is not very accurate. The energy listed in column four of 
Table 6.1.1 will be used to calculate the vehicle energy economy. 



6-3 



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The charge Inlio the battery, even assuming 150 amp-hrs, 
greatly exceeds the chcurge out of the battery. It is Important to deter- 
mine the best way to charge a battery. If the battery is overcharged, 
the efficiency is decreased while if the battery is undercharged, the 
performance suffers. The amp-hr efficiency of the battery is given in 
Table 2.2 along with the battery energy efficiency. The efficiency 
calculations are based on the 2^0 amp-hr charging cycle. 

6.2 CONTROLLER 

The efficiency of the controller for the various tests is 
shown in Table 2.2. For both the 40 Kph (25 mph) and 56 Kph (35 mph) 
range tests the controller efficiency was about 91^ while for the 
B-Cycle tests it was slightly lower at &!%. 

6.3 MOTOR 

The efficiency of the motor is difficult to determine since 
the energy to the load is not recorded. The load energy must be 
computed from the data obtained during the coast down tests. Since the 
wheels were disconnected from the drive train during the coast down 
test, the energy losses in the drive train will add to the energy 
losses of the motor, E, in Figure 6.1.1. 

If regenerative braking is not used so that the kinetic 
energy of the vehicle is not recoverable, the energy consumed can be 
calculated by integrating the left hand side of eqn. (5.3.1a). 



load 



= /Fdx = M / (v + a' + b'v + C'v^) dx (6.3.1) 



6-5 






The load «Rsrgy can be broken up into the kinetic energy » the road 
energy consumed during acceleration, and the road energy consumed at 
constant speed. 



V ; vdt 



where 



\oad = "-f-* »* /* (A' * B'v ■. C'. 



+ M (A* + bV + C V ) d 
o 



V = constant speed charaooerizing test 

d - distance traveled at constant speed 
t-, = time to accelerace to constant speed 



and 



a', B , C' giver by eqn. (5.2.7) 



when 

V 



v2 

^load = M -f * M (a'/2 + b'v^/3 + c'v^/l,) ^^^^ 



+ M (a' + b'v + c'v^) d 





(6.3.2) 



6-6 



i 
1 



In the range at constant speed tests, the road energy consumed during 
acceleration is negligible (i.e., v t^ « d). For the B-Cycle the 
(^uftntities v t- and d should he equal (i.e., v t = d). The first 
B-Cycle test was run at a high velocity, 39 Kph (2U.5 mph) instead of 
32 Kph (20 mph), because of a ceQ^-bration error. 

The calculated load energy for the various tests is give 
in Table 6.3.1. The energy efficiency of the motor, which is based on 
the calculated load energy, is listed in Table 2.2. If the first 
B-Cycle test had been run at the correct velocity, and if the efficiency 
of the second test is assumed for the first, then the energy to the load 
would have been 5.35 Kw-hr and 120 B-Cycles would have been completed. 



6-7 



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6-8 



i 



SECTION 7 
OBSERVATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS 

In this report the electric car components shown in 
Figiire 6.1,1 were examined. The charger furnished by Fiat was not the 
charger usually used with the van, and it had to be hand operated over 
the charging cycle. The batteries were new, had not been deep cycled, 
and the cells were not initially equalized. The batteries were only 
forty to fifty percent efficient. l..a regenerative power flowing to 
the battery from the motor during the B-cycle tests was negligible. 
A C-Cycle, where a higher velocity is attained then during the B-Cycle, 
might have provided a better test for the Fiat regenerative braking 
system since the system does not retiirn energy to the battery below 
25 Kph (15.5 mph). The C-Cycle was, unfortunately, J^jst beyond the 
capability of the van. The controller and motor, which incorporated 
both a shunt and series field, operated well and was efficient. 

The load on the motor, which is needed to determine the 
motor efficiency, was calculated from the coefficients obtained in the 
coast down test. Since the motor was disconnected I'rom the wheels after 
the drive train, the drive train losses ai'e included with the motor 
losses in efficiency calculations. The accuracy of the coefficients is 
sensitive to the slope and road surface of the tract; the wind; and the 
time step of the data recording system. Since the motor can have a high 
efficiency, the coefficients should be known more accurately. The effi- 
ciency of this motor was high for the constant speed tests but fell 
during the B-'ycle tests. A considerable amount of power was consumed 
by the shunt field at the lower velocities. 



7-1 



The overall energy efficiency of the van was low (Tahle 2.2). 
The low overall efficiency is attributed to the low battery efficiency. 
The charging cxirve supplied by Fiat produced a 150 amp-hr charge to the 
battery. The anount of charging actually needed by the batteries is 
questionable. The amp-hr efficiency of the batteries was low which 
means that a lot of hydrolysis was occurring either during charging or 
discharging. Ihe charging of batteries, and for that matter, the overall 
maintenance of batteries, is a major problem area of electric vehicles 
and should be investigated more thoroughly. 



7-2 



I 



APPENDIX A 
COAST DOWN DATA 






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ACCELERATION DATA 






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^finkor^ODcn® — cMro 
CMfMCMCMOjfMrororofo 



-.0 — CD m CM in c !n m '^ r- — 
•■- en cj c3 o pj ir. n rj en o re 
'">) m rv — in :o u) re r^ la -^ m 

oooj^vrofMpjcM— ' — — •— • 



CTiinrotno'i^DiDijDinro — to 
o-i-r-oocy^ro^oo^tnr^cMr^ 
cjoi'/i\T'»in(sir;vj — tnin 
— 'G)ininf^ic7>c\i^ — tnujii) 

ri^^mroinoDCDCMro^in 
— romro'J'WTrmininmin 



CMm^inu>r>-a>(neB — cM 



^coinrMn — tfuccDin 

— SOD — CniS-CDmiOOC 

c^CM — ^D^-lnln(n — 
cMrN-ODODCMniMin^^ 

CMlO^fOnCM — — CDS 



CM 1^ ro r-'OD CM M rN. U) CM 
5)00 — ■^ujoouinincv 
rv.rois.cr>-* — cM^cnoo 
ro in in en. in cm a> m ui ro 

oocnm — ksiscM^u>ts- 
— cMfo^^ioinininin 



cMro^inu)is.ooc7>s) — 

CMSMCMCMCMCMCMCMI*, K. 



(oiowinenmmroiMvou) 
m — cniDcninoovDCD'^m 
in — fs.cMru'JmoncMUjiD 
ensrocMmints. — cnrocD 

— CTlUJ^MrOCMCMOa- — 



rwOinu^mo] — omcsu) 
\r — r. CM — r^iujMincMOo 
•<jo5r4(sr^u)incni>-cncD 
M^incninooooocMcnrs. 

inu3'<Icjicovoo>CMi«JrT* 
— cMMpnTr^'^inininin 



Ojro'^in»i3r.-aoa^eD — CMM 

— — — — — — — — pjpjtVCM 



• cMM'^inujis.oDiniB — 

, .._ — « — _ — — (vicM 



;■ ij ■js iv) u) uD en 00 r 

*:: M ■ " 3 tv — — "M .■ 

•^s a - - ro n o ■<> ' 
r- 1,1 c. ■« — n ^ C3 ' 

rv;.)^ 1M?M — CM- 



r- i , : 1 N. en fs. in c 
C-, !i V -a N o n CM p 

- CD .-';•. — 13 M CM C 



00 in en 5- CM ffl — ."0 cj :■- -■ 
en a m ^ o "^ — c7 r: t«f lo 
— CM — — 00 uo o c;, ^ -• , 1 
n (s S) c\j oj u) o in Oj ijj - 

©ojtn^rocMCM- CIS)® 



cM*^VinN.m — — CD 
(BOcncnvcM'j — occM 

— M^TenenBJVDCMf) 

— — — — ODU)CMmr.oo 

CM — tninrncMCM — (T- 



z 



en > ■ "f cr. ■» M .-. r 
r ■ -.• ■ — — rs. (Ti .""^ r 
■;-■■-' 3 3? CM IS, IV- r 
— ,- J - . V 1^ ^ — U) c 

ensj.N fjiaojminr 
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. ■> ■> ^ CM CD rj u 

■ i-oiooj — — er 

■ . i ■•c'cMiriiaoJ - 
rj ■ - r > ^ ^ T in If 



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cnf^Jcvl^. iDiijcMiniijcscw 
!i yj ro "^ i«i CM — en r -■ ^l 
^vnois-inis-CMr. loir/ 

iDN-m — incncMinisiaicn 
— CMM^n^ininir, inin 



ro^rocncno- cnenm 
SD^^^cn'Voo'^co 
^is.i«3r>U)is.cnenrsis, 
s>incMmis.incDis.ooco 

cncMc>jcot3r^(nr«>inis^ 
cMMM^'Winininin 



<• in vr IS. o cr 



rj ■' T in <c IS. en er 



— ^4^o■^ln^Dls.oocna — 



— cMM^'finioPwOOwoD 



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;<^!??!S!«!^99Si^ 



ij\ og g Q) Q Q Q 

^iniPtnoQSinm'SO 



W^D ^D ^D 89 03 fl3 Q) ^D QD 
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•<r\.iv.(Mr.ivinini\.tn 



mm uiinsnrw in <v (n — in '« -# 9 ^nk ^iqod U) nS •• 

N to o — oi¥ (0 — iv-N- 3 u>m too iMmuON ^m ro Vim OD 

V (M ia(MS — ini*) om ^N. CD ^. i^. i\j id in s '• iv in m u> o 

s " s IS IV. 09 o o m to tsl Vin romnmiBOBaDioin w n 

— (M CM — — — — — — -•-•-' — _|M_^ — ^_. w-.-. — 



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in — ujmrvimsioorg — 
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03 — fv'r\im — inm^Ki 

forjcommrooj — — — 



— rjfoVinujMDmg 
roforoPoronnfiMV 



— OD — — V51C\JC\I(DI 

ujminiMm — in — In.'' 



— ooDinmrorMrM — — 






tBVuioDinsaimminuirns 

— inininiMS — m — ojiMm^ 

— (MmNiM — SlS)mcM^.m8) 
Mr^oBinK — vofMCBvomN — 



iniD9 — m — verwioinmio 
mcMm — inswomVcoifi 
ivmV»r>i'*o>in — miv-in 



— mm*mrn(M(M- 



l^;:o^?!««^9?i?«»!^7 



CM — ooinVmcMiMM — — — 



;s;jQ»;%s^«?!2f9?'<9 



> 



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niSOOOOOSG 

ininc3Siinioiss>n 
iN.rN.mntMininorM 
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^w-«(Msmos)CDm 

CMtMCM — C>I(M — — 



i)inini«ninios'"i 

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(MOinTMCMCM— — 



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ininQinsinsosininoin 
rs-r^oiMcs^mosivf^oiN. 

CDa}in*-'S)CDrs.(DS0OC3S3GO 



ms — uommscMV^ 
rs.o3ma:u>t>.vsODmm 
inn^usmts — incom 



— lOODSHDJiNNmin® — in 
mincMmcTijimm'ommrjv 
mm — N.K.Li(M — — — M'3in 

CMUlU>'i}N — N.V — mh-b/i'O 



MIM — — — UJUOIC — :0 

(M — m'JcniD — 5f^m 
smtviKi — tnm'TTOUj 



— DU>^p*iroojf'gfM — — — — — ODin^rofv* — — — o 



IS.- <M<M— -MnoiiMro 
cgmuiuiinVicuirosiiM 
(MN.^mVi«im — mmm 
— aju>K» — mvn^mcM 

ouiCMa>aDis.":iuiinTtm 

— tMtM — - ..«^-< — 



vv-^cDmmcom-"®^ 
in — — CDoainininmroa) 
incMODinsvm^^^S) 
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<M — vO^rOCMCM — — 8)01 



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iMr>)Vinuii<.a>mis 

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inSSS)(SS>S)071SQO 

o s in in CI s s in tn tn u'v 
en in (M IV- in CD iTf CM TM rj oj 

— rUU-'fOCMCDtM — — — — 



inuirv-mms) — (Mro'Vinicr'- 
CMtMCMtMtMrofOfOMmmforo 



S S 03 O ^3 S 6>' S) CO S) Q 

sosinminininoins 
insjeDr^i^rii^ivoh-in 

!N.G)inCDr3*.*G3(rG)G0l^ 



oooM — ocorimcncr, ffi 

OjrjCMIM — (M — — ' — — 



iDiN-oomis) — (Mrovm 
tMtMCMPJromrnmroio 



u)moDMr~ — — oo^oooinin 
moous — incDCorw^mm(MV 



roViniois-CDms) — cMm 
(MfMMNtMiMCMmiomn 



lflmiv.l*-i — ^lv.fv.— (D«U) 

si^roininuxMtoinw^- 
mmocMTriMinuiVinioin 
cw^^M — Tmoo — Nm — 



u)'TtMS)xijjr.ii)(Drwt^inin 

— CMCM — — 'H^-.^ — — « 



iv.Viv.sa)a>iv-iv.cDininm 

— — CM — — — — — — — — 



m 

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cMto — uiN.inincoi'.im — 3 — lo'fooin^v- '^ 

»:o ^o N. M aa ID CD — (.Ti — r^ o tJ- <T id s r^ 'd Oi m cd w) 

LO 03 en to CM — VJO CD CjO (M n "" " 

in 1- U) cj cr. CM m eg 00 uj ^ 

CM- vc^rofocMCj — — — —(Din^rocMCM — — — — 



— eMmViniorv.0Dms) — 

— — — — — — — — — IMtM 



PO O 03 03 O O S ^3 ID 0>f 

CMsmcDoinoinsin 
ss9CMineDCMincMinh~ 

N.DU)CMa3 — CM — h-OD 

mcDrniscDmcDminir 

— CMCM — — CM — — — 



cccMaQincD(&cMr^rs.inNornin — — r>-M®vr*im®N--«-* 

ci'7 — inmo^^cMMoiDV mcM®M^SN.cM — cMmro 

rg^i^cMujiN-ocDooooro — ro ujroinmcM^mccMODm- 

ObTfs-CM — ^S)in — a)V03CM ^i)CO— — — VIS-CMr-^CM- 

cMG)i\IinVrorocMCM — — — — cj- ooinVrocMOj — — — — 



3iniDPv.cDma) — CMM3 

— ■" — — — — CMCMCMCMIM 



VOSSSISSSSG?C9ISCD 

iDosmooinoiDiniDLnin 

— (SSCMGaiDr>.G3IDI>-C3(Mt>. 

— inin — ©O'DCDflDCDCiJ- CD 



rovmu)MDmB> — CMfoVin 

— — — — — — — (MIMCMCMCMCM 



"ffSlOIVCD — in — CMinCMCM 

— iniDiv-mooovVromcM 
CDCMins — mmocMODtceo 
m(i}Vrs.osiv-miDiDrs.''T 



'irv- roiN-r^uirs-inin^in 
— rg — — — — — — — — — 



• cMMVinior^como- CM 

,»MM_ii_^ — (MCMCM 



u)i0(~in — gmoi^is 
oou)is.cMroiDicrv.mm 
rkOiscsi\.oovou)inV 

CMCM — — — — — — — 



z 

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— mooorrmmcMCMic 

— mi^mcDm^oomN. 
mmoui- rommoom 
u>(DivK.i\.mcMODtom 

CM — UJ^'mCMCM- — ID 



i\.[\.mmtoVoinr<icM^07' 
mis.coQi'Oiv.ivroin — uju.!/] 
inmrv-fo — rocDincMiDf'Li^r 



CMCDSKSmiDCOCMIS- Tfrw 

rwioiv.o'^r-coriiDh.rMm 
miD'JcMrom- Via- mm 
cMuiincjcDmnN.CMm'ii'V 



— CDCOinvrocMCMiMcvj — — — cMisiv-inrncMCM — — sssi 



ODncDmcDiniMiDmin 
v^ODssioroi^ocD 
MOO — romvi^oroiv- 
CM — (smrokommcDCM 

CM — inrtrncM- — <ssi 



— CMnVmiAr-ODmo 



— iMi«>Vinu)r>.o>mo) — CMM 



'CMio'Vinuirv.aimsi- CM 



— CMrovmuir^iDms 



-i. 



D-15 



OQSOSSSSB 

ininininmininio 

f. ro -* -■- (D BO ID ^ 



Z 






!3?!3i$!^99Sn 



rS 
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m 
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u) ui tn ir> s (P G) G3 7) a 



m c J c^j (n lo ^ tT — a"* ^ 
fMUj(M(n(7xin[vuj*3r>- 
in®tcrororv — vD — o^ 

CM — 4f)^rorMOi — — CD 






V0O63fl9CDOOSCLCGu 

sinuiminotniD isintr 
orN-fs-tMCMOCMin^r^Q 
^roM — — oi — rs.(DCDin 



CDBBBSBSnOSO 

uiBininBinssinins 
mBi^.Nin(Mininoirs.in 
a>inrouirwu}r>.i\-u»a)fs. 

inrn — ^in^inin'^uiin 

— N — — — — — — — — 

oocnotN-N-crttncnro^u) 
-«ro^smBB(nin(nin 
u)i«)r4\DnflDNrM0>rs.(M 

— Bin^rowcM — — — — 



3;Qr99«i$^39s 



ffl O O C ""^ S S O O CO ® 09 o s 
h. in s> m .i; o ID s s ID G> SI in s> 
«xi ry in IN. Tw K> rj ® LI r^ in m r^ in 
CM-.'WrocDiDyocji^CDr'^i^corw 



^rM-^oicncomircoujn 



po-^in-«in — iN-rj'^rcnci 
r--"?j\QojnrncD^ro<Dr^ 
nincM-^s»rnm — -"OiM 
m 0* in in in K cvj 03 '-" — r^ 

r>i .>^ <i3 ^ ro oj oj — — ~ (o 



CD (Ti in ro '■n M IX) i^ in IP hw tn in TO 

f*^ CO m Ga ? '■! ■;! r^ 1^ (M (71 CB rg u^ 

ru -^ m 1^ fv; ' ^ -v -^ ^ V ^^ i^j m ec 

in m m - o T '.o m cv en o) u n n 



imoin-'O^ininoinifiW 
MTt — — mr>.(DCDinini»cM(Mix 



^u)l^ira^■mnln9^■ln(D<su> 



oD(n9iinco9o>(MCMeBcns 
cnN.OB0u>97-"'O>inro 
mmoiNvaSminininuio 



in ncDcou) uiuiN. inuiinin^ V in. «o od ob u> ui ui w m cm o 



r^inm — — inN.u)inio*OBf<> — 

i5)rov0CoSmN.ms>N.^CMOJfn 
rgBJuJ^'troc<jfiipJ-- — -- — BJ 



oiiv. — siM^iN.u)iv.CMinm 
Mis-fn — intK-viovo — »o(n 

rj — li^fo row pj -•---"-" 



!^S?;9;99999!»99S i^KKPiRSC?^!?)!? 



rocMii) — (McncMcoTTtncb 
win — (T^rmmroaia)^ 
isninff ?!-* — in^oi^ 

mu)o>r*.inrwinir!U)'?rn 






— ® rw If , V r: cv -n: c\j — — — ' — « ^ » 



— e3in^."or\i^j-^-<(D® 



— QNincDcntxiforowro 
S'V^'Vrnfs-rsi.inBBrw 
CTiMrw — r^oo^pwinoj — 

ui(ncDa)u>'oininm^rw 



cDg;trooo(s — Binr\.cMin 

ro^iniv-cDiotncDniQcn 

r4h-ln^r*ic\j — — BBS 



O 



rgro^inu>rs>a>cns — (M 
ojcMCMfMCMCMNCMrororo 



Tl Q en 'D in CO O B (E K) LO 

cneisrjrjocDBGimr-. 



u)is.B<no — CMro'^iniDh-oxn 
CMtMfyfi, mmrorororomrorom 



rn C7^ fS S ffi i5 G9 (S B G3 O CD 

minLi'sinsjinincainBin 
ror^rMeDrwirr-rs-ipp-CDCM 
in I o - -< o TO N. oa CO ps. (.0 in u> 



ujrwBtno — (Mpo^toij) 
ojcMtMCMmroMfofnioi*) 



___ ___ __ __ ^pors-in 

st\jti)tnu3to-^cir-iDr\iin — n 
•JM— 'S'-^rs.iDoo'^ajQOfN-TrB 



(MOjrafM(g(MNfnr<inro 



OJ^(n^(n^inM«BNin 

CDN-CDB^BI^-inXftn^CM 

j^ucnocnB — r-intDroot 



r-"< nj en CO "J? in v£i vp IT* va m ^ 



<Ti^Dri-r-rv,»jjtnm«j3'jJinin^ii} r^-cDCDc^woDiDtnin'^^n 



0) 

i-H 

H 



Z 

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CD r-' r\) cc" o o ^l" ci f J B CD 

M- C CC LO <i3 N .'; rs. — — "- 

rj .o ^ tn rw IT tr (Ti r-- — r^ 

— ' o fj ry *? CO — B tj3 :r ro 



^CEr. cocDinTr^oic^mus 
en r-j V.0 *■/ ID .-I to m (•- cr* kii 'jj 
n s r\> -n f^ — CI KSi L' o 50 r^ 
tn ■ 3 o "X 01 'J cc '-J iM v-j cTi 



f^jfs-in^rofvirgoi — — — 



— mrv^rooj rj -- — -• — B 



'TbTUjr-BffiB-^fyri^in 



(71 — UDCf3TrtnCD^^D-^--BW — 

uo'tcointjjfg — in — — BcDosin 
oo'.irrrs-inojojmpor^^cnBm 
"1 -I IS. i-w V c- — rv ro en pw -v M — 



rAa'rva>min^cDBU)04CM 
comr^p — ujpo — CNjinsmiM 

(nU)rM(M\-BB(71U)CMU>m 

— ojcorou) — vco^^ — B 



B — cnin^rorofMcy 



cvjro^iniofs-ootnB — ojM^in 

— — — — — — — — OJC\J(M(\l(\lfM 



ri — in^powoj- — — — — 



— ojro^iniDh-mtno- rM 



r*?BBSOBBB'SC 

(MninBBBinsBB 
UDr.CNJ6Bsrs.Bin If: 
rtero*-*BBSQOSf^f^ 



r\.SBSBBBBBBStSCn 

— sasBinsmintninccOij 
GininsLnrs-inr^cMr i^inLi 
^iN-c\isrs.sr^B«)(ro3N.fs- 

usinssinuiiniD'^irtcLnLn 
-"CM- — — — — — - — — - 



vcB^ostnN — c^jiniD'i) 
inin^r^N.S(nroi\.in(n 
inrs-Bfft- ryh.- a)cr>rn 
iDODBinsaoaovo^cnrf: 

ijjtXfCOiDLninuitnnmTt 



sss'VinVinsiorM 
^srouiGDtnr^scnu) 

mrs-rocMroVcMr*)roc*j 
— roffl'^p^-mincMBN 

BCM(ns^)u}u)^.^^ 



z 



U)CDmmrocsjojwrs.(n 
ooGominroBmiDmv^ 
mf\jporotj)rou)CMB'" 
CMiD'osiiMinmu) — or 

CMf^in^fOCM — — — B 



inr-ojVrviVDsO- r^scp. 'j^B 

— — — fyLnu)POinh-«x.i-ou)i.o 
f. lnlni'-rJrau)^oscc^J^^-f' 

fyUJOTK;U(n«XPO — a^D ■?'. 

— Bin'CMcvjcxjojry — '-- --' 



r- (\i fs. to ^ r^ — CM s u) 'M 
V fsi N- m (V. ^ ry 00 f ■> — T',; 
■^rwU)inN.Bin^ — in — 
rocDincMojintn'n'srs.uT 

— cnm^rocM — — — Bcc 



mBr'^(MU3(rt(MN.r«-a) 
Bii)srwiou>(M^sm 

rO — CMO^^CMS- to 

u)h-rooiixiaSfMU}(nu> 
rvi^ui^fiocMCM — ffis 



— (Mro'Jinior^axns 



«(Mro^mu)N.ootnB — i-ji-o 



— 'fviro^iniDh-mffiB — 



— CMrO^iniDN-ODO^B 



B-l6 



APPENDIX C 
B-CYCLE DATA 



"1 






■"Nina 



SP 






in IS 



■* » 



Spiods — :?(ninxep«DPi'«tN9r«)a3 

NiNOcB^uNisSecocMinNroeD 

>. ID in ro iM in r>. m in 9 A ro s m IV. (D CD 



IS. S> V IS. s « N. 

KmiMinmNin 
o-'-'iMramm 



'9 N IS '^ ^- 
Nin<n (Min 

Sinano-' 
in ui u) IV 



N. CD 






OOOI9OS0S49OOS)OSQ> 



s m in m ho u> m I 

" — NCMBIf 



imeMromtMwmiD 
I ro n i») m ro tM •" 



inoo — moj — ineo — inm-'inoj— .0 
X SI in — ui^'N.Nt^mmrom Tt cnv ' 1 
^ sa)->-'N(Mr<>ra'v9inb'iu)'or i 

O* S* O IS flD S) I& O SV CD O S^ 03 ^3 QEt flD 



^Nn^inuirvoDins — oiovin 



•^(Mro9inuirs.ai(no-'(vnvinu> 



V 

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C 



(Daiu3a)i*)ivcO!Q-^ioir)N.rMrnis^o 
sroA(Mm<ca>vr9Sw^(s~*inff}S 
eDCjiv.oDrvo(M^'Tiv>i0ODin(\jiv-^s 

oln•^co^a^^lnu>^o^■^.^.(M^.Q^(s 
— ""CMrMromoionrommrM-" 



istMincncMinmrMininiMinoicvjintnn 
isgsa)^CM(\iioio«9inin O^uj i^ h- oo 

^(BIS(S(S(D0(SSSCDS(9CQSQ3S 



ininininminininininu>u>u)i£u>ii)U) 



(cvioj pi)-"rn<M««)a»^M-«ina) 

Oioc-'ID —ea-'MM-'VDrjrwkOins) 

<. S 1^ U! CM ^ CQNSin Oim -> U1 N. 03 0) 

^ lo m IN. '^ IV. o^ vfl ro m rn s ui u; m It 19 

r>iajinpj i\.(MiMOiin-" — — — ^CDcs 

— rg CMroMtMcurorororocM-" 



inoi(\/m axviocKvinOTOJinmnii/? 
looroio cnrovflWMUxnmmo'i'ot^ 

XMtD'*m '*<sinsa-"U''^'^-'Muoro 
i3Q(Si'-— cvjmi«)^^ini.Tj3Uii»-i^a) 

S^CQSCO iSOOSIBOSG^fflSCSa? 



(cols'" Mro^mioN-cDCDis — cviro 
ri ■^ inin ininininininininu)u)U)u) 



0) 

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u 
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muj-TMrocDkOUincDairoeDMinss 

rOIV-mQ — Mlv-Oh-UI — NfMUJDDD 

po^m^— "itf^(MScnsujro>nos®o> 
inrv-cn-'iviorTMroroiv.tMoo.N.iooic 

(VOT'^'-rwrMa)/v.iv-fv-i.D?s.i*)fv.'"fl2a) 
-^(vjcvjMMMroMrorrimcM-H 



iocni*)iO(nmu)(iirou)(nMU)<nroiO(n 
uj — into — inoo -moo — inoD — ino)'" 
— N.rgiv.MajM0i5g5inoin"U3 — r>- 
(TJ — -TjcMroM"}-*!-- — - — 



r v> u> u> t^ r^ CD oi 



CO G IS S Q (O SOS) IS IS S G9 63 IB O St 



i<)'Jinu)i^oocnio-<fvii«J5iniflr.i 



MrocDromistn— 'MismiMfyinsujo 
NU)rvmao — 5Ninif/ — inoirocnrocD 
tn\flvou>03r4^-— -."Ovoinpjo'^-^E 
^i\.(7>inpnroin(rir^CDai^B3ii)uoM(s 

...GDmisw '<u3ininininu3U)ssi[ni9 
— 'CMo:roMrororopn*^roro(M 



(^raitu3Qrou3e3mwomu)s)roii)iS} 

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iv 



APPENDIX D 
DATA FLOW PATH OVERVIEW 

Electrical measurements made on the electric vehicles are recorded, 
computer processed, and eventually presented in tabular and/or graphical 
format. The flow from one end to the other is very complex. In this 
section, an overview description is given of the data collection system 
and the data analysis software. 

A. DATA RECORDING PHASE 

Performance tests of the electric vehicles were made during their 
operation around a race track. Electrical parameters such as voltage, 
current, and power were measured continuously during the test. A 
custom-made portable data logger transcribed the electrical measure- 
ments from their respective transducers onto a magnetic tape cassette 
via a Datdl recorder ' (Fig. D.l). Sixteen different parameters were 
measured, scanned, and recorded serially on a digital cassette. All 
data entries onto the tape were followed by a hexadecimal channel or 
parameter Identification number. A more comprehensive description of 
the recording system Is given in Section k. 




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RECORDER 



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MEASUREMENT 
TRANSDUCERS 



MOBILE DATA 
LOGGER 



CASSEUE 



Figure D.l. Functional diagram of the Data Acquisition System 
used on ooard the electric vehicles 



D-1 



B. DATA ANALYSIS PHASE 

The electrical measurements recorded on cassette during a test 
were read or transcribed into the memory of the Automated Control and 
Test System (ACTS) mini-computer for subsequent storage and analysis. A 
Datel LPR-Id reader was used to convert the m.agnetic images on the cas- 
sette's tape into a serial stream of hexadecimal ASCII (American Standard 
Code for Information Interchange) characters. Each charactei* is coded 
by a sequence of seven bnnary data bits followed by a parity and a stop 
bit. Each bit is represented electrically as a "0" or LO by a volt 
It el or as a "1" or HI by an applied voltage level. 

The aerial stream of bits which represent a character, which In 
turn code a data measurement entry are made available at an RS232 
connector of the Datal reader. The signal Is received by a DLll 
Interface Input /output card of the ACTS mini-computer. The mini- 
computer is a PDP-11/10 suppoited by 28K memory, dual disk-cartridge 
diives, operator terminal g, and an electrostatic printer/plotter 
(Figure D.2). 

Extensive software programs were written to accept the data 
and handle It appropriately. A description of these Is given below. 
The operational sequence for data analysis was to 

1) turn-on the ACTS and supporting equipment, 

2) load and rewind the cassette and the Datel reader, 

3) type-In commands at the operator terminal to run or 
execute the software data acquisition programs, 

4) perform oparations according to instructions given at the 
terminal by the program, and 

5) once the data is loaded into the computer, run other special 
analysis software. 

C. GENERAL SOFTWARE DESCRIPTION 

The one entity which gives "power" to a computer, which greatly 
facilitates reduction of massive data, and which opens the avenues to 
varied forms of data analysis is the software. For the electric vehicle 
project, two basic types of prograias were written:- 



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1) data acquisition and storing 

2) data analysis and presentation. 

t Most programs were written in DEC RT-11 FORTRAN language which is analo- 

T gous to FORTRAN TV. This language was chosen since it is popular among 

programmers and different people can write their own special analysis or 

user software. 

The user programs (those which the operator calls at the terminal) 
conform to certain conventions. A single program counists basically of 
four parts (Figure D.3): 

1) non-execut?'. le statements such as dimensioning of arrays, 
data entries of constants and alphanumeric labels, and input/ 
output (I/O) foimat specifications; 

2) a central executive loop which coordinates execution of 
the program; 

3) the main program consisting of a sequential list of 
computer instructions and catagoirized in sections, each of 
which accomplishes one operator task; and 

4) subroutines which are shared by different sections of the 
program and which accomplish ona detailed matheraatial or 
I/O operation. Subroutines may be internal to the user 
program, or be called-in from a library, such as the least- 
square-fit roucine and tha plotting package. The latter 
routines are also called sub-programs since they are 
compiled separately from tha user program. 

The executive loop allows the program to: 

1) be intaractiva with the operator 

2) incorporate several tasks such as acquire, store, and print 
data In one user program. 

« The progran will type questions at the terminal and wait for ■'"he operator 

!*■ to respond. Typically, information is reqULsted such as the file name 

to store data into, whether the cassette is ready to be read, or simply 
' what operation it shall perform next. The latter is referred to the 



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program's mode of ration; that is, one mode of operation will perform 
a given operator task which is defined by one section of tlie main part 
of the user program. 

Systems programs are also available to the operator. These enable 
one to create a user program, run it, duplicate It, and transfer it (or 
a data file) from one peripheral to another. One system program, for 
example, called PIP allows the operator to create storage space on disk 
by deleting old un-used data files. 



D-6 



Report #2 



RIPP Electric Passenger Car 



Section II 

m 



900-850 

TEST TRACK EVALUATION 
OF THE RIPP-ELECTRIC 



October 1977 

5 



Prepared by: 

VaUy E. Rippel 
Electrochemical Power Group 
Electric Propulsion and 
Power Section 



Approved by: JC^^ U ^'^Ct^mt 



900-850 



CONTENTS 

1 INTRODUCTION 1-1 

2 SUMMARY OF RESULTS 2-1 

2.1 CONSTANT SPEED TESTS 2-1 

^ 2.1.1 Range (miles) 2-1 

2,1.2 Miles per Line KWH 2-1 

2.2 DRIVING CYCLE TESTS 2-1 

2.2.1 Range (miles) 2-1 

2.2.2 Miles per Line KWH 2-1 

2.3 ACCELERATION TESTS (BATTERY 20% DISCHARGED) 2-1 

2.3.1 EV-106 Batteries, 2N6251 Transistors 2-1 

2.3.2 LEV-115 Batteries, SDT-12302 Transistors 2-2 

3 VEHICLE DESCRIPTION 3-1 

3.1 GENERAL DESCRIPTION 3-1 

3.2 BATTERY 3-9 

3.3 TRACTION MOTOR 3-15 

3.4 DATA ON BAKER-OTIS 1265 MOTOR 3-15 

3.5 CONTROL SYSTEM 3-19 

3.6 DATA ON MOTOR-CONTROL SYSTEM COMBINATION 3-19 

3. 7 CHARGER 3-20 

3.8 INSTRUMENT PANEL 3-20 

3.9 ADDITIONAL SPECIFICATIONS 3-21 

3.9.1 Vehicle 3-21 

3.9.2 Transmission 3-21 

3.9.3 Rear axle 3-21 

3.9.4 Wheels 3-21 

3.9.5 Previous service 3-22 

4 INSTRUMENTATION 4-1 

4.1 GENERAL DESCRIPTION 4-1 

4.1.1 Vehicle Instrumentation Equipment 4-1 

4.1.2 Data Reading and Processing Equipment 4-1 

4.1.3 Calibration Instrumentation 4-1 

4.2 VEHICLE INSTRUMENTATION 4-3 

4.2.1 Fifth Wheel and Associated Components 4-3 

4.2.2 Charge/Discharge Current Integrator 4-4 

4.2.3 AC Watt-Hours Meter 4-5 

4.2.4 Voltage, Current, Energy, and Temperature 

Data Acquisition 4-5 

4.3 DATA READING AND PROCESSING A-H 

4.3.1 Data Acquisition Software - '.1 

4.3.2 Data Analysis Software 4-14 

4.4 SCALE FACTORS 4-2 7 

4.4.1 Sensors 4-27 

4.4.2 Interfaces 4-28 

4.4.3 Measuring and Recording Instruments 4-28 

4.5 MANUFACTURERS' SPECIFICATIONS 4-29 

4.5.1 Sensors 4-29 

*^ 4.5.2 Interfaces 4-29 

; .^ 4,5,3 Measuring and Recording Instruments 4-30 



ii 



900-850 



4.6 LAB AND FIELD CALIBRATIONS 4-32 

4.6.1 AAC Current Sensors 4-32 

4.6.2 Current Integrator Field Cal. April 14, 1977, 

Dynamic Science • 4-32 

4.6.3 Energy Counter Field Measurements 4-33 

4.6.4 Fifth Wheel Lab and Field Measurements 4-33 

4.6.5 AC KWH Meter 4-33 

4.7 LIST OF INSTRUMENTS, MODEL AND SERIAL NUMBERS 4-36 

5.1 TEST PROCEDURES 5-1 

5.2' PROCEDURES FOR CONSTANT SPEED TESTS 5-1 

5.2.1 Charge State 5-1 

5.2.2 Battery Temperature . 5-1 

5.2.3 Charging 5-1 

5.2.4 Wind Velocity 5-1 

5.2.5 Instrumentation 5-2 

5.2.6 Vehicle Test Weight 5-2 

5.2.7 Tire Pressures 5-2 

5.2.8 Test Start 5-2 

5.2.9 Test Termination 5-3 

5.2.10 Tests to be Performed 5-3 

5.3 PROCEDURES FOR DRIVING CYCLE TESTS 5-3 

5.3.1 Charge-State 5-3 

5.3.2 Battery Temperature 5-3 

5.3.3 Charging 5-3 

5.3.4 Wind Velocity 5-3 

5.3.5 Instrumentation 5-4 

5.3.6 Vehicle Test Weight 5-4 

5.3.7 Tire Pressures 5-4 

5.3.8 Test Start 5-4 

5.3.9 Driving Cycle Tests Details 5-4 

5.3.10 Test Termination 5-5 

5.4 PROCEDURES FOR ACCELERATION TESTS 5-6 

5.4.1 Track Conditions 5-6 

5.4.2 Wind Velocity 5-6 

5.4.3 Instrvunentation 5-6 

5.4.4 Driving Technique 5-6 

5.4.5 Charge State 5-6 

5.5 PROCEDURES FOR COAT-DOWN TESTS 5-8 

5.5.1 Warm-UP 5-8 

5.5.2 Track Survey 5-8 

5.5.3 Wind Velocity 5-8 

5.5.4 Instrumentation 5-8 

5.5.5 Other Procedures 5-8 

5.6 PROCEDURES FOR WEIGHT SENSITIVITY TESTS 5-9 

5.6.1 Definitions 5-9 

5.6.2 Procedures for Constant Speed Tests 5-9 

5.6.3 Procedures for Driving Cycle Tests 5-10 

5.6.4 Parameters to be Measured 5-10 

6.1 MEASURED DATA-CONSTANT SPEED TESTS 6-1 

6.2 MEASURED DATA-DRIVING CYCLE TESTS 6-18 

6. 3 MEASURED DATA - ACCELERATION TESTS 6-44 

6.3.1 Test Weight 6-44 

6.3.2 Measured Wind Speeds 6-44 

6.3.3 Ambient Temperatures 6-44 



iil 



900-850 






6.4 MEASURED DATA - COAST- DOWN TESTS 6-49 

6.5 MEASURED DATA - WEIGHT SENSITIVITY TESTS 6-57 

6.5.1 Constant Speed Tests 6-57 

6.5.2 Driving Cycle Tests 6-57 

7.1 REDUCED DATA - CONSTANT SPEED TESTS 7-1 

7.1.1 Average Speed Achieved (1) 7-1 

7.1.2 Distance Traveled (2) 7-1 

7.1.3 End of Test Battery Voltage (3) 7-1 

7.1.4 Discharge Amp-Hours 7-1 

7.1.5 Discharge KWH (4) 7-1 

7.1.6 Discharge KWH, corrected C5) 7-2 

7.1.7 KWH to Motor (6) 7-2 

7.1.8 KWH to Motor, corrected (7) 7-2 

7.1.9 Recharge Amp-Hours (8) 7-2 

7.1.10 Recharge Amp-Hours, corrected (9) 7-2 

7.1.11 Recharge KWH (10) . 7-2 

7.1.12 Recharge KWH, corrected (11) 7-2 

7.1.13 Charger Input 7-3 

7. 1. 14 Weather Conditions 7-3 

7.1.15 Miles per Line KWH (12) 7-3 

7.1.16 Miles per Amp-Hour Discharged (13) 7-3 

7.1.17 Charger Efficiency (14) 7-3 

7.1.18 Coulombic Efficiency (15) 7-3 

7.1.19 Voltaic Efficiency (16) 7-3 

7.1.20 Cycle Efficiency (17) 7-4 

7.1.21 Controller Efficiency (18) 7-4 

7.1.22 Average Motor Amps (19) 7-4 

7.1.23 Average Motor Volts (20) 7-4 

7.1.24 Average Motor Torque (21) 7-4 

7.1.25 Average Motor RPM (22) 7-4 

7.1.26 Average Motor-Controller Efficiency (23) 7-4 

7.1.27 Average Motor Efficiency (24) 7-4 

7.1.28 DC Motor Efficiency (25) 7-5 

7.1.29 Chopper Induced Losses (25) 7-5 

7.1.30 Road Load KWH (27) 7-5 

7.1.31 Average Gear Train Efficiency 7-5 

7.2 REDUCED DATA - DRIVING CYCLE TESTS 7-7 

7.2.1 Corrected Distance (2) 7-7 

7.2.2 End-of-Test Battery Voltage (3) 7-7 

7.2.3 Discharge KWH (4) 7-7 

7.2.4 Discharge KWH, corrected (5) 7-7 

7.2.5 KWH to Motor (.6) 7-7 

7.2.6 KWH to Motor, corrected (7) • 7-7 

7.2.7 Recharge Amp-Hours (8) 7-7 

7.2.8 Recharge Amp-Hours, corrected (9) 7-7 

7.2.9 Recharge KWH (10) 7-7 

7.2.10 Recharge KWH, corrected (11) 7-7 

7.2.11 Charger Input 7-7 

7.2.12 Weather Conditions 7-7 

7.2.13 Miles per Line KWH (12) 7-7 

7.2.14 Miles per Net Amp-Hour Discharged (13) 7-7 

7.2.15 Charger Efficiency (14) 7-8 

7.2.16 Coulombic Efficiency (15) 7-6' 

7.2.17 Voltaic Efficiency (16) 7-8 



iv 



•■A W^" 



900-850 



7.2.18 Cycle Efficiency (17) 7-8 

7.2.19 Forward Controller Efficiency (18a) 7-8 

7.2.20 Reverse Controller Efficiency (18b) 7-8 

7.2.21 Regenerative Hjaking Rncharge Amp-Hours (19) 7-8 

7.2.22 Regenerative Braking Recharge KWH (20) 7-8 

7.2.23 Regenerative Braking Recharge KWH, corrected (21) 7-8 

7.2.24 Kinetic Energy prior to braking (KWH) (22) 7-8 

7.2.25 Tire KWH (23) 7-9 

7.2.26 Aerodynamic KWH (24) 7-9 

7.2.27 Road Load KW (25) 7-9 

7.2.28 Forward Propulsion Efficiency (26) 7-9 

7.2.29 Reverse Propulsion Efficiency (27) 7-9 

7.2.30 Net Propulsion Efficiency (28) 7-10 

7.3 REDUCED DATA - ACCELERATION TESTS 7-12 

7.3.1 Fifth Wheel Errors, Corrected Speeds 7-12 

7.3.2 Time Corrections 7-12 

7.3.3 Data Plots 7-14 

7. 3. 4 Acceleration Times 7-14 

7.4 REDUCED DATA - COAST-DOWN TESTS 7-20 

7.4.1 Fifth Wheel Errors 7-20 

7. 4. 2 Generalized Road Load 7-21 

7.4.3 Road Load Resolved into Rolling Resistance and 

Aerodynamic Components 7-23 

7.5 REDUCED DATA - WEIGHT SENSITIVITY TESTS 7-34 

7.5.1 Instrument Errors 7-34 

7.5.3 Driving Cycle Tests 7-37 

8 ENERGY FLOW MODELING 8-1 

8.1 CONSTANT SPEED ANALYSES 8-1 

8.1.1 Charger Input 8-1 

8.1.2 Charger Efficiency, Battery Input 8-1 

8.1.3 Control System Efficiency, Motor Input 8-2 

8.1.4 Motor Efficiency, Motor Output 8-2 

8.1.5 Road-Load Energy, Gear Train Efficiency 8-2 

8.1.6 Summary of Constant Speed Energy Flow Analyses 8-2 

8.2 DRIVING CYCLE ANALYSES (NO REGENERATIVE BRAKING) 8-2 

8.2.1 Charger Input 8-2 

8.2.2 Charger Efficiency, Battery Input 8-2 

8.2.3 Control System Efficiency, Motor Input 8-2 

8.2.4 Motor Efficiency, Motor Output 8-3 

8.2.5 Road-Load Energy 8-3 

8.2.6 Kinetic Energy 8-3 

8.2.7 Gear Train Efficiency 8-3 

8.2.8 Energy Dissipated on Brakes 8-3 

8.2.9 Summary of Driving Cycle Energy Flow Analyses 8-3 

8.3 DRIVING CYCLE ANALYSES (REGENERATIVE BRAKING) 8-3 

8.3.1 Charger Input 8-4 

8.3.2 Charger Efficiency, Battery Input 8-4 

8.3.3 Control System Efficiency, Motor Input 

(forward f]ow) 8-4 

8.3.4 Control System Efficiency, Motor Return 

(reverse flow) 8-4 

8.3.5 Road-Load Energy 8-4 

8.3.6 Kinetic Energy ■ 8-4 



900-850 



8. 3. 7 Energy Returned to Wheels 8-4 

8. 3. 8 Energy Dissipated on Brakes 8-4 

8. 3. 9 Summary of Driving Cycle Energy Flow Analyses 8-4 

9 OBSERVATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS 9-1 

9.1.1 Chassis Dynometer Testing 9-2 

9.1.2 Application of Battery Models 9-2 

9.1.3 Bench Tests for Sub-Components 9-2 

9.2 INSTRUMENTATION 9-3 

9.2 OBSERVATIONS ON THE RIPP-ELECTRIC 9-4 

9.2.1 Chopper Induced Losses 9-4 

9.2.2 Regenerative Braking 9-4 

9.2.3 Transformerless Charger 9-4 



Figures 

3.1.1 Ripp-Electric Vehicle 3-2 

3.1.2 Drive Line View 3-3 

3.1.3 Baker-Otis Motor, Model 1265 3-4 

3.1.4 Rear Battery Pack View 3-5 

3.1.5 Power Control Unit 3-6 

3.1.6 Propulsion System Block Diagram 3-7 

3. 1. 7 Instrument Panel View 3-8 

3.2.1 Battery Discharge Curve, 75 Amp 3-10 

3.2.2 Battery Discharge Curve, 300 Amp 3-11 

3.2.3 Battery Discharge Curve, 500 Amp 3-12 

3.2.4 Battery Discharge Time vs Current _ 3-13 

3.2.5 Energy Density, Power Density vs Time 3-14 

3.4.1 Motor Torque vs Current 3-17 

3.4.2 Motor Efficiency vs Current 3-17 

3. 4. 3 Motor RPM vs Torque 3-18 

4.1.1 Vehicle Instrumentation Block Diagram 4-2 

4.2.1 Current Integrator Block Diagram 4-8 

4.2.2 Energy Counter Block Diagram 4-9 

4.2.3 Digital Integrator Block Diagram 4-10 

4. 3. 1 Sample of Preliminary Data Analysis 4-19 

4.3.2 Sample Output from Operator's Terminal 4-20 

4. 3. 3 Sample Printout of Rough Data 4-21 

4. 3. 4 Sample Printout of Data in Engineering Units 4-22 

4.3.5 Computer Plot of Battery Current 4-23 

4.3.6 Computer Plot of Schedule C Data 4-24 

4. 3. 7 Sample Printout of Core Memory Data 4-25 

4.3.8 Computer Plot of Integrated Energy (Sample from 

Fiac Data) 4-26 

4.6.1 Fifth Wheel Calibration Plot 4-35 

6.1.1 Plot of Range vs Speed 6-2 

6.1.2 Plot of Energy Consumption vs Speed 6-2 

6 1.3 Motor Case Temp. - Test No. 2. 6-3 

6.1.4 Motor Case Temp. - Test No. 3. 6-3 

6.1.5 Motor Case Temp. - Test No. 4. 6-4 

6.1.6 Motor Case Temp. - Test No. 5. 6-4 

6.2.1 SAE J227a Driving Schedules B and C 6-20 

6.2.2 Range and Miles per KWH 6-20 



vl 



900-850 



,6 
7 



6.2.3 
6.2.4 
6.2.5 
6.2. 
6.2. 
6.2.8 
6.2.9 
6.2.10 
6.2.11 
6.2.12 
6.2.13 
6.2.14 
6.2.15 
7.3.1 
7.3.2 
7.3.3 
3.4 
3.5 
3.6 
3.7 
3.8 
7.3.9 
7.3.10 
7.4.1 
7.4.2 
7.4.3 
7.4.4 
7.4.5 
7.4.6 
8.1.1 
8.1.2 
8.1.3 
8.1.4 
8.2.1 
8.2.2 
8.2.3 
8.2.4 



Strip Chart Speed Samples - Test No. 12 6-21 

Strip Chart Speed Samples - Test No. 13 6-22 

Strip Chart Speed Samples - Test No. 17 6-23 

Strip Chart Speed Samples - Test No. 24 6-24 

Strip Chart Speed Samples - Test No. 25 6-25 

Motor Case Tenq). - Test No. 17. 6-26 

Motor Case Temp. - Test No. 18. 6-26 

Motor Case Temp. - Test No. 20. 6-27 

Motor Case Temp. - Test No. 21. 6-27 

Computer Plot of Speed vs Time - Test 22 6-28 

Computer Plot of Batt. Volts vs Time-Test 22 6-29 

Computer Plot of Batt. Amps vs Time- Test 22 6-30 

Computer Plot of Mot. Volts vs Time-Test 22 6-31 

Plot of Speed vs Time - Test Nc. 24 7-15 

Plot of Speed vs Ti..ie - Test No. 31 7-15 

Plot of Acceleration vs Speed - Test No. 24 7-16 

Plot of Acceleration vs Speed - Test No. 31 7-16 

Plot of Batt. Volts and Amps vs Time - Test 24 7-17 

Plot of Batt, Volts and Amps vs Time - Test 31 7-17 

Plot of Mot. Volts and Amps vs Time - Test 24 7-18 

Plot of Mot. Volts and Amps vs Time - Test 31 7-18 

Plot cf Batt. Energy vs Time -Test 24 7-19 

Plot of Batt. Energy vs Time -"Test 31 7-19 

Plot of Road Load vs Speed 7-31 

Plot of P/V vs v2 - Run No. 1 7-31 

Plot of P/V vs V - Run No. 2 7-32 

Plot of P/V vs Vj - Run No. 4 7-32 

Plot of P/V vs V„ - Run No. 6 7-33 

Plot of P/V vs V - Run No. 9 7-33 

Energy Flow Model for 25 mph 8-5 

Energy Flow Model for 35 mph 8-6 

Energy Flow Model for 45 mph 8-7 

Energy Flow Model for Top Speed 8-8 

Energy Flow Model for Sched. C 8-9 

Energy Flow Model for SChed, B 8- 10 

Energy Flow Model for Sched. C W. Regen. 8-11 

Energy Flow Model for Sched. E. W. Regen. b-12 



Tables 

3.4.1 Data on Baker-Otis 1265 Motor 3-16 

4.6.1 AAC Current Sensor Cal. Test 4-34 

4.6.2 Energy Counter Cal. Tost 4-34 

5.6.1 Constant Speed Weight Sensitivity Pa'-^meters 5-11 

5.6.2 Driving Cycle Weight Sensitivity Parameters 5-11 

6.1.1 Constant Speed, Uncorrected Data 6-5 

6.1. lA Test No. 28 Uncorrected Data 6-6 

6.1.2 Printout Samples - Test No. 2 (25 mph) 6-7 

6.1.3 Printout Samples - Test No. 3 (35 mph) 6-8 

6.1.4 Printout Samples - Test No. 4 (45 mph) 6-9 

6.1.5 Printout Samples - Test No. 5 (Max Speed) 6-10 

6.1.6 Printout Samples - Test No. 6 (35 mph) 6-11 



vii 



t 
I 



<^-*^' 



900-850 



6.1.7 Printout Samples - Test No. 7 (Max Speed) 6-12 

6.1.8 Printout Samples - Test No. 9 (25 mph) 6-13 

6.1.9 Printout Samples - Test No. 10 (35 mph) 6-14 

6.1.10 Printout Samples - Test No. 11 (45 mph) 6-15 

6.1.11 Printout Samples - Test No. 22 (25, 35 mph) 6-16 

6.1.12 Printout Samples - Test No. 22 (45, Max) 6-17 

6.2.1 Driving Cycle, Uncorrected Data 6-32 

6.2.1A Driving Cycle, Uncorrected Data 6-33 

6.2.2 Printout Samples - Test No. 12 (Sch. C) 6 34 

6.2.3 Printout Samples - Test No. 13 (Sch. B, W. Regen.) 6-35 

6.2.4 Printout Samples - Test No. 15 (Sch. B) 6-36 

6.2.5 Printout Samples - Test No. 16 (Sch. B, W. Regen.) ~ 6-37 

6.2.6 Printout Samples - Test No. 17 (Sch. B, W. Regen.) — 6-38 

6.2.7 Printout Samples - Test No. 18 (Sch. C) 6-39 

6.2.8 Printout Samples - Test No. 19 (Sch. C, W. Regen.) — 6-40 

6.2.9 Printout Samples - Test No. 20 (Sch. B) 6-41 

6.2.10 Printout Samples - Test No. 21 (Sch. C, W. Regen.) ~ 6-42 

6.2.11 Printout Samples - Test No. 22 (Schs. B, C) 6-43 

6.3.1 Uncorrected Acceleration Data-Test No. 24 6-45 

6.3.2 Uncorrected Acceleration Data-Test No. 31 6-47 

6.4.1 Uncorrected Coast-Down Data 6-50 

6.4.2 Strip-Chart Coast-Down Data 6-53 

6.4.3 Track Survey Data 6-55 

6.5.1 Const. Spead Weight Sensitivity Data 6-58 

6.5.2 Driving Cycle Weight Sensitivity Data 6-59 

7.1.1 Constant Speed Uncorrected, Corrected, and 

Computed Data 7-6 

7.2.1 Driving Cycle Uncorrected, Corrected, and 

Computed 7-11 

7.3.1 Corrected Speeds - Acceleration Data 7-13 

7.4.1 Intermediate Coast-Down Calculations 7-25 

7.4.2 Coast-Down Calculations 7-28 

7.5.1 Constant Speed Weight Sensitivity Data 

(Runs 1 through 12) 7-36 

7.5.2 Constant Speed Weight Sensitivity Data 

(Runs x3 through 29) 7-36 

7.5.3 Driving Cycle Weight Sensitivity Data 

(Runs 1 through 4) 7-37 

7.5.4 Driving Cycle Weight Sensitivity Data 

(Runs 5 through 8) 7-37 



vili 



f-' 900-850 

■> SECTION 1 

*>; INTRODUCTION 

r:;. As a part of ERDA's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle "State-of- 

Art Assessment" Program, the Ripp-Electric was f ield-tP-sted at the 

f-^ facility of Dynamic Science, Inc, of Phoenix, Arizona, during March and 

April 1977. This report is a description, comj^ilation, and analysis of 
the field tests. 

Prior to the above tests, with support from NASA and ERDA, i 

a series of performance tests was conducted on the Ripp-Electric, using I 

JPL's chassis dynamometer facility. These results are reported in JPL | 

document 900-759, October 1976. I 



The State-of-Art Assessment reported the results of the ' 

above tests. However, because of the expanded capability of the data 3 

acquisition system described in this report and the desire of JPL to ) 
present the data in a vehicle system energy-flow format, the report was 

expanded to include energy-flow analysis (Section 8) . I 

This report also contains much data on the Ripp-Electric 
generated by the designer of the vehicle prior to the tests conducted 
for the ERDA program. These tests are so noted in the text. 



1-1 



•'^J*^HbAt,t 



■i^'f^tiAl^ 



900-850 

Section 2 
SUMNIARY OF RESULTS 



The following is a summary of performance tests conducted 
on the Ripp-Electric at Dynamic Science, Inc., of Phoenix, Arizona, 
during March and April, 1977. 

2.1 CONSTANT SIEED TESTS 

2.1.1 Range (miles) 

25 mph (av. 2 tests) 101.30 

35 mph (av. best 2 tests) 87.8] 

45 mph (av. 2 tests) 71.00 

Max Speed (av. 2 tests) 54.26 

2.1.2 Miles per Line KWH 

25 mph (one test only) , . 4.09 

35 mph (av. best 2 tests) . , 3.50 

45 mph (av. 2 tests) 2.92 

Max Speed (one test only) , , 2.40 

2.2 DRIVING CYCLE TESTS 

2.2.1 Range (miles) 

Sched. B, no regen. br. (one test only). . . 65.39 

Sched. B, with regen. br (one test only) . . 73.01 

Sched. C no regen. br. Cav. 2 tests) . . . . 58.23 

Sched. C with regen. br. (av. best 2 tests). 76.55 

2.2.2 Miles per Line KWH 

Sched. B, no regen. br. (one test only). . . 2.46 

Sched. E, with regen. br. (one test only). . 2.76 

Sched. C, no regen. br. (av. 2 tests). . . . 2.29 

Sched. C, with regen. br. (av. best 2 tests) 2.78 

2.3 ACCELERATION TESTS (BATTERY 20% DISCH/RGED) 

2,3.1 EV-106 batteries, 2N6251 Transistors 

0-10 mph ...... . . 3.4 sec 

0-20 mph . 8.2 sec 

0-30 mph 14.5 sec 

0-40 mph .22.6 sec 

0-45 mph 28.3 sec 



2-1 

■J. 



r 

900-850 






h 2.3.2 LEV-115 Batteries*, SDT-12302 Transistors 
fe- 
ll; 0-10 mph 3.3 sec 

||: 0-20 mph 8.4 sec 

'I- 0-30 mpii 15.2 sec 

f. 0-40 mph 24.8 sec 

:% 0-45 mph 31.4 sec 



fc 
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New batteries loaned by ESB, Inc. 



2-2 






900-850 

Section 3 
VEHICLE DESCRIPTION ; 

3.1 GENERAL DESCRIPTION 

The Ripp-EIectric is a converted 1971 Datsun 1200 Sedan ■ 

(Figure 3.1.1). The drive line, consisting of the standard hydraulic 

clutch, four-speed transmission, and rear axle, has been retained. The ^ 

internal combustion engine and associated components were replaced with 
an advanced electric drive system. | 

In addition to the above niodif icaticis, tlie conversion > 

includes i. edification to both the frort and rear suspension. In the 1 

case of the front suspension, the original coil springs were replaced i 

with stiffer, slightly shorter units, and the McPherson shocks were • 

replaced with Koni inserts. In the case of the rear suspension, 
additional leaves were added to the original serai-elliptical units, and 
the original shocks were replaced wiiih heavy-duty counterparts. 

Other modifications include: 

• Body modifications so that the spare tire is accessed 
from under the car (Figure 3.1.2). 

• Body modifications to provide space for six batteries 
in the motor compartment (Figure 3.1.3). 

• Construction of an aluminum "cross-member" to replace 
original unit and provide adequate space for motor. 

• Modification of steering "cross-rod" to allow 
adequate space for motor. 



3-1 



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3.2 



BATTERY 






A set of new ESB EV-106 batteries was used for tests 1 
through 27 at Dynamic Science. Tests 28 through 31 used a new set (on 
loan from ESB) rf LEV-115s. 

Specifics on the EV-106 batteries are as follows: 

• Nominal Capacity 75 amps for 106 minutes (ESB spec) 



Nominal Voltage 

Weight 

Energy Storage 



120 volts (20 six volt units in 
series) 

1300 lb (20 batteries, each 65 lb) 

15.23 KWH at 75 amps and 27 °C, 
based on ESB spec where average 
discharge voltage =5.75 volts 
over 106 minutes) 



Figures 3.2.1 through 3.2.5 are ESB data on discharge 
voltages vs tima. 



3-9 






900-850 



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various temperatures (Measured Data). For currents 
less than 90 amps, terrainat-lon is at 1.75 volts per 
cell; for currents greater than 9C amps, termination 
is at 1.00 volt per cell. 



3-13 



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900-850 



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of Discharge 



3-14 



^ -■.',">".. 



900-850 



i.i TRACTION MOTOR 

The electric motor is located under the hood (Figure 3.1.3). 
The unit was manufactured by Baker-Otis Company and is designated as 
model 12fc5. A specially fabricated shaft adapter couples the motor shaft 
to a modified Datsun flywheel. 

The motor is a totally enclosed four-pole, 120 volt machine 
with nc interpoles, a nonlaminated frame and a non-skewed armature. 
Miiximum efficiency at its best operating point Is 86'.;. Maximum continu- 
ous power rating is 15 to 20 hp, and maximum speed is 4000 RPM. Motor 
weight is 205 lb. 

3.4 DATA ON BAKER-OTIS I2t)5 MOTOR 

Prior to con 'uct of the tests described in this report, data 
was acquired on the 12b5 motor by the autlior and Is included here for 
reader Information. Torques and RPM data were obtained wIlIi special 
Instrumentation; voltages and currents were measured with a Fluke SIOOA 
DVM. Sources of measurement error. In addition Lo the Instruments 
themselves. Include operating-point drift. Errors are estimated at 
+ 0.2.\ +0.5 percent of reading for all currents, + 0. IV + 0.2 perciMit 
of reading for all voltages. + 1 percent of reading for RPMs and 
+ 2 ft-lb + 1 percent of reading for torques. Data Is listed In 
Table 3,4.1 and plotted in Figures 3.4.1 through 3.4.3. 



3-15 



900-850 



»- 

•> 



Table 


3.4.1. Data On 


Baker-Otis 


1265 Motor 




Motor Vol .age 
(Volts) 


Motor Current 
(Amps) 


Torque 
(ft-lb) 


RPM 


H.P. 


Eff. 


103.1 


189 


55.4 


2086 


22.03 


84 3 


104.5 


161 


46.4 


2238 


19.78 


-..7 


107.1 


129 


33.4 


2506 


15.94 


86.0 


109.1 


103 


24.2 


2841 


13.09 


86.9 


110.3 


87.8 


18 8 


3150 


11.28 


86.8 


81.7 


181 


53.2 


1658 


16.80 


84.7 


83.5 


148 


40.0 


1841 


14.02 


84.6 


85.2 


120 


30.0 


2050 


11.71 


85.4 


87.1 


96.6 


21.2 


2371 


9.57 


84.8 


88.6 


73.8 


14.0 


2800 


7.46 


85.1 


61.4 


164 


46.3 


1279 


11.27 


83.5 


62.9 


132 


34.0 


1446 


9.36 


84.1 


64.5 


103 


22.9 


1684 


7.35 


82.5 


65.9 


83 4 


15.8 


2038 


6.13 


83.2 


66.8 


66.0 


10.5 


2408 


4.81 


81.4 


67.7 


51.6 


6.7 


2862 


3.65 


77.9 


40.6 


157 


43.7 


820 


6.S2 


79.8 


41.8 


126 


31.4 


953 


5.70 


80.7 


42.8 


103 


23.2 


1106 


4.89 


82.7 


43.9 


74.4 


13.0 


14^: 


3.52 


80.4 


44.9 


51.0 


6.0 


1943 


2.22 


72.3 


19.0 


170 


49.0 


275 


2.56 


59.2 


19.9 


130 


33.6 


368 


2.35 


68.0 


20.7 


93.0 


21.0 


513 


2.05 


79.5 


21.7 


55.8 


8.0 


844 


1.29 


79.2 


22.1 


43.8 


4.2 


1070 


.85 


65.9 



J-J.6 



*U4 



■ i\-l 






900-850 



60 

50 

2 40 
I 

£ 

UJ 

8 30 

5 

»— 

20 

ro 



•A' 



j_ 



DO 



no 



X 



J_ 



20 40 60 80 100 120 140 

CURRENT (ompaivi) 



LEGEND 



• I8<V .'-*S 
mot 

O 60<V <70 
not 

A 8Q<\J <90 
mot 

a IOO<V *II2 
mot 



160 



I a/\ 



200 



220 



J 



240 



Figure 3.4.1. Plot of Torque vs Current for Baker-Otis 1265 Motor Usiiig 
Table 3.4.1 Data. Note that Torque is Virtually 
Independent of Voltage and RPM. 






90 



80 



S. 70 

> 

Z 

UJ 

^ 40 



50 - 



40 



I 


.1 1 1 


1 


1 1 




I 


1 1 


1 1 




- 
















- 


- 










Q 




* 


- 


^ 


"*■' ia" — 


— *^ "o 


-TtX- 




^ ^-u-' 


y 






■•l. 






- 


/ 




V 


\ 


s. 




LEGEND 


- 


- 










N 


o 

A 
D 


•8^V^t<^3 

60<V^, <70 

80^ V^, <<)0 
mot 

100< V .^120 
mor 


- 


1 


1 1 1 


1 


. 1 


1 


1 


J . .i_ 


1 1 





20 40 60 80 100 120 UJ 

CURRENT (omperei) 



160 



180 



200 



220 



240 



Figure j.'!.2. Plot of Efficiency vs Current for Baker-0:iH 1265 Motor 
Using Table 3.4.1 Data. 



3-17 



900-&50 




2S X 3S 

TORQUE (fi - lb) 



Figure 3.4.3. 



Plot of RPM vs Torque for Baker-Otis 1265 Motor, using 
Table 3.4.1 Data. Data Points were Extrapolated to 45, 
68, 88, and 110 Volts on the Basis that RPM is Proportional 
to Motor Voltage; this Assumption is Confirmed by Noting 
that Efficiency is only a Weak Function of Voltage. 



3-18 



900-850 



3.5 



CONTROL SYSTEM 



The control system, a 2-KW transformerless charger and a DC 
to DC converter for 12 volt auxiliary povrer, is integrally packaged and 
hinge-mounted within a metal encasement (Figure 3.1.5). Total weight of 
the system is 39 lb. A block diagram of the system is shown in 
Figure 3.1.6. 

Power control in both the drive and regenerative brake modes 
is achieved via a transistor chopper with operates in the pulse-width 
modulation mode. In the drive mode, the chopper operates conventionally 
as a buck system. In the brake mode, contactors switch the transistor 
circuit into a boost configuration. In both modes of operation the 
transistor chop|,er operates at all times in a current limiting fashion, 
with the actual current limit being proportional to an input control 
signal. This control signal is derived from an accelerator potentiometer 
and is modified by the mode switching circuit. 

Specifics on the transistor chopper are as follows: 



Transistors — 



-32 paralleled lOA, 250V To-3 
units 



Chopping Frequency 400 Hz 

Cu-rent Limit (motor DC)-270A 

Current limit (peak) 300A 

Current Limit Technique — Threshold turn-off, based on 

transistor de-saturation 



Internal power requirements for the control system, such as 
base drive power, bipolar power for the low-level electronics, and 
contactor coil power are provided by a 1000 watt, DC to DC converter 
system. This converter system also provides up to 350 watts of 12 volt 
DC power for auxiliary uses, such as headlights, wipers, and radio. 

All electronic components are forced air, cooled by a 
100 CFM pancake fan. In the recharge mode, this fan is relay-switched 
across the line input and when the vehicle is operating, the fan is 
across the output of a 250 watt inverter (inverter provides up to 
200 watts of 120 volt 60 Hz square-wave power for external use) . 



3.6 



DATA ON MOTOR-CCNTROL SYSTEM COMBINATION 



Data was obtained prior to the vehicle tests on the combi- 
nation of the 1265 motor and the controller. Data was measured using 
the technique outlined in paragraph 3. A. 

In addition to the errors noted in paragraph 3. A, an error 
involving unmeasured AC energy is expected here. In particular, pulse 
currents drawn by the chopper "induce" a ripple voltage across the 



3-19 



900-850 

h 

■* 

'■ battery. As a result of this ripple voltage, power measurement errors 

result when average voltage is multiplied by average current. From 
analysis of scope-measured ripple voltages, the worst case error is 
less than 4 percent and, in all cases, is such that the true battery 
power is lower than the apparent battery power. It should be noted 
that energy measurements conducted at Dynamic Science used instrumen- 
4 tation which inherently measured true power - thus eliminating this 

|ff type of error. Data is listed in Tables 3.6.1 and 3.6.2 and plotted 

in Figures 3.6.1 through 3.6.5. These tables and figures can be found 
in Appendix I. 

3. 7 CHARGER 

The charger is a transformerless 2-KW unit. Standard 
115 VAC power is first full-wave rectified, boosted by a transistor 
boost chopper, and then applied to the battery. The chopper duty cycle 
is servo-controlled to provide a line current limit and a temperature- 
corrected final voltage limit. Over each half-cycle of line voltage, 
the chopper duty cycle is "modulated" so that the Instantaneous line 
current is proportionate to the instantaneous line voltage, thus 
effecting a "synthetic power factor" which is near unity. Measurements 
made by the manufacturer indicate that the charger energy efficiency, 
averaged over an entire recharge cycle, is about 95 percent, while the 
power factor - at the full power point, is also about 95 percent. The 
charger is packed with the motor controller and weighs approximately 
6 pounds. 

3.8 INSTRUMENT PANEL 

The instrument panel contains meters for monicoring battery 

and motor voltages and currents, charger current, regenerative braking 

currents, chopper base currents, and auxiliary load currents (Fig- 
ure 3.1. 7) . 

The instrument panel also contains indicator lii^hts (which 
signal nominal or faulty operation of the control system), a 12-volt 
auxiliary power outlet, and controls for a 50-KVA SCR battery charger 
which can be mounted above the traction motor. 

A tachometer is dash-mounted in the standard location. The 
signal input for the tachometer is generated by an LED-photo transistor 
system which is integrated with the back end of the motor shaft. 

Mounted directly below the tachometer, and hidden from the 
view of Figure j.1.7, is a digital current integrator which reads 
Amp-Hours charged and Amp-Hours discharged on separate electro- 
mechanical counters. The current integrator will be discussed more 
fully in paragraph 4.2.2. 



3-20 



M*. 

-r 
1^. 



■v>- 



900-850 



3.9 


ADDITIONAL CHARACTERISTICS 




3.9.1 


Vehicle 






3.9.1.1 


Overall length 


150.8 in (383 cm) 




3.9.1.2 


Overall width 


58.9 in (150 cm) 




3.9.1.3 


Overall height 


54.7 in (140 cm) 




3. 9.1. A 


Capacity 


4 passengers 




3.9.1.5 


Road clearance 


6.7 in (17 cm) 




3.9.1.6 


Curb weight 


2950 lbs (1348 kg) 
battery set 


for E\'-106 






3030 lbs (1385 kg) 


for LEV-115 






battery set 





3.9.1,7 



Gross vehicle weight 



3.9.2 


Transmission 


3.9.2.1 


Type 


3.9.2.2 


Ratios 




First 




Second 




Third 




Fourth 




Reverse 


3.9.3 


Rear axle 


3.9.3.1 


Type 


3.9.3.2 


Ratio 


3.9.4 


Wheels 


3.9.4.1 


Hubs 



3550 lbs (1622 kg) for EV-106 
battery set 

3630 lbs (1659 kg) for LEV-115 
battery set 



Datsun F14W56, Warner-type 
synchromesh 



3.757 
2.169 
1.404 
1.000 
3.640 

Seni-floating hyploid 
3.90 (39/10) 



Datsun 510 hubs used in place of 
1200 hubs 






3-21 



900-850 



3.9.4.2 Tires 

3.9.4.3 Tire pressures 

3.9.4.4 Wheel base 

3.9.4.5 Track, front 

3.9.4.6 Track, rear 

3.9.4.7 Rolling distance per 
revolution 

3.9.5 Previous service 



165SR13 Goodyear radials 
30 psi front, 40 psi rear 
90.6 in (230 cm) 
48.8 in (124 cm) 
49.0 in (124.5 cm) 
5.99 ft (1.823 m) 



At the time of these tests, the vehicle had been in operation 
for approximately two and one half years and had accumulated about 
26,000 miles. 



t^. 



Z-11 



hSS- *"'. 



\ 



I 900-850 



Section 4 
INSTRUMENTATION 



4.1 GENERAL DESCRIPTION 

The Instnunentatlon used for the tests performed on the 
Rlpp-Electric at the Dynamic Science Test Track In Phoenix, Arizona, 
consisted of three major blocks. 

4.1.1 Vehicle Instrumentation Equipment (Figure 4.1.1) 

This equipment consisted of sensors. Interfaces, displays, 
and recording apparatus for handling the following classes of data: 

• Speed and distance 

• liistantaneous voltages and currents 

• Battery amp-hours, charged and discharged 

• Energy measurements 

4.1.2 Data Reading and Processing Equipment 

This equipment consisted of a Datrl Cassette Tape Reader and 
a PDP-1108 Computer. Together, these systems provided the capability of 
generalized processing; outputs in the form of tabular and graphical 
displays were generated by the computer. 

4.1.3 Calibration Instrumentation. 

The calibration instrumentation used in the course of the 
tests consisted of a "Fifth Wheel Spinnfcr," a 4-1/2 digit DVM, and a 
wrist watch. 



H-1 



900-850 




s 



>. 
CO 

u 

G 

VI 

u 

CO 



r-l 
U 

•H 

J2 
0) 
> 

u 
Vl 
u 

0) 

T-l 



a 

CD 
U 

00 

n) 



u 
o 



0) 

VI 

00 
•H 

fa 



4-2 



W*** WWH'^^-e^ » 






900-850 

4.2 VEHICLE INSTRUMENTATION (Figure 4.1.1} 

The vehicle instrumentation may be viewed as four separate 
blocks . 

4.2.1 Fifth Wheel and Associated Components 

All speed and distance information was derived from a 
Nucleus Corporation, NC-5 Fifth Wheel equipped with a distance totalizer. 

Speed signals were generated by an electromechanical tach- 
generator, directly coupled to the Fifth Wheel shaft. This signal was 
applied simultaneously to three points of use: 

• Weston Model 901 Meter calibrated in mph 

• Hewlett Packard 7100 B Strip-Chart Recorder 
(15701 A amplifiers) 

• Channel 9 input of the Datel LPS -16 Data Logger 

The Weston Meter, which connected directly across the tach- 
generator, served as a precision speedometer. Its use was limited 
to constant speed driving; it was also used as a backup for the 
Strip-Chart Recorder. 

The Hewlett Packard Strip-Chart Recorder was connected 
across the tach-generator, but was a low-pass filter In series (100 yF 
electrolytic capacitor and 2700 ohm resistor) . The filter was required 
to attenuate "hash" produced by the tach-generator. The Strip-Chart 
system was used to record all speed-rime information - this included 
constant speed tests, driving cycle tests, acceleration tests, and coast- 
down tests. In the case of the driving cycle tests, Strip-Charts were 
used which contained pre-recorded, computer-generated speed-time profiles 
of the appropriate schedules. In this way the Strip-Chart apparatus 
served the dual purpose of indicating to the driver *'-<' desired speed, 
while recording the actual speed - at each Instant -^ vsee par**.- | 

graph 4.2.1.1 for details of pre-recordlng of Str ^). I 

Finally, the Fifth W^f ,1 speed sifjnal v. appli' i 

channel 9 of the Datel LPS-16 Data Logger via a tvo-n&czi^ . /.-pass | 

filter (1 pF capacitors, 10 K res:*.stors) . Here too, rh uas I 

required to eliminate commutator "hash". The Data Logj, ^ -'■•'i this n 

speed signal once every 3.2 seconds to 12-bit accuracy . i.espon':ing ^ 

speed error is +0.02 mph), j 



Distance information was derived from an optical encoder 
which is directly coupled to the Fifth Wheel shaft. This signal was 
applied to an electronic unit which displayed distance traveled in feet. 



4-3 






900-850 

The electron i.c display Included a gate circuit which enabled distance 
counting to start and stop upon the closure and opening of .-"n external 
circuit. By taking advantage of this feature, It was possible to 
obtain corresponding measures for Amp-Hours, Watt-Hours, and distance 
associated with a given test. This tec ilque proved essential In the 
weight sensitivity tests (see paragraph 5.3.2.2). 

4.2.1.1 Strip-Chart Pre-recorded Driving Cycles 

A complete program operating in a real-time operating system 
environment on JPL's Automatic Charge/Discharge Controller nd Data 
Processing System (ACDCDPS) geaerates a voltage-'-ime function such th>t 
an HP 7100 Strip Chart Recorder measuring this voltage produce.'; a chart 
recorded with the selected driving cycle of SAE Test Procedure J227a. 
Driving cycle charts <"* j-t. "'>rded by the above method were used at the 
test track. 

The program controls the output resistance of a HP 69501A 
card located in a HP 6904B Multiprogrammer (Digital I/O Subsystem) 
within the ACDCDPS. The strip chart recorder measures the voltage drop 
across thl^ output resulting frrni a constant current at aoproximately 
0.8 x 10"^ amps. Values nay b* encered during program run time to 
control the shape of the ■.Ui.ve generated or existing programs may be 
selected which automatically "construct" profiles for Schedules B, C, 
or D. 

4.2.2 Charge/Discharge Current Integrator 

Battery charge and discharge Amp-Hours were recorded by a 
specially built Instrument. Two four-digit electromechanical counters 
provide operate displays of Amp-Hours charged anJ Amp-Hours discharged. 
Resolution of 0.01 Amp-Hour and typical accuracies are about 1%- 

The Charge/Discharge Current Integrator basically consists 
of two voltage-to-frequency converters, driver circuits for electro- 
mechanical counters, and a housekeeping power supply (Figure 4.2.1). 
Design is si'.ch that one converter generates a frequency proportionate to 
positive I'uput voltages while the other converter responds to negative 
input vo] .:ages . Scale factors were chosen so that counters increment 
one digit when 0.01 Amo-Hour flows through a 50-MV, 300A input shunt. 

Voltage-to-frequency conversion is achieved via elements Ul, 
U2, U3, C,R, and Q. Ul , in conjunction with R and C, generates a voltage 
ramp, the slope of which is proportionate to the inpu^ voltage. When 
the output of Ul reaches the value of the reference voltage applied to 
comparator U2, the output of U2 swings positive, thus causing one-shot 
U3 to generate a short pulse. This pulse, in turn, places Q in conduc- 
tirn, thus resetting C, The U3 pulse is widened by U4 so tha'u an ade- 
quate signal for driving the corresponding counter is provided. 



4-4 



900-850 



Precision comi )nents are used for Ul, R, C, and t\ie reference 
voltages. Calibraf.ion ad_ cments include scale lactor and ztro offset. 

In operation, the Charge/Discharge Current IntegratOi. 
remains connectec' with a calibrated 50-i'V, 300A shunt which is in ■ ;rles 
with the vehicle battery. The Current Integrator operates both during 
recharge and driving. During driving, input AC power is derived from a 
60-Hz inverter which is part of the vehicle's control system. 

4.2.3 AC Watt-Hours Meter 

AC recharge energ" was recorded by a standard single-phase 
115-VAC, 60-Hz, 2-KW watt-hour mei.er. It should be noted that while 
this class of watt-hour meter inherenfly reads true energy, and not 
apparent energy, the accuracy of such measurements is degraded' by non 
sinusoidal currents. In the case of the Ripp-Electric Charger, the full- 
lead power factor exceeds 90%, and current total harmonic distortion is 
less than 20%. Ac:dv''ngly, accUiTacy degradations due to wave-shape 
and power factor Rhould be of little concern. 

All eadings were interpolated to the r^arest tenth KWH. 

4.2.4 Voltaire, Current, Energy, and Temperature Data Acqiilsition 

Motor and battery voltages, currents, and true energies in 
addition to temperatures were sensed and recorded by speciali- designed 
eqripment (Figure 4.1.1). This portion of the total system may be 
divided into three sections: 

(1) Sensoi-s - These include Hal,^ Effect Current Liensors 
which sensed motor and battery currents, and 
thermistors, which sensed ambient, motor, and battery 
temperatures. 

(2) Interfaces - These include isolation amplifiers which 
electrically isolated the instrumentation from uhe 
vehicle electrical environment, a digitpl integrator 
connected between the "Energy Counter" and the Data 
Recorder which provided an analog signal proportionate 
to "elapsed energy", a reference supply which provided 
both power for the theiinistors and a calibration 
/oltage for the Data Recorder, and low-pass filters 
which filter out the AC components of choppc^d 
waveforms . 

O) K?.-.uring Instruments - These included a four-.-hannel 
digital energy recorder ("Energy Counter") which 
"kept account" of battery re^.harge and discharge 
energy, energy to the motor, and energy from the motor, 
and a 16-channel tape recorder which recorded analog 
data from the interfaces. 



4-5 



1-" s' tvi~ -■ 



^ 



900-850 

Additional circuitry, not shown in Figure 4.1.1 includes the 
following: 

(i) Battery - a rechargeable lead-acid battery was used to 
po%rer the circuitry of Figure 4.1.1 (except for the 
Current Integrator). This same battery also provided 
power for the Strip-Chart recorder via an inverter. 

(2) DC-to-DC Converter - A Stevens Arnold DC-to-DC 

converter was used to convert battery power into 
regulated bipolar power for the current sensors, the 
isolation amplifiers and the data recorder. 

(3^ Crystal Clock - A precision 5.000-Hz signal was 
generated by a crystal oscillator and count-down 
t circuits; this signal regulated the sample rate of the 

^ data recorder and ser/ed as an incremental time base. 

4.2.ij.l Energy Counter . The function of the Energy Counter was to 
^ measure energy flow to an^ from the battery, and to and from the motor. 

Originally It was felt that this task could be accomplished at the 
'~ software level simply by multiplying recorded voltage, current, and 

'> time values. Upon quantitatively considering the errors inherent in 

this method. It was decided to use a "mathematically correct" approach. 

The result was JPL's development of the Energy Counter system and Its 
j' effective use for capturing energy data during the Dynamic Science 

Tests. 

Its concept of operation is straight fsrward. Input signals 
which are proportionate to voltage and current are raultlplled 
by a four-quadrant multiplier. The resulting "tru.i power" signal is 
then used to drive a voltage-to-frequency converter. At this point, 
frequency is proportionate to the true power, and phase or cycle number 
is proportionate to true energy. A counter connected to the converter 
output (with necessary Interfaces) will therefore generate a count 
Increment proportionate to the Increment of true energy. 

A block diagram of the system is shown in Figure 4.2.2. 
Added complexity results from the requirement that separate account be 
made of "forward flow" and "reverse flow'' energy. To achieve this, an 
absolute valve circuit connects between the multiplier and the 
"V-to-F" converter, and a gate circuit is used to steer the converter 
output to the appropriate counter circuit. 

A standard DC-to-DC converter is used to supply the Internal 
power requirements (regulated 15 volts bipolar) . 



4-6 



C-> 



4.2.4.2 Digital Integrator . The function of the four channel ^ 

"Digital Integrator" was to generate analog signals which correspond to f 

each of the four Energy Counter readings. | 



■^ 



900-850 

The scheme depicted In Figure 4.2.3 vas arrived at as the 
nost easily effected, yet nost accurate means of achieving this require- 
ment. Each integrator Input receives a pulse for each increment of the 
corresponding energy Counter Channel. Action of the Ripple Counter, the 
resistor network, and associated components is such that the integrator 
output increments 19.53 HV for each pulse; after 4.980 volts is reached, 
the output resets to zero with the next Input pulse. Each of the four 
integrator outputs connected to a recording channel. Energy increments 
associated with each channel were determined at the data process level 
by noting the difference in channel values and the number of cycles 
associated with given intervals uf measurement. 

V' 4.2.4.3 Data Recorder . A Oatsl LPS-16 Data Logger System was used 

i.- to record signals corresponding to voltage, current, energy, temperature, 

i and vtfhicle speed. The system includes an input multiplexer, a 12-bit 

f. A-to-D converter, a formatter, and an incremental write-only digital 

tape transport. 

f. The system offers moderate flexibility - in that the sample 

i-: rate is externally controlled, single quadrant, or bipolar input signals 

may be used, sequential or random Sjoipling of the inputs is possible, 
and file gaps of various lengths are also possible. As presently con- 
figured, the system constants include: 

(1) Sample rate of five channels per second . The channel advance 
signal is generated by a precision crystal clock and is 
accurate to within 0.1% (Five channels per second is the upper 
limit of the LPS-16). 

(2) Sequential sample order . A scheme was devised to enable 
random sampling whereby desired channels could be skipped and 
differing sample rates assigned to various channels. This 

>: capability was not utilized during the Dynamic Science Tests, 

due to technical uncertainties. 

(3) A-to-D converter configured to accept only Single Quadrant 
voltages - in the range of 0.000 to 5.000 volts . (In the 

- case of regenerative braking currents, negative signals are 

recorded by using op-amp Inverters and extra channels.) 

(4) Formatter configured so that a File Gap occurs after every 
64 words . 

One circuit board modification on the LPS-16 multiplexer 
circuit was required. Originally, the input impedances were about 
20K ohms, except during the sample interval, when the Impe'^.ances momen- 
tarily rose to about 100 megohms. The nominally low input impedances 
proved unacceptable in terms of Interface problems. Accordingly, a 
modification was Implemented which enabled high input impedances - for 
all channels at all times. The fix consisted of disconnecting an 
Internal "pulbw mcde" power supply which provided bipolar power to the 
?.' multiplexer and other analog circuitry - and in its place, connecting to 

>? an external DC-to-CC converter which powered the current sensors and 

other peripheral circuits. 



I 



4-7 



900-850 



UJ 




s 


CK 




3 




_ 




O 

u 

- 



Ui 
(9 






U 

5 







■8 



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liL 



= 


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^B 


a. 


a. 


a. 


Ui 


3 


UJ 


(/) 


K 




u 


Q£ 


V) 


UJ 


3 

o 


§ 


X 


Ol 







g 



• 



« 



3 



u 



« 

JS 



s 

M 



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O 



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u 

oo 



i 



4-8 



900-850 



is 




tA 

^ 


Ml 

s 






s 


- 1 




1 











il!S 




«A 


5 


^s 




^ 
^ 


o 


« L_Ji 


1 . 
















r 



4-9 



900-850 



5.000 V •- 



SCHMTT 
COMPARATOR 



PULSE 
INPUT 




CC Qj — VW 



CD 4040 
C-MOS 
RIPPLE 
COUNTER 



RESET 
GND 





ANALOG 
'OUTPUT 



Figure 4.2.3. Digital Integrator (one of four channels). Output 
increments 19.53 MV for each input pulse. After 
257th increment above zero, output reaches 4.980V; 
with next increment, output resets to zero. 



4-10 



900-850 



4.3 



DATA READING AMD PROCESSING 



4.3.1 



Data Acquisition Softvar* 



Tha purpoa* of tha data acquisitioa prograa (callad EVHTF 
or EF) la to accapt tha data from tha cassattas and stora them on disk 
for raady rafatence by tha coaputar. Tha aaln program is wrlttan in 
FORTRAN language. A special MACRO asaambly language module or sub- 
program (called EVHTM or EM) was wrlttan which enables the FORTRAN 
program to comsnmicate with the Datel reader. The capabilities of both 
programs are given below. 



4.3.1.1 



Macro Assembly Module 



Coomiunication between the Datel reader and the computer is 
done hardware-wise through the interface card. However, the hexadecimal 
ASCII data from the reader must be converted into an octal binary 
digital format acceptable by the FORTRAN program. In addition, the 
incoming data must be screened from noise and faulty data. The assembly 
language EU program accomplishes these tasks. 

Once control is transferred to the EM program from the main 
Ef driver, the following sequence of operation is taken. 

(1) the return address is saved for later transfer of data 
to EF. 



*. 

"C 
< 



(2) various registers (memory locations) are cleared or 
preset. 

(3) the first six ASCII characters are received and 
temporarily stored in a buffer. 

(A) a descrimination routine will validate the characters 
In the buffer to conform to a data code followed by 
a. channel identification code. If the format is 
correct, advance to the next step. If not, then 
accept an additional character and re-evaluate until 
valid data Is obtained. 

(5) convert the ASCII code to a binary number. 

(6) convert the hexadecimal number to an octal number. 

(7) increment the software counter for the number of data 
points or entries recorded. 

(8) evaluate and count the number of data points rejected 
or missing. 

(9) increment the software counter for recording the 
elapsed time. 



i 



' -•'NiTiwJwrfi. >-'■''•*•» 



4-11 



9C0-850 

(10) transfer the channel, data, and time rasulcs to EF. 

(11) return control to the EF program. 

The above sequence occurs typically in less than 1 msec. 
Plenty of time is available to the EF program to record the data point 
and return for more data without any loss. At the high communication 
speed of 9600 baud, a fully recorded cassette (about 4 hours of data) 
was playsd back in about 15 minutes. 

One additional feature of the EM module is a time-out 
counter. If no data is being received, the operator is warned by a 
ringing bell. If no action is taken within 15 sees, it is assumed 
that no more data is to be read and the program terminates automatically. 
The latter is also useful when the operator is temporarily out of the 
room. 

4.3.1.2 Fortran Main Driver 

Operator control during the data acquisitii,i' phase is 
afforded by the FORTRAN main driver program (EF) . The EF program con- 
sists roughly of 600 lines of code and accomplishes several tasks. 
These modes of operation are: 

(1) accept or read data from the Datel reader via the 
EM module, 

(2) tabulate the unprocessed octal data on the printer, 

(3) convert the data to engineering units and print them, 

(4) save all of the received data in mass disk storage, 
and 

(5) save only selected portions of the data in a FORTRAN 
callable data file. 

Several special features have been Incorporated in the 
program. During the reading phase (mode "R") the data in several 
channels are accumulated. Integrated results such as the totel number 
of data points recorded, mean vehicle velocity, hours in motion, total 
KI-7H energy expended, etc., are displayed at the conclusion of the 
reading cycle (Fig. 4.3.1). The reading mode allows one to accumulate 
only a specific number of data points, or all the data points inclualng 
those from different cassettes. Some of the performance tests are 
lengthy such that more than one cassette is used to record the data. 

A third feature of the program is the interactive communica- 
tion with the operator. Figure 4.3.2 shows a typical listing of a 
reading cycle with EFW. EFW is a modified version of the general EF 
program. Several questions are asked throughout the program execution. 
If no answer is given (i.e., if only the carriage return key is typed), 
then default answeres are assumed. For example, in Fig. 4.3.2 no entry 



4-12 



900-850 

was nade after the first MODE? maasage. The program automatically 
prints the possible codes that nay be entered, and asks once more what 
mode of operation It should enter. Another default answer Is assumed 
after the NO. PTS? qucistlon which will read all of the data from the 
cansette. The actual reading will not begin until the operator con- 
firms that the cassette is ready for processing. Finally, status 
messages are printed such as the indication that data was stored into 
a second file. The latter occurs only when the original file is filled 
to capacity and data is still flowing in. 

Sample output of the printout mode of operation are shown 
in Figs. 4.3.3 and 4. 3. A. The former (mode *I') lists sequentially 
across the page the original data and channel numbers in the integer 
format after octal to digital conversion. The latter printout (mode 'D*) 
performs several operations prior to printing, such as: 

(1) convert the data to engineering units, 

(2) calculate the recorder time for each data point, 

(3) sort the data into columns corresponding to channels, 

(.4) print a mnemonic label to identify the channel 

(5) print the data with the time. Since the cassette 
recording is organized In biov^.ks, file gaps are 
produced. The printout displays asterisks for the 
data that was missed durin3 a file gap. 

The mass storage mode is used to save all the rough data on 
disk cartridges (mode 'M'). The operator assigns a file name which 
Identifies the data. The Inherent advantage of mass storage Is that 
the data may be retrieved by EF much faster from a FORTRAN callable 
disk file than from the cassette reader. 

Finally, the EF program allows one to selectively save only 
that data which Is necessary (mode 'S'). A special routine was written 
which Is similar to an EDITOR program. Initially, instructions are 
given to specify the file name into which data shall be stored, and 
which channels shall be considered. 

Then, simple commands are used to scan through the rough 
data in increments of a line equivalent to the "D" mode printout. 
Another command is used to store the data from the predefined channels 
for a given number of lines of data. The commands available at the 
time of this report are: 

B - Jump to the beginning of the data 

•* nA - Advance n lines of data (n may be negative to 

^4 backspace lines) 



4-13 



900-850 

L <■ Lisc on the terminal the current lina of data 

sS - Store the next n lines of data 

N " Advance to the next set of storage 

T <- Terminate this mode of selective storage. 

The information saved with the above mode is stored as 
floating point numbers, in engineering units, in a direct access 
formatted FORTRAN file. That is, the data is stored in the form of 
fixed arrays which are accessible to any other FORTRAN-written program. 
Up to 13 parameters or channels may be recorded simultaneously in sets 
of up to 40 entries each. A set, for example, may contain all the data 
points pertaining to one driving cycle. Any number (up to 32767) oi 
sets may be recorded in one file. Each set is directly accessible by 
an index or record number. That Is, one needs not sequentially step 
through the file until the desired set is found. By convention, 
parameter No. 1 is used to automatically store the recorder time, 
p&rameters No. 2- 10 are filled with desired data, and parameters 
No. 11-13 are reserved for computed data. The use of this array-type 
storage is shown later with the description of the ED data analysis 
program. 

4.3.2 Data Analysis Software 

Once the data has been selected and stored in a general 
accessible file, a number of analysis programs are written. Different 
vehicle tests, for example, require different types of analysis and, 
therefore, different programs, for the current project, four basic 
tests were evaluated: 

Cl) vehicle performance at constant speeds of 25. 35, 45, 
and maximum KPH 

(2) performance during acceleration 

C3) coastdcwn; and 

C4} performance during schedule B and C of the federal 

driving cycle of Idle, acc^ileratlon, cruising, coast- 
down, and braking. Three analysis programs are 
briefly outlined below: acceleration test performance, 
curve fitting with least squares approximation, and a 
general purpose analysis program. 

4.3.2.1 Polynominal Curve Fitting 

One goal in analyzing performance data is to be able to 
relate the behavior or shape of the data to physical parameters. The 
coefficients of a polynomial equation, for example, ars related to such 
phenomena as vehicle drag, wheel slippage, etc. The PEP program was 
^ written to call a least squares fit subprogram and to evaluate the best 

polynomial that would fit a given sat of d&ta. 



»• 



4-14 



ll 



900-850 

Inherent capablllcies prograaned Into the PEF package 
Include: 

(1) mathematically accurate determination of the least 
squares value, 

(2) ability to specify the degree of the polynomial to 
be used, 

(3) ability to choose the degree that will give the best 
fit, 

(A) ability to fit only a specified portion of the data, 

(5) calculate and print the resulting coefficients and 
standard deviation, 

i 

(6) If more than one function is used, determine their f 
conmon point of intersection, and | 

(7) plot the calculated fit superimposed on the rough 
data. 

4.3.2.2 General Purpose Program 

Compatible with the data file generated by the EF program, 
a general purpose data analysis program called ED was developed. Ihe 
main concept of ED is to recall from die>k storage several sets of data 
(up to 10) Into core memory. The selected data can then be readily 
modified or otherwise operated on. Thirteen different modes of opera- 
tion have been programmed at the time of this report. A description 
of these Is given below. 

Subroutines to sort the data in increasing order, to select 
appropriate poj-ots to plot, etc. are used extensively throughout the 
program. One particular subroutine proved to be particularly helpful in 
visualizing the pattern of rough data. A two-dimensional three-point 
averaging algorithm was developed to filter the high frequency noise. 
Given three sequential points A, B, and C, an avprage value was 
calculated which replaced the center point (B) : 

B' = L±fjL^ (4.3.i) 

All data points are eventually replaced with a new value 
by applying the above equation. 

Averaging is done for both the abscissa and ordinate 
elements of a point. This filtering algorithm can be iterated several 
times thus yielding a smooth line which truly represents the data. 
Figures A. 3. 5 and A. 3. 6 are typical samples with seven iterations of the 
above algorithm. The latter also shows the driver's driving pattern 
during a schedule-C cycle test. 

4-15 



900-8S0 



t^. 



1. Daca Fetch 



The flrsc node of operation of the ED program allows 
one to retrieve certain sets of data from a named file on disk. The 
latter file was generated by mode "S** of the EF program. The ED program 
will set-up a pointer reference table so that the operator need not 
renumber his parameters and sets. Also, the program associates a 
certain default type of data to each parameter. For example, the EDO 
version of the program assumes paranetei No. 1 to be recorder time, 
parameter No. 2 to be vehicle velocity at the time coordinates of No. 1, 
parameter No. 3 to Include battery voltage data, etc. The fetch mode 
is entered automatically when the program is first called. 

2. Data Save 

The information which was fetched into core memory by 
mode 1 may be modified by subsequent modes. Mode 2 allows one to save 
these modifications into the same storage data file as above. 

3. Data Modification 

Mode 3 allows the user to change the numerical value 
of any entry present in core. For example, missing data may be inter- 
polated or individual noise glitches may be removed. 

4. Custom Analysis 

Different analysts often require diffei«nt mathemati- 
cal operations. Mode 4 allows the user to execute f. particulat pre- 
programmed formula tailored to his needs such as calculating grade 
ability. Several such functions can be lacorporated in a single version 
of the CD program. 

5. Two-parameter Plot 

Probably the must widely-used node of operation is 
that of plotting any two parameters To mlnimizii operator Input such as 
parameter description, upper and lower limits of data^ number of filter- 
ing iterations to be performed, etc., certain default conditions are 
assumed. These may be changed with mode 6. 

6. Default Operations Table 

A number of details are assumed by the program. Some 
of these may be changed at the operator's terminal during program 
execution. The default conditions which may be interci^pted include the 

a) use of automatic or fixed scaling to draw a plot 
(if fixed some upper and lowfjr limits must be 
entered) ; 



-16 



900-850 



b) method of plotting the data such as with 
Individual asterisks, with a line through the 
points, or with superposition of the filtered 
data; and 

c) specification of the number of Iterations for 
the filtering algorithm. 

7. Print Data 

The contents of the data arrays currently used in core 
memory may be printed with mode 7. This ability is particularly useful 
in interpreting or troubleshooting resulting plots. A sample of the 
printout is shown in Fig. 4.3.7. The array printed on the top left 
corner is the pointer reference table mentioned earlier. Column 
numeration refer to the parameter number. 

8. Normalized Time 

The recorder time stored as parameter No. 1 is never 
reset during a performance test, however one test may contain several 
runs or -.v.-les. Mode 8 allows one to normalize the time for each set of 
data encere-J. A given set would include all the data entries for a 
part:- viar run or cycle. Since the first measurement sampled by the 
portable data logger may not be at time zero of the run, a linear inter- 
polation is done on the time/velocity data. All data sets are normal- 
ized to the true time zero, and saved a parameter No. 13, 

The advantages of time-normalized data include: 

1) correction for time lag between sampling by the data 
Icggei.-, 

2) superposition of diffareni. runs of data for averaging 
and/or plotting. 



9. Program Termination 

Computer generated files must be properly opened and 
closed. Mode 9 will exit the program correctly according to system 
specifications. Program termination also occurs at the conclusion of 
drawing a plot. 

10. Curve Fitting 

Similar to the PEF program described earlier, mode 10 
enables the user to perform a least squares fit of the data up to a 
sixth degree polynomials. Both the coefficients and the fitted data 
are printed and plotted. 



4-17 



■**•• 'f * *'<<l*'* ;: ' 



t 



900-850 

11. Data Intergraclon 

Any given parameter may be Integrated within a set. 
Parameter No. 7, for example, was used to record the watt-hours (W-H) 
from ".he vehicle's battery, integration thereof yields an increasing 
function which can be readily plotted and easily Interpreted. 
Figure 4.3.8 shows such a graph plotted versus velocity. 

12. Data Interpolation 

It is sometimes desirable to plot a parameter not 
against time, but versus some other parameter such as velocity 
(Fig. 4.3.8). Measurements, however, were sampled sequentially in time. 
A current measurement, for example, does not coincide in time with a 
velocity measurement. Time offsets are i: increments of 0.2 sees/ 
channel. Mode 12 will generate a new set of velocity values which are 
time-corrected to the parametar of Interest. Conventional storage of 
the new values are done as parameter No. 12. The time correction is 
accomplished by linear interpolation of the velocity/normalized time 
data. 

13. Metric Conversion 

A special routine has been Incorporated In the ED 
program to convert data to its metric equivalent units. Velocity, for 
example, is expressed in Kn/hr while acceleration is calculated In 
Km/hr sec. 

Finally, one additional command is aailable to the 
operator to abort the program in the middle of a run. Two control-C 
characters must be typed in sequence at the keyboard. Computer 
control is then given to the MONITOR which allows one to restart a 
user or system program. 



4-18 



9C0-850 



E V H T DftTft STATISTICS FOI? TEST RUM: ^5 25r.'H 



flNftLYSIS DfiTE; lg-JUN-77 

31111 PVS RECRD, 3Sa PTS REJCTD 

TOTAL ELftPStD TH'E: l.?5 HSS 



CfiLCULATION:^: 



CflR-IN-TOTION HRS = 


1,65 


MEAN VELOCITY (WH) = 


25.71 


ftPPROX. MILAGE « 


42.39 


MEAN raT. VOLTS - 


183.35 


MGT, Ali-O-HRS - 


83.23 


MEAN BATf */CLT - 


105.51 


BATT AMP-HRS « 


32.32 


REGEN BATf AMP-KRS - 


B.OP 


FROM MOT. K-U-H - 


3.08 


TO MOT. K-U-H » 


11. ?4 


FROM BATT K-U-H - 


15.71 


TO BATT K-U-H - 


3.36 


REGEN BATT K-U-H - 


8.81 



Figure 4.3.1. Sample of Preliminary Dsta Analysis al the 
Conclusion of Accepting Data into the 
Computer from the Cassettes. Results of 
a 25-MPH Constant Speed Range Test are Shown. 



\ 4-19 



RT-llSJ V02&-05 

• DAT 3 1- JUL- 7? 

. R EFV 

EVHTF -ai-JUL-?? 

OPERATE ON DATA FROM DATS. OR MASS STORAGE? D/K 

D 

ID CODE C36 LETT): 

V22 CALIB R ATION TEST RW 17- APR- 77 

MODE? 

R « READ DATA FROM DAT EL 

D ■ DUMP DATA ( e^ G 'N G UNITS) 

S « STORE DATA FOR "ANALYSIS 

I « INTEGER DATA DUMP 

E » EXIT PROGRAM 

MODE? 

R. 

NO. PTS? 

PAUSE — CST RDf? <CR> 



ADDITIONAL DATA READ INTO FTN 2. rSAT 
MORE DATA ? CY/N) 
N_ 

!18687 PTS RECRD* 16 19 PTS REJCTD 

MODE? 

L 

STOP — 



Figure 4.3.2. Sainplc Output from an Operator's Terminal during 
P.xecution of the EF Data Acquisition Software 
Program. Underline Messages are the User's input. 



4-20 



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900-850 



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4-22 



'i.'lV'.- 



I: 



900-850 



CfiLIBRTN. TEST DOTfi 



RIPP-ELECTRIC VEHICLE 
JPL.-HC17/77 



•ft _ 







<3.0 



0.U 0.6 0.8 1.0 

NORMfiLIZED TIME (MIN) 



Figure. 4.3.5. Effect of the Filtering Algorithm on Vehicle Performance 
Data. Dips in the Current Correspond to Gear Shifting 



4-23 



900-850 



C0L18RTN, TEST DfiTQ 



3- 



m 



e.0 



RIPP-ELECTRIC VEHICLE 
JPL:HC:7/77 




0.2 



0.U 0.6 0.8 1.0 

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1.2 



Figure 4.3.6. Schedule "C" Driving Cycle Plot for the Data of Figure 4-4 



4-24 



900-850 



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»-<s 




























« * 

« 


H-w. 




























« 


ar-^ 




























« «* 


2 




























« 

« 

« 


CO 






















« 


• 
• 


« 


» « 


«- 


















* 


« 










3- 






« 


T 


m 


« 
« 

— . ., -, 


«* 


« 


T- 








1 


r— — -^ 1 



0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 U0.0 50.0 

VELOCITY (KM/H) 



60.0 



Figure 4.3.8. Sample Display of an Integrated Parameter 
Energy Consumpt-'on 



4-26 



• jmj* 






900-850 

A. 4 SCALE FACTORS 

The following scale factors were ured for sensors, Inter- 
faces, and measuring Instruments. 

4.4.1 Sensors 

4 r 4 . 1 . 1 Current Sensors (Battery and Motor Current) . 

Manufacturer American Aerospace Controls, Inc. 

Model Number 924A-300 

Scale Factor 0.01667 V/A for -300A < I < 300A 

4.4.1.2 Battery Shunt (for Current Integrator) . 
Manufacturer Janco, Inc. 

Scale Factor 0.0001667 V/A for -300A < I < 300A 

4.4.1.3 Thermistors (A:inblent. Battary, Motor Temp) . 
Manufacturer Fenwall 

Part Type CZl": 

Part Number F1263 

Temperature 3887 «„ 

Equation ^ " An R + 5.436 ! „ , ^ 

and R In ohms 

4.4.1.4 Fifth Wheel (Tachometer Output) 

Manufacturer Nucleus Corporation 

Model Number NC-5 

Scale Factor 

(Measured at JPL) 0.0826 V/mph (0.0563 V/kmph) 

(Measured at DSI) 0.0813 V/mph (0.0543 V/kmph) 

(Used in Computer 

Program 0.0850 V/mph (0.0580 V/kmph) 



4-27 



900-850 

4.4.2 Interfaces 

4.4.2.1 Isolation Amplifiers (Battery and Motor Voltage) . 
Manufacturer Burr-Brown 

Model iJumber 3452 

Scale Factor 0.03125 V/V (scale factor achidved 

by use of external components) . 

4.4.2.2 Thermistor Circuit . Consists of precision 5 volt source 
connected across precision 2K resistor in series with thermistor. 
Output to tape recorder taken across thermistor. Voltage to temperature 
relation is: 

T + r-rM^ 273 



- (3^-) 



+ 13.04 



where 

T is in "C and V in volts. 

4.4.2.3 Filters . Each of the six filters shown in Figure 4.1.1 
consists of two 10 K resistors and two 1 uF capacitors connected as a 
two section low pass filter. 

4.4.3 Measuring and Recording Instruments. 

4.4.3.1 AC Watt-Hour Meter 

Manufacturer General Electric 

Model Number 120V-2W-FMIS-TA15 

Scale Factor Unity 

4.4.3.2 Charge/Discharge Current Integrator 

Manufacturer Ripp-Electric 

-4 
Scale Factor. 1 Amp-Hour = 1.667 x 10 Volt-Hour 

4.4.3.3 Energy Counter 

Manufacturer JPL 

Scale Factor (present 

Calibration 1 Increment = 1.333 Watt-Hour 

= 2.500 yolt2-Sec 



4-28 



tt^ i»^' '1^' 






1 



900-850 

Scale Factor (nominal 

calibration) 1 Increment - 1.000 Watt-Hour 

- 1.875 Volt2-Sec 

4.4.3.4 Data Recorder . 

Manufacturer Patel Systems, Inc. 

Model Number LPS-16-12BA3-64 

Scale Factor Least Significant Bit ■ 1.22 MV 

4.5 MANUFACTURERS' SPECIFICATIONS (see Section 4.4 for 
Manufacturers and Model Numbers) 

4.5.1 Sensors 

4.5.1.1 Current Sensors . 

Accuracy +1% F.3. 

Response 100 ysec 

Operating Temp to +70°C 

Temp. Coeff. +0.08% FS/'C 

Off-Set T.C. +0.24 A/°C (Implied) 

4.5.1.2 Battery Shunt (see Section 4.6.1.2). 

4.5.1.3 Thermistors 

25*C Resistance 2000 ohms 

Accuracy +5% 

4.5.1.4 Fifth Wheel . No meaningful specs available. 

4.5.2 Interfaces 

4.5.2.1 Isolation Amplifiers . 

Nonlinearicy 0.005% FS 

Frequency Response 2.5 kriz (3 dB point) 

Setting Time 1 msec (to 0.1%) 

'm Isolation Mode 

.^ Rejection 120 dB (60 Hz) 



4-29 



900-850 



4.5.2.2 



4.5.3 
4.5.3.1 



Thermistor Circuit . 

Accuracy of 
Resistors 



U 



Accuracy of 
voltage 



^_ 0.3% or better 

Measuring and Recording Instruments 
AC Watt-Hour Metor. 



4.5.3.2 Char ge /Discharge Current Integrator (Ripp-Electri c 
Mer.fjjrements ) 

Offset counting 
rate (measured 3 weeks 
after calibration - 
with temp varied 
between IS^C and 

27 "C Less than 0.05 amp-hour per hour 

for both counters. 

Counting rate accuracy 

(measured at 100 amps 

or 16.66 MV - 3 weeks 

after calibration with 

temperature between 

eO'F and SO'F) Ranged between 99.24 and 100.36 

amp-hours per hour for both 

counters 

Linearity (measured at 
50, 100, 200, 

300 amps Error less than 0.1% of full scale 

counting rate - for botn counters. 

4.5.3.3 Energy Counter . 



4-30 



900-850 

4.5.3.4 Data Recorder . 

Recording Medium Cassette Tape 

Number of Inputs 16 Analog Channels 

Input Configuration Single Ended 

Input Voltage Range to +5 V F.S. (as used) 

Input Channel 

Impedances 100 Megohms (after mod.) 

System Accuracy '— +1«9 MV 

Resolution 12 binary bits (LSB = 1.22 MV) 

System Temp. Coeff. +0.004%/"'C 

Max Scan Rate 5 channels per sec 



4-31 



■ " _.•- t'.i. 



900-850 

A. 6 LAB AND FIELD CALIBRATIONS 

4.6.1 AAC Current Sensors 

4.6.1.1 Lab Cal. - Dec 1976 . JPL. The following tests and cali- 
brations were applied to the battery current sensor (No. 1) and the mocor 
current sensor (No. 2): Bipolar excitation power was derived from two 
lab supplies, each adjusted to 15 + 0.1 volts. Sensed currents were 
effected by 40 turns of No. 22 wire connected to lab supply through in, 
1%, 10 watt precision resiator. All subsequent voltage readings wtre 
with a Fluke 8900A DVM. 

With sensed current = 0, output voltage of each sensor was 

first observed; initial offsets were ab'-ut 0." volts. Next step was to 

adj ist null control for output zero. Subsequent drift rates were about 
1 MV in 15 minutes. 

Next, the sensed current was set at 1000 amps as indicated 
by a 1.000 voj.c drop across the resistor. For each sei.^or, forwara and 
reverse currents gave same readings. Battery Sensor gave ri.._dings of 
+0.668 V and Motor Sensor gave +0*669 V. Correct reading for 40. C 
ampere turns if +0.667 V. 

,.6.1.2 Field Gal. No. 1 March 30, 1977, Dynamic Science . Wit'i both 
sensors energized but sensed current = 0, output offsets -'sre checked. 
For Motor Sensor, offset was only +0.iyJ14V. For Battery jensor, offset 
was +0.041V. At this time it was noted that n O.CIO V signal ground 
voltage difference was presei between sensor grounds and Energy 
Counter signal ground-. On March 31, Battery Sensor was zeroeJ for null 
voltage J^i' Energy Counter. On April 15, a No. 14 ground connection 
between sensors and Energy Counter was added; both sensors were slightly 
adjusted f t zero offset as seen at Energy Counter inputs. 

4.6.1.3 Field Cal No. 2 March 30, 1977, Dynamic Science . In these 
tests several points of static operation were tested for each sensor. 
Test setup consisted of a 20A Nobatror. Power Supply in series with lOA, 
100 MV shunt and 14 turns of No. 14 th.ough sensor under test. Fluke 
8100A DVM was used to measure both the shunt signal and the sensor 
output. Results are summarized in Table 4.6.1. 

4.6.2 Current Integrator Field Cal. April 14, 1977, Dynamic 
Science 

Data recorded during tests indicated that the "charge" 
portion of the current integrator may have developed larger than 
nominal offset errors. A 5.00 amp current was simulated by a 0.83 MV 
signal (as read on Fluke 8100A DVM) . The integratji was allowed to 
warm up for one half hour (Ta = 29.5°C) before the covnting rate was 
checked. Measurement produced 92 counts (0.92AH) in 12 minutes. Since 
correct reading was 10*" counts, error at the 5 amp point was 8%. Both 
charge and discharge counters were zeroed at this time. 



4-32 



900-850 

4.6.3 Energy Counter Field Measurements 

4.6.3.1 Offset Count Rate - Measured March 9, 1977, Dyn aml': 
Science . With all input dignals at zero, counting rates, based on 
counts over 10 minutes interval, were: 

Batt. Discharge 336 counts/hr = 448 watts 

Batt. Recharge comts/hr; offset not known 

Energy to Motor 60 counts/hr - 80 watts 

Energy from Motor counts/hr; offset not known 

4.6.3.2 Cal. Tests - March 18, 1977, Dynamic Science . Various input 
voltages were applied to the Energy Counter to determine accuracy at 
different points of operation for each of the counters. All voltages 
were measured wi*-h Fluke 8100A DVM; time was measured with wrist watch. 
Scale factors fci: voltage '.;ere 5 volts input (voltage signal) corres- 
ponds to 160 volts (battery or motor) and 5 volts input (current 
signal) corresponds to 300 amps (battery and motor) . Computed K factor 
is the number of watt-hours per LSD. Results are summarized in 

Table 4.6.2. 

4.6.4 Fifth VVheel Lab and Field Measurements 

Fifth Wheel tachometer output vs speed was measured at JPL 
for various speeds. Results of these measurements were plotted in 
Figu..e 4.6.1. Voltage to speed proportionality, determined from 
Figure 4.6.1, is 0.826 V/mph. 

Using Dynamic Science's 1800 RPM "Fifth Wheel Spinner", 
Fluke 8100A reading of tachometer was 4.305 V (test performed on 
March 14, 1977). The rating given the Fifth Wheel Calibrator by 
Dynamic Science is 52.95 mph. The corresponding voltage to speed 
proportionality is 0.0813 V/mph. 

For all tests, the vehicle speed was driver controlled, 
using the HP Strip Chart recorder as a speed indicator. The Strip- 
Chart Recorder was periodically calibrated by running the Fifth Wheel 
on the Calibrator. 

4.6.5 AC KWH Meter 

No measurements or calibrai-ions weie performed. 



4-33 



1^4 TTirf. 



900-85C 



Table 4.6.1. AAC Current Sensor Cal. Test 









Expected 


Actual 






Shunt 




Sensor 


Sensor 






Voltage 


Ampere- 


Reading 


Reading 




Sensor 


(MV) 


Turns 


(Volts) 


(Volts) 


% Error 


Battery 


0.00 


0.00 


0.000 


-0.013 


— 


Battery 


+24.97 


+34.96 


+0.583 


+0.575 


+1.37 


Battery 


+49.80 


+69.72 


+1.162 


+1.153 


+0.77 


Battery 


+100.0 


+140.00 


+2.333 


+2.330 


+0.13 


Battery 


-100.0 


-140.00 


-2.333 


-2.371 


-1.63 


Batterv 


-50.3 


-70.42 


-1.174 


-1.210 


-3.06 


Bactery 


-25.07 


-35.10 


-0.585 


-0.610 


-4.27 


Motor 


0.00 


0.00 


0.000 


-0.002 


_ 


Motor 


+50.20 


+70.28 


+1.171 


+1.177 


-0.51 


Motor 


+100.1 


+140.14 


+2.336 


+2.344 


+0.34 


Motor 


+25.10 


+35.14 


+0.585 


+0.593 


-1.36 


Motor 


-25.05 


-35.07 


-0.584 


-0.609 


-4.28 


Motor 


-50.10 


-70.14 


-1.169 


-1.'58 


-2.48 


Motor 


-100.0 


-140.00 


-2.333 


-2.J66 


-1.44 



Table 4.6.2. Energy Counter Cal. Test 





Voltage 


Voltage 


Current 


Current 


Counting 








Circuit 


Simulated 


Signal 


Simulated 


Signal 


Tine 


Observed 


Predicted 


(Watt-Hrs 


Test 


(Volts) 


(Volts) 


(Amps) 


(Volts) 


(Sec) 


Counts 


WaLt-Hours 


per Count) 


Batt. Dlsch 


120.0 


3.750 


100.0 


1.667 


150 


380 


500.0 


1.316 


Batt. Dlsch 


105.0 


3 281 


200.0 


3.333 


150 


665 


875.0 


1.315 


Batt. Been 


130 


4.063 


-40.0 


-0.667 


150 


164 


216.7 


1.321 


Batt. Rech 


150.0 


4.688 


-5.0 


-0.083 


150 


28 


31.3 


1.116 


Batt. Rech 


150.0 


'.688 


-12.0 


-0.200 


150 


61 


75.0 


1.230 


Batt. Rech 


150.0 


4.688 


-2.0 


-0.033 


150 


14 


12.5 


0.893 


To Motor 


60.0 


1.875 


150.0 


2.500 


150 


289 


375.0 


1.298 


To Motor 


75.0 


2.344 


75.0 


1.250 


150 


180 


234.4 


1.302 


To Motor 


110.0 


3.438 


250.0 


4.167 


150 

- 


870 


1145. f. 


1.317 



4-34 



fc»--^i.- 



900-850 




10 



20 25 

FIFTH WHEEL SPEED (mph) 



30 



40 



Figure 4.6.1. 



Calibration Test Run on NC-3 Fifth Wheel, 
December 16, 1977 






4-35 



900-850 

4.7 LIST OF INSTRUMENTS, MODEL AND SERIAL NUMBERS 

Tire Pressure 

Gauge Milton, no PN 

Data Recorder Datel, PN LPS-16-12B3A-64 

AC KWH Meter GE, PN: 120V-2W-FMIS-TA15 

DVM Fluke, PN 8100A 

Strip Chart Recorder HP, PN 7100B, 15701A amplifiers 

Fifth Wheel Nucleus, PN NC-5 

Fifth Wheel Speed 

Meter Weston, PN 901 



4-36 



900-850 



5.1 TEST PROCEDURES 

In paragraphs 5.2 through 5.6, which follow, test procedures 
for constant speed, driving cycle, acceleration, coast-down, and weight 
sensitivity measurements are respectively discussed. With the exception 
of the weight sensitivity tests, all procedures derive from ERDA 
Document EHV-TEP. 

The procedures in paragraphs 5.2 through 5.5 discuss those 
cases where deviations from the recommended ERDA procedures were used. 
These sections also test various "standards" which were adopted when 
corresponding ERDA procedures were nonexistent . 

Procedures for the weight sensitivity tests were formulated 
by W. Rippel . The u.iderlying purpose of tl-"!se added tests was to pro- 
vide, for dasigr. engineers, an estimate of range and energy Improvements 
which could bt achieved through weight reductions. 

5.2 PROCEDURES FOR CONSTANT SFEED TESTS 

Tests were conducted in accordance with Section 2.8.1 of 
ERDA Document EHV-TEP, but with the following additions and modifications. 

5.2.1 Charge State 

All tests were started with a fully charged battery. A 
specific gravity increase of .005 g/cm-* or less, during a one-hour 
interval of charging, served as an indication of "full charge" for both 
the EV-106 and LEV-115 batteries. Prior to each test, the specific 
gravity and temperature of each cell was recorded. If any cell yielded 
^ temperature-corrected gravity of less thr" 1.275 g/cm-^, additional 
wftarging was performed. 

5.2.2 Battery Temperature 

Tests were conducted only if the ambient temperature was 
between 40°F and WF (5*'C and 32°C). Battery charging was permitted 
only if worst-case cell temperatures are between 40°F and 120°F 
(5°C and 49°C) . Track tests was initiated only when worst-case cell 
temperatures were between AO'F and 110°F (5''C and AS'C). 

5.2.3 Charging 

All charging was done with the on-board vehicle charger. 
Any adjustments made on the charger during the course of the tests were 
noted, 

5.2.4 Wind Velocity 

Tests were not run when the rms wind velocity exceeded 
10 mph (16 Km/h). 



5-1 



f«*<*lil.--,^,,. 



900-850 



5.2.5 Instrumentation 

At the end of each test, amp-hour, battery discharge KWH, 
motor KWH, fifth wheel distance, and elapsed time values were recorded - 
in addition to the specific gravities and temperatures of each of the 
battery cells. 

During each test, the following parameters were recorded on 
the cassette data recorder: 

Speed (Strip Chart record included) 

Battery voltage 

Battery current 

Battery discharge energy 

Motor voltage 

Motor current 

Energy to motor 

Ambient temperature 

Motor temperature 

During recharge, AC line, battery recharge enerf,y, recharge 
amp-hours, and recharge time were recorded. 

5.2.6 Vehicle Test Weight 

No paylcad, in addition to the instrumentation and the 
driver, was added. The reasons tor this dsci Ion are as follows: 

(1) ERDA procedures enable the manufacturer to specify 
payload 

(2) Weight sensitivity tests (paragraph 7.5) enable 
performance predictions with various payloads 

(3) With minimum payload, vei.^cle "wear and tear" was 
minimized 

5.2.7 Tire Pressures 

At start of tests, front tire pressures were set at 28 + 1 PSI 
and rear pressures at 37 + 1 PSI. 

5.2.8 Test Start 

Vehicle was driven to track starting point, which required 
no more than 0.3 amp-hour. That corresponding range error, for EV-106, 
was less than .25 percent. 

5.2.9 Test Termination 

The following conditions were used to terminate a test: 
(1) Inability to maintain 95 percent of desired speed 



5-2 



^('-^ 



900-850 

(2) Drop of battery voltage below 1.55 volts per cell for 
more than 4 seconds (in the case of the Ripp-Electric, 
where the battery is a 120 volt unit, this cutoff 
voltage is 92 volts) 

After the above cutoff condition was reached, the vehicle 
was decelerated over a distance which did not exceed 1000 feet (note 
that 1000 ft corresponds to a range error of between .2 percent and 
.4 percent. Accordingly, the coast distance may be used to offset 
errors due to "pre-test" driving as mentioned in paragraph 5.2.8). 

5.2.10 Tests Performed 

In accordance with paragraph 2.8.1.2.2 of ERDA Document. 
EHV-TEP, constant speed tests will be run at 25, 35, 45 mph, and at 
"top speed." 

The highest constant speed maintainable over both the 
battery cycle and during up-grade portions of the track was approximately 
47 mph, whereas the average speed possible over a battery charge was 
about 53 mph. 

In all cases, at least two of each test v;ere performed; 
when range values differed by more than 10 percent, a third test was 
run. 

5.3 PROCEDURES FOR DRIVING CYCLE TESTS 

Tests were performed in accordance with paragraph 2.8.2 of 
ERDA Document EVH-TEP, but with the following additions and modifications. 

5.3.1 Charge-State 

See paragraph 5.2.1. 

5.3.2 Battery Temperature 
See paragraph 5.2.2. 

5.3.3 Charging 

See paragraph 5.2.3. 

5.3.4 Wind Velocity 

See paragraph 5.2.4. 



5-3 



900-850 



5.3.5 Instrumentation 

Procedures Identical to paragraph 5.2.5, but with the follow- 
ing additions: 

5.3.5.1 Strip-Chart recorder was used in conjunction with pre- 
recorded Strip Charts to display desired speed as well as 
to record actual speed (see paragraph 5.3.9 for details). 

3.3.5.2 After each driving cycle, discharge and recharge amp-hours , 
plus cycle number, were recorded. 

5.3.6 Vehicle Test Weight 
See paragraph 5.2.6. 

5.3.7 Tire Pressures 

See par"ci.aph 5.2.7. 

5.3.8 Test Start 

See paragraph 5.2.8. 

5.3.9 Driving Cycle Tests Details 

J227a, Schedule B and C tests were run with and without 
regenerative braking until a termination point was reached (para- 
graph 5.3.10), A pre-recorded Strip Chart was used to displiy the 
desired vehicle speed at each instant of time. The driver maintained 
the vehicle speed as close as possible to the desired speed at each 
instant in time - but with the following exceptions: 

1. Hydraulic brakes were not used to assist regenerative 
braking In cases where regenerative decelerations 
fell below profile 

2. In cases where the vehicle could not linearly 
accelerate to the cruise speed within the allotted 
time, initial over-accelerations were used 

3. Small speed errors were purpouefully introduced to 
compensate for driver-caused errors occurring 
previously in the same cycle 

Schedules B and C are displayed and defined in Figure 5.3.1. 
Data for the "coast" portions was obtained from previously run coast- 
down tests (Ontario tests, December 1976). 



5-4 



-— ■-^-- II Mia Aiiiiiiiiir-^-^-'-"^'""^"- 



teiild^u^diuiiHiiHiiiiiMiii^Mih. 



900-850 

5.3.10 Test Termination 

Any of the following three conditions were used to terminate 
a test: 

(1) Inability to maintain 95 percent of the cruise speed 

(2) Inability to reach cruise speed within 2 seconds of 
the allotted acceleration time 

(3) Drop of battery voltage below 1.55 volts per cell for 
more than 4 seconds (in this case, where the battery 
is a 120 volt unit} the cutoff voltage is 92 volts). 

If the cutoff first occurred during the nth cycle accele- 
ration, and 95 percent of nth cycle cruise speed is maintained, the test 
was terminated upon completion of nth cycle, and range (and cycle number) 
included the nth cycle. However, if 95 percent of the nth cycle cruise 
speed could not be maintained, then the range was defined by the con- 
clusion of the (n-l)th cycle. 



5-5 



900-850 

5.4 PROCEDURES FOR ACCELERATION TESTS 

Tests were conducted in accordance with paragraph 2.8.3 of 
ERDA Document EHV-TEP, but with the following additions and modifications: 

5.4.1 Track Conditions 

r 

All tests were performed on a straight portion of the track. 
r Tests were run in opposite directions, starting at designated locations. 

Average grade over any 100-foot segment did no:: exceed 1 percent. 

5.4.2 Wind Velocity 

Tests were not run when rms wind velocity exceeded 10 mph 
(16 km/h). 

5.4.3 Instrumentation 

The following parameters were recorded as functions of 
elapsed time: 

Speed (strip chart and magnetic tape) 

Battery voltage (magnetic tape) 

Battery current (magnetic tape) 

Battery energy (magnetic tape) 

Battery amp-hours (amp-hour integrator) 

Motor voltage (magnetic tape) 

Motor current (magnetic tape) 

Motor energy (magnetic tape) 

5. 4. 4 Driving Technique 

The Ripp-Electric is a manually shifted vehicle, and normal 
shifting procedures were used. Accordingly, the accelerator was 
released to the zero power point prior to clutch depression, and power 
was only reapplied after the clutch was re-engaged. 

5.4.5 Charge State 

Tests were run at "full charge," "40 percent discharged," 
and "80 percent discharged." For each of the three charge states, at 
least two accelerations were performed in a given direction, and at 
least two accelerations were performed in the reverse direction. 

Battery discharges to the 40 percent and 80 percent point 
were achieved by constant speed driving at a speed chosen, which may be 
maintained at the 80 percent discharge point. Using this procedure, 
100 percent discharge was defined as the number of amp--hours, where the 
^ abovf constant speed operation is terminated as a result of lowered 

battery voltage or inability to maintain speed. The 40 percent test 
will be started when 40 percent of the above amp-hours have been 
discharged; likewise for the 80 percent test. 



5-6 



w 



900-850 



In the case of the Rlpp-Electrlc with EV-106 batteries, 
battery discharges were performed at 45 mph. Since 45 mph range tests 
established a charge availability of 141 amp-hours, the 40 percent test 
was started after a total of 56.6 amp-hours had been discharged via the 
full charge acceleration tests and the subsequent 45 mph operation. 
Similarly, the 80 percent test was started after a total discharge of 
113.2 ?inp- hours. 



5-7 



900-850 



5.5 PROCEDURES FOR COAST-DOWN TESTS 

Coast-down tests were run as per paragraph 2.8.6 of ERDA 
Document EHV-TEP (May 1977), but with the following additions: 

5.5.1 Warm- Up 

The vehicle was run for 6 miles (3 laps) at maximum speed, 
prior to the tests, to achieve stable tire and lubricant temperatures. 

5.5.2 Track Survey 

The coast-down tests were pe-formed only on a straight, 
surveyed portion of track. The starting point (t=0 location) was noted 
for each test, so that the track survey could be "synchronized" with the 
data. 

5.5.3 Wind Velocity 

The test was not run when the rms wind velocity exceeded 
3 mph (5 km/h). 

5.5.4 Instrumentation 

A Nucleus NC-5 speed sensor was used. Speed signals were 
recorded on both digital magnetic tape and on a strip chart. Apyiropri- 
ate filtering was used to eliminate "hash" from the tachometer generator. 

5. 5. 5 Other Procedures 

At least two tests in each of two direc .ions was started 
(t=0) with vehicle at maximum attainable speed (without constraints of 
safety and track particulars). When coast-down distances exceeded the 
straight, surveyed section of track, repeat tests were performed with 
reduced initial speed, such that the vehicle came to rest before reach- 
ing the end of the surveyed straight. 

Prior to the tests, brake drag was determined for each of 
the four wheels. This was determined by jacking the car and using a 
spring scale (at a measured radius) to apply torque. If after apply- 
ing and releasing brakes, an/ wheel torque exceeded 1 ft-lb (1.4 Nm) , 
the corresponding brake was adjusted until the torque was within the 
above limit. 



5-8 



900-850 

5.6 PROCEDURES FOR WEIGHT SENSITIVITY TESTS 

In order to quantitatively assess the impact of added or 
reduced weight on a given vehicle, "weight sensitivity" tests were 
devised. 

5.6.1 Definitions 

Weight sensitivity Is defined as: 

Ax/x 

^x " AW/iT • (5.5.1) 

o 

where 

"' Is the nominal gross vehicle weight 

AW Is weight Increment 

X Is the value of a particular parameter (x) associated 
with nominal weight conditions 

Ax Is the Increment in x associated with A • 

S Is the weight sensitivity associated with parameter x 

As an example, the weight sensitivity associated with 
battery discharge energy Is 

ABE/3E 

S = 2. 

BE AW/W • 
o 

where BEq Is the energy used (for a particular test) with weight Wq, 
and BEq + ABE is the energy used (same test) with weight Wq + AW. 

5.6.2 Procedures for Constant Speed Tests 

5.6.2.1 Warm-Up 

The vehicle was run for 6 miles (3 laps) at maximum speed to 
achieve stable tire and lubricant temperature. 

5.6.2.2 Test Conditions 

Tests were run at 25, 35, 45 mph and top speed. Each test 
was initiated after the desired speed was achiev.^d. The test termi- 
nated after exactly one or an integral number of laps had been run . 
When the test was initiated, a switch was thrown which simultaneously 
activated the energy, charge, and distance recording instruments. At 
test termination, this switch was turned off. With this approach, a 
simultaneous measure of energy, charge, and distance was achieved. 



5-9 



V ' 



Vr 



900-850 

Tests were alternately run with and without a known added 
weight (AW). Each test was perforn.ed at least twice. 

5.6.3 Procedures for Driving Cycle Tests 

5.6.3.1 Warm-Up 

If driving cycle tests were run within 30 minutes after 
completion of constant speed tests, no warm-up was required - otherwise 
a 6 mile warm-up was required. 

5.6.3.2 Test Condj.tions 

Schedule IJ and C tests, with and without regenerative braking, 
and with and without added weight, vrere run (8 sepr.'-ate tests). 

Each Schedule B test consisted of 10 (or a multiple of 10) 
consecutive cycles (10 cycles = approximately one lap). Eacu ^'chedule C 
test consisted of 6 (or a multiple if 6) consecutive cycles (6 cycles = 
approximately one lap). 

Energy, charge, and distance recording instruments were 
enabled just prior to start of the first cycle, and disabj.ed just after 
end of the last cycle of each test. 

Each test was performed once in order to conserve battery 
energy. 

5. 6. 4 Parameters to be Measured 
5.6.4.1 Constant Speed 

See Table 5.6.1. 



>.10 



900-850 



Table 5.6.1. Constant Speed Weight Sensitivity Parameters Measured 





25 mph 


35 mph 


45 mph 


Top Speed 


Battery Energy 


He 25 


^BE 35 


^BE 45 


^BE top 


Motor Energy 


^ME 25 


^ME 35 


^ME 45 


c 
ME top 


AH Disr.h. 


^AH 25 


^AS 35 


^AH 45 


^AH top 



5.6.4.2 Driving Cycles (See Table 5.6.2) 



Table 5.6.2. Driving Cycle Weight Sensitivity Parameters Measured 





Sch B 
No Regen. 


Sch B 
W. Regen. 


Sch C 
No Regen. 


Sch C 
W. Regen. 


Batt. Disch. Energy 


^BE bnr 


^BE br 


^BE cnr 


^BE cr 


Batt. Rech. Energy 


- 


^RBE br 


- 


^RBE cr 


Energy to Motor 


^ME bnr 


^ME br 


ME cnr 


^ME cr 


Energy from Motor 


- 


^RME br 


- 


^RHE cr 


AH Disch. 


^AH bnr 


^AH br 


^AH cnr 


^AH cr 


AH Rech. 


— 


^RAH br 


— 


^RAG cr 



5-11 



L -H 



900-850 



6.1 



MEASURED DATA-CONSTANT SPEED TESTS 



1 
jf 



In accordance with paragraph 5.2, tests were run at 25, 35, 
45 mph and top speed. Nine tests were initially run - two at 25 mph, 
three at 35 mph, two at 45 mph, and two at top speed. 

In the course of these tests, an instrumentation error were 
went unnoticed, whereby the motor armature voltage was sensed rather than 
the tc tal motor voltage. For this reason, a group of short repeat 
tests (22A through 22E) was oerformed with the instrumentation properly 
connected. 



The results of all 14 constant speed tests are displayed in 
Table 6.1.1. Figures 6.1.1. and 6.1.2 display r.-^nee vs speed and energy 
consumption vs speed, respectively. 

Samples of the constant speed computer printouts are included 
in Tables 6.1.2 through 6.1.14. 

Plots of motor temperature vs time are included in 
Figures 6.1.3 through 6.1.6. 

Records of specific gravities and cell temperatures are 
included in Appendix I. 

In addition to the above tests, all of which were run with 
EV-106 batteries and 2N6251 control system transistors, one 45-mph test 
(No. 28) was performed using LEV-115 batteries and Silitron SDT-12302 
transistors. Results of this test are displayed in Table 6.1.1A (instru- 
mentation was connected to sense full motor voltag3 in this test). 
Test 28 data was not used for Section 7.1 computations. 



6-1 



i t^- 



900-850 



100- 



80- 






= 60 



o 

< 



40 



20 



SPEED 
(mph) 


V.:4 RANGE 
(mi) 


MAX RANGE 
(ml) 


25 


101.2 


101.5 


35 


73.1 


94.7 


45 


66.7 


75.3 


TOP 


52.82 


55.70 



10 



20 30 

SPEED (miles per hour) 



40 



50 



Figure 6.1.1. Plot of Range vs Speed 



£1 



a> 






O 
t 2 

O 

o 

>- 
o 



;: r 



1- 



SPEED 
(mph) 


MIN ENERGY 

CONSUMPTION 

(mi/kwh) 


MAX ENERGY 

CONSUMPTION 

(mi/kwh) 


25 


4.09 


3.34 


35 


3.74 


3.26 


45 


3.01 


3.82 


TOP 


2.40 


— 



10 



20 30 

SPEED (miles oer hour) 



40 



50 



Figure 6,1.2, Plot of Energy Consumption vs Speed 



6-2 



•^^m*^ <pv 



900-850 



70 — 
65- 



< 

a. 

2 



1 — 1 — i — r 



1 — r 



T — I — I — I — I — I — I — r 




I I I 



J L 



10 
Figure 

T" 



70 
651- 



20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180190 

TIME (min) 
6.1.3. Motor Case and Ambient Temp, vs Time for Test No. 2 
(Const 25 mph) . (Data Terminated at 2.1 hr) 



T 



1 i — T — r 



1 — r 



1 — r 



« — • • — •- 



n — r 






< 

u 

Q. 

S 




oo 



10 



J I I I I L 



J I I I L 



J L 



10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 

TIME (min) 

Figure 6.1.4. Motor Case and Ambient Temp, vs Time for Test No. 3 
(Const 35 mph) . 



6-3 



.^.^^tdits^ 



^g^ggli^t.^im^: 



900-850 



70 



=) 

< 
ft. 
UJ 

a. 

UJ 



1 r 



1 [ 1 1 r 



1 r 



"1 r 




J I L 



J L 



10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180190 

TIME (mfn) 

Figure 6.1.5. Motor case and Ambient Temp, vs Time for Test No. 4 
(Const 45 mph) . 



UJ 
Of 

i- 
<. 

UJ 

a. 



/o 


1 1 1 


1 1 1 1 : 1 1 1 1 1 1 


1 1 1 1 


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60 


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55 


- 




- 


40 


- 




- 


45 


- 




- 


40 


- 


MOTOR CASE ^,.,^^1^''*^''^ 
TEMP. ^^.^"•'^ 


- 


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- 


^^.-^^ 


- 


30 


- 


^^.'^ 


- 


25 


^^' 


r 




2di 


r=Sli-< 


AMBIENT TEMP. 
) — O — O— — — — — — 




15 


- 






10 


1 1 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 i 1 1 1 


1 1 1 1 




Figure 



10 
6.1.6. 



20 



30 



40 50 
TIME (min) 



60 



70 



80 



90 



Motor Case and Ambient Temp, vs Time for Test No. 5 
(Top Speed). 



6 .', 



900-850 



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900-850 



Table 6.1. lA. Uncorrected Data from Test No. 28 
(45 mph Constant Speed with LEV-115 Batteries 
and SDT-12302 Control Transistors) 



Date of Test 
Distance Traveled (mi) 
End of Test Voltage 
Gear 



4/20/77 
68.87 
90.1 
4 



BATTERY DISCHARGE 



Discharge Amp-Hours 
Discharge KHH 



141.81 
15.25 



ENERGY TO MOTOR 



To motor 
BATTERY RECHARGE 



15.06 



Recharge Amp-Hours 
Recharge KWH 



191.23 
24.51 



CHARGER INPUT 



Line KWH 

Recharge Time (hr) 



28.5 (overcharged) 
32 



WEATHER CONDITIONS 



Ambient Temp ("C) 
Wind Speed (mph) 



27-30 
8-12 



6-6 



f V " .S 1g tt !" - >T .ArSaKPS' ' 



_a«— •MHuaMUMiiaBHliiM 



900-850 



Table 6.1.2. Samples of Dat? Printout for Test No. 2 (25 mph) 



I V H T 8£SU.TS I 




•B.c i«.e tax mm iw™ f(«» 

nmiT tot MP ur cdli- 

ni» wTT WTT rii a*iL imtn 

II II I] U 19 l( 

It.a -tlM -91. n -1.9' -I.9I 9.«« 

K.99 -9I.O -9l.il -l.« -1. 99 9.9«9 

19.9] -91. 9J -91.91 -1.94 -1. 99 9.999 

If. 94 -91.93 -91.91 -1.94 -1. 91 9.999 

19.94 -91.91 -91.91 -1.94 -1. 91 9.i99 

19. 9< -91.99 -91. 9J -1.47 -1,« 9.999 

IC.(] -91.93 -91.93 9.94 9.99 9.9M 

19.(1 -91.93 -91.93 9.99 9.99 9.999 

19.91 -91.91 -91.91 9.99 9.99 9.999 

19.(1 -91.93 -91.93 9.H 9.99 9.999 

19.93 -91.93 -91.93 9.99 9.99 9.999 

19.(3 -91.93 -91.93 9.99 9.99 9.999 

!(.« >Mm -91.03 9.99 9.99 9.09 

19.(9 -91.93 -91.93 9.99 9.99 9.999 

l(.(S -91.93 -91.93 9.99 9.99 9.999 

19.(3 -91.91 -91.93 9.99 9.99 9.949 

19.72 -91.91 -91.93 **« n. 9.99 3.999 

19.99 -31.93 -91.93 9.99 9.99 9.999 

19.97 -91.93 -91.93 9.99 9.99 9.999 

19.(7 -91.93 -91.93 9.99 9.99 9.399 

19.74 -91.93 -91.93 9.99 9.99 «.— • 

19.(3 -91.93 -91.93 9.99 9.99 9.999 

19.79 -91.93 -91.93 9.99 9.99 9.999 

19.74 -91.93 -91.93 9.99 9.99 5.999 

19.79 -91.93 -91.93 9.99 9.99 9.999 

l<.79 -91 93 -91.93 9.(9 9.99 9.999 

19. 99 -91.93 -91.93 9.99 9.99 !..9e9 

9.29 19.67 -91.93 -91.91 9.09 9.99 5.999 

19.29 19. 91 -91.93 -91.93 9 U 9.90 5.9C9 

l(.9l -91.93 -91.93 9 99 (.99 5.999 

16.93 -91.93 -91.93 9.99 9.99 3.999 

t(.99 -91.93 -91.93 9.99 9.(9 9.909 

19.99 -91.93 -91.9] 9.99 9.99 9.(99 

17.92 -91.93 -91.93 9.99 9.99 5.909 

17.04 -91.93 -91.93 9.99 9.99 S.999 

17.99 -91.91 -91.93 9.(9 9.99 9.9«( 

17.99 -91. n -91.93 9.99 9.90 9.(99 



E V M T EfSULTS 
ELBPSSft 9ftTT tan rOT «T 



•2 WtIZ 29rt>N ~2 



^^^ « ; ;s:; m; j^r « « jr rr "ih -,™ 'SS 5S 




KR.C OeC.C KC.C K6.C 
FRONT REM 

nm-T noTw iOTT afiir 
II 11 ta 13 

19.27 51. « -91-83 

19,27 SI.U -91. B3 -91. fl 

19.27 51. M -91.83 -91.83 

19.31 31. '8 -91. B3 -91.81 

19.31 31.73 -91. M -91.83 

19.57 51.73 -91.83 -91.83 

19.33 51.77 -91.83 -91.83 

19.31 51.88 -91-83 -91.83 

19.31 91.84 -91.83 -91.83 

19.29 51.87 -91. B3 -91.85 

19.33 SI. 87 -91.83 -91.83 

19.29 SI. 91 -91.83 -91.83 

19.31 91.94 -91.83 -91.83 

19.29 51.94 -91.83 -91.83 

19.29 51,87 -SI. 83 -9U83 

19.29 51.91 -91.83 -91.83 

19.29 91.94 -91.83 -91.83 

19.27 52.81 -91.83 -91.83 

19.27 52.15 -91.83 -91.83 
19.25 52.29 -91-83 -91. H 

19.28 52.41 -91.83 -91. «3 
19.22 52.58 -91.83 -91.83 
19.28 92.il -91.83 -91.83 
19.28 52.72 -91.83 -91.83 
19.18 53.93 -91.83 -91 93 
19.18 S2.97 -91.83 -91.83 
19.18 53.11 -91.83 -91.83 

19.18 53. 2« -91.83 -91.13 

19.19 53.4* -91.83 -91.83 

19.13 93.51 -91.83 -91.83 
19.18 9S.« -91.83 -81.83 
19. IC SS.73 -91.83 -91.83 
19.16 53.e<l -91.83 -91. S3 

19.14 53.99 -9t.C3 -91.83 
19.14 54.8fi -91. C3 -91.83 
19.28 84.14 -91.03 -91.03 
19.11 94.83 -91.83 -91.83 
19.11 54. S9 -91.83 -91.83 
18.94 9*.3C -91.83 -91.83 
19.87 54.44 -91.83 -91.83 
I1.05 94.47 -91.83 -91.83 



1NVT9 


iKvro 


fl«D 


(«1> 


9.^ 


OH.'- 


riL 


UFIL 


MATit 


14 


19 


19 


9.99 


9.9 


>.((( 


9.99 


9.9 


5.(09 


9.09 


9.99 


5.0(9 


(.99 


9.99 


5.999 




(.99 


9.9C9 


9.99 


9.99 


1.990 


9.99 


9.99 


5.909 


(.99 


9.99 


5.9(9 


9.99 ■ 




5.999 


9.99 


9.09 


9.(09 


9.94 


o.oe 


5.0(3 


9.99 


9.09 


9.000 


9.90 


9.99 




9.09 


9.99 


5.949 


9 DO 


9.09 


5.999 


9.99 


9.99 


5.999 


9.99 


9.(9 


9.999 


(.(( 


9.99 


9.909 


(.(0 


9.99 


5.949 


9.99 


9.99 


5.909 


9 99 


9.99 


5.949 


9.99 


9.69 


5.949 


9.90 


9.99 


5.949 


9.99 


9.99 


5.944 


9.99 


9.99 


5.999 


9.90 


9.H 


5.(49 


9 99 


9.99 




9.99 


9.99 


5.949 


9.W* 


9.99 


9.909 


9.99 


9.99 


5.904 


9.99 


9.99 


5.999 


9.99 


9.99 


5.9W 


(.99 


9.90 


5.90.f 


9.00 


0.00 


9.999 


9.04 


0.90 


5.940 


9.00 


0.09 


5.9C0 


9.(9 


9.99 


5.999 


9.09 


9.99 


9.009 


9.09 


9 99 


5.909 


9.L.a 


9.99 


9.900 


9.99 


9.99 


9.949 



6-7 



OWfGWAL PAGE IS 
OF POOR OUALCY 






900-850 



Table 6.1.3. Samples of Data Printout for Test No. 3 (35 mph) 



I V H T F ntuL-rt I 



•in 


U-fl 


WT 


voir 


•an 


vnT 


fIL 


ilSCH 


HI. 





U-f y-H KCCN KGEN 



fOTn IDTQR rSTOH 



».U 21.32 341.3 141.3 I.M ■-W S.Ntd 

2;.n 21.59 341.3 341. J I.BJ f>.M S.K' 

23. re 2t.St 341.3 341.3 tK I.M 3. MM 

23.73 21.63 341.3 341.3 I.M mmmt — »» 

2S.n 2r.&1 341.3 341.3 i.H i.M 3.n,l 

25.77 21. C3 341.3 341.3 I.H I.OS S.OM 

23.77 2\.S1 341.3 341.3 I.M I.M S.H4 

25.12 21. U 341.3 341.3 I.M I.M S.IM 

mrmrx ««*M:« 341.3 341.3 1,19 I.W S.B'^S 

23.14 21.74 341.3 341.3 N.ia I.M S.HM 

29. M 21.74 341.3 341.3 fl.04 I.M 3.9^4 

23. U 21.74 341.3 341.3 I.OB I.M 9.103 

2S.91 2l.7fi 341.3 ** —* I.CI tt.M S-IUI 

U.S 1.4 3.2 3.3 I.I l.'I 1.17 29.91 2i.74 341. :i 341.3 I.H I.M 3.193 

1.9 1.4 mmmm 3.3 I.I l.il 1.17 23 !I3 21. 7t 341.3 341.3 I'll I.H 3 Via 

O.S 1.4 3.S 3.3 0.1 l.t) 1.26 23.97 21.91 Ht.3 341. S 1. 10 I.H S.0IW 

43.9 fil.l 133.2 141.4 97.9 IM.I 5.12 23.93 21.79 341.3 341,3 «.« Mnur 3.I79 

12I..S 71.1 21.1 IB. 3 33.3 39. i> U.9I 25. U .21.13 341.3 341.3 1.61 I.M 3.103 

223.2 lir.2 192.9 •Mwm 198.8 lfil.il 29.14 2C.R? 71.99 341.3 341.3 8.93 I.M 3 n?9 

331.9 Itl.S 132.; 139.9 74.9 32.>1 22. K 2S.6B 21.13 341.3 341.3 I.H I.H 3.101 

119 2-18.4 112.9 III. 3 114.9 122.9 H::.! 24.92 2C.H 21-13 341.3 341.3 I.H I.H >«»>•.• 

109.3 2.12.1 194.9 297.5 283.4 219.4 191.-' 27.51 2S.II2 21.19 341.3 341.3 e.Ri I.M 3.601 

112.2 232.1 in. I 113.4 112. 9 «« ■ ■—» 193.1 39.91 2C.I4 21.91 341.3 341.3 I.M e.M 3.801 

113.8 237.9 119.9 144.8 143.7 lSS.3 137.1 32.72 2(.82 21. M 341.3 341.3 S.H I.H S.BH 

114.8 243.2 112.8 134.1 134.1 143.3 127. <) 33.13 ».U 22. M 341.3 341.3 9.81 I.H 3.8M 

117.9 119.6 (Mcna pMMM mmmmm tmt*m 183. 3 77.9 33.11 28, M 23.15 341.3 341.3 I.H 1.83 S.ICB 

119.3 111.2 298.4 97.1 89.7 92.8 94.5 » — ■ ■ 34.73 26.19 22.16 341.3 341.3 9.H 1.88 3. HI 

I i2l.e 118.4 111. I 221.6 97.8 92.5 92.9 136.1 If 1. 1 33.99 26.11 22.13 .s41.3 341.3 9.n 8.M S.BCB 

1 '1<S.8 119.1 Ul-2 231.9 n.3 H.6 93.3 123.4 181. t 34.U 26. tl 23.28 Ml. 3 341.3 B.H 8.H 3. OH 

) 128.2 118.8 110.2 224.8 N.| IIS.3 92.6 63.6 «n»» 34.53 26.18 22.21 341.3 341.3 B.H I.H 3.r*l 

. :31.2 122.1 129.3 2U.3 63.1 71.2 64.3 in.3 78.1 sothj* 26.21 27.27 341,3 341.3 9 88 8.M 3.8U9 

t 134.2 122.9 12C.3 213.B 82.1 82.4 64.2 H.3 79.') 34.27 26. lU 22.33 341.3 341.3 8. LB 8.U 3.HB 

1 :37.4 116.8 tlS.C 238.3 (12.4 I4I.C 139.3 131.4 121. >) 33.6«1 26.15 22.33 341.3 341.3 8.U l.tt S.BC? 

1 !4B.f l».7 119.4 214.1 "1,1 189.4 78.8 IM.8 911. » 31.9^ •«»»• 2-*. 13 341. t 3'l.J l.f^ 0.10 i.rV", 

1 i''3.e IIL.C ]19.i 241. a '<2.1 ItJi.'.* ue.4 'J2.4 91. > 34.28 mt.^~.t 2>.<I4 311.3 3^.1.3 a.m.' tf.^J :..'>... 

I 146.6 113.P. 119.4 215. S 91.9 61.3 93.1 127.1 97.' 33.97 2d IS ;>2.<9 341.3 341.3 O.Ml e.W S.CX 

1 I49.B 117. *> lit. 5 227.3 99.4 79.8 93.1 133.4 13;. 1 33.43 26.22 22.45 341.3 341.3 8. CO O.H S.f.P€ 

1153.6 ll'J.3 118.3 160. a 181.4 115.7 1C4.S 131.1 112. > 33.79 26.r2 «tv=*^- •(.--a. 341.3 B..10 B.H S.ari£ 

I iS5.Q 116.9 116. B 228.4 H. ! 92.8 103-1 142.1 118.) 39.33 2G.70 «x;«'<'* 341.3 341.3 O.Od O.H 5.0'JO 

1 •••jB.B 121.3 119. £ lte.6 93.9 183.9 Bt.l 123 9 9?.* 34.ri X 'Jt. 22.62 341.3 341.3 B.QCi «.H 9.Cj£ 

2 : Z.4 116.5 1ie.3 238.9 113.3 121.3 130.3 143.3 124.! 33.58 2b. 16 22,62 341.3 341.3 B.H B.H 5.6E,? 
2 : b.2 116.4 116.4 245.3 113.7 123.3 123.4 13/. 6 119.) 39.90 25.16 22.68 311.3 341.3 m»M» 6.84 3.BC0 
2 : 0.2 116.7 1.'£.7 245.2 114.1 12^,3 128. B 138.2 114. t 37.65 26.19 72. H «*» ' /* « 341.3 B.H 0.03 5.006 



C V H T F RESULTS i 



tLAPSCO 


9ATT 


MTT 


U-H 


IDT 


onrr 


MTT 


U-H 


fOT 


riFTH 


BCC.C 


9EC.C 


U-tl 


W-H 


REGCN 


0ECCN 


FI>FD 


Tire 


VOLT 


VOLT 


WTT 


VOLT 


»F 


Ptr 


MTT 


»r» 


I0CCL 






TO 


FROn 


«* 


(itrf 


CH.I- 






UHFIL 


Fit. 


1 ICH 


FIL 


UWIL 


FIL 


KCM6 


ML 


fFM 


W«'T 


roTM 


rCTnt 


rvTVR 


FIL 


UKFIL 


BRHm 


nih 


fiCC 


1 


2 


3 


4 


S 


6 


7 


1 


9 


10 


II 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


41 


■ IS.I 


117.7 


tM.3 


IV.I 


C7.7 


34.8 


«.S 


39.1 


31.3 


34.M 


24,99 


S4.47 


341.3 


S41.3 


6.M 


I.H 


S.H8 


41 


111.2 


1M,3 


iflB.3 


l«.2 


67.7 


3U9 


49.6 


71.6 


3i.9 




29.n 


94.44 


341.3 


341.3 


8. 00 


l.fB 


5.006 


48 


i21 2 


1H.8 


1M.3 


173,1 


67.9 


61.0 


45.9 


93.7 


91.4 


33.64 


24.99 


94.44 


341.3 


341.3 


8.93 


O.H 


5.033 


41 


124.1 


lie. 7 


187.7 


71 9 


72.1 


30.0 


92.2 


n.6 


£.2 


33.97 


24.99 


34.31 


341.3 


341.3 


I.M 


O.H 


S.0U9 


4B 


■ 27.6 


1H.2 


117.5 


211.3 


72.4 


43.7 


32.8 


17.4 


6: .9 


>4.n 


33.03 


34.44 


341.3 


341.3 


I.H 


O.H 


5.860 


48 


t3l.l 


117.4 


107.4 


173.3 


72.6 


61. » 


49,9 


59.1 


5i.7 


34.26 




54.31 


341.3 


341.3 


I.M 


0.00 


S.HI 


48 


133.8 


1*0.7 


188.9 


167. d 


66.8 


41.1 


43.4 


36.5 


34.3 


34» 


24.99 


94.51 


341.3 


341.3 


I.H 


I.H 


s.oi^a 


H 


■ 37.1 


119. 2 


IH.6 


118.8 


65.8 


42.7 


42 9 


79.6 


SI 8 


34.22 


24.99 


54.51 


341.3 


341.3 


B.H 


8.H 


5.HH 


48 


■ 40.2 


U9.6 


188.3 


101.3 


«.7 


51.7 


43.3 


U.2 


56.3 


33.77 


24. W 


54.47 


341.3 


341.3 


B.H 


e.B? 


-J 080 


4ri 


143 4 


\H 8 


IDB.fl 


n.9 


89.9 


36.6 


38.7 


71'. 6 


6,1 4 


3 J. 93 






341.3 


MI .3 


I.H 


B.GO 


5. or 3 


«8 


146.2 


107.9 


1*C.9 


103.5 


74.7 


43.2 


57.5 


39.9 


6". 2 


33.K 


29.81 


34.4/ 


341.3 


341, i 


8. 80 


8.03 


9. 106 


41 


149.4 


IK.t 


IK. 7 


177.9 


73.3 


50.3 


37.9 


67.1 


6t ' 


34.17 


29.03 


34.51 


341.3 


341.3 


I.M 


e.« 


3.0H 


49 


IS2.6 


186.2 


in. 9 


183.9 


01.6 


99.3 


69.3 


115.4 


77.9 


34.14 


29.K 


S4.47 


341.3 


341.3 


O.'W 


8.n 


5.eH 


48 135.8 


lti<l.9 


IH.6 


2n.6 


n.e 


103.1 


185.3 


114.1 


9'i.5 


3..49 


24.99 


54 59 




341.8 


O.H 


1.00 


3 »-9 


40 


1SU.8 


18>J.« 


PB 6 


209 i 


CO.l 


101.1 


in. 4 


in.8 


9:. 


35.47 


24.97 


54.55 


341.3 


341.3 


0.0^ 


fl.ei 


Z.V,3 


49 


1 2.1 


lilO.I 


K1.3 


ZUV.2 


S9.a 


97.0 


98. 2 


109.7 


9:.( 


3S.68 


24.94 


54.66 


341.3 


3<1.3 


B.IO 


I.H 


5 0o-« 


49 


1 S.2 


112.4 


18^.6 


197.1 


85.7 


79.9 


71 8 


93.4 


7U.2 


35.91 


34.97 


54.78 


341.3 


341.3 


I.M 


I.H 


5.0-.O 


49 


I 8.4 


101.2 


181 7 


281.2 


9i.7 


07,4 


82.3 


91.0 


o:..7 


33.41 


24,97 


54.74 


341.3 


»MuX« 


8.n 


O.DO 


5.^')9 


49 


til. 4 


lis. 8 


iH.f 


172.5 


71 9 


44.9 


40.4 


71.8 


6. .3 


39.48 


24.94 


34,81 


341.3 


341.3 


8.60 


O.H 


S.fM 


49 


■ 14.6 


114.6 


I84.i 


197.1 


11.9 


71.1 


H.6 


101.4 


71.. 3 


39.H 


24.97 


94.H 


341.3 


341.3 


8.n 


I.H 


s.Boa 


49 


117. e 


101.3 


102.8 


2n.e 


89.2 


69 9 


77 5 


H,4 


711.7 


34.79 


24.94 


34,96 


341.3 


341.3 


8 n 


I.H 


3 6^8 


49 


171.8 


llt.l 


lOt.Z 


194.6 


96.4 


03.2 


81 8 


M.4 


0^.2 


39.29 


24. 9r 


55. H 


341.3 


341 3 


•■»•«« 


O.H 


s.t«q 


49 


t24.8 


108.3 


in. 4 


.->03.6 


n.7 


73.9 


''.9 


W.2 


7ti.3 


39.37 


24.97 


55.1a 


341.3 


341.3 


8 H 


O.H 


S.BL-J 


49 


■ 27.2 


IQI.2 


111. 8 


w.a 


14.6 


61.7 


78., 


19.1 


r..8 


SS.82 


24.94 


39.19 


341.3 


341.3 


B.H 


0.00 


5 100 


49 


■ 38.4 


(l?.2 


181.9 


il.9 


03.3 


H.4 


69 1 


B5.5 


7t,.7 


13.14 


23.M 


95.11 


341.3 


341.3 


O.H 


O.H 


S.-TB 


49 


133.6 


IK .3 


1H.6 


2I.M 


K.3 


82.2 


76.2 


83.3 


Ml 8 


19.42 


24.94 


55.23 


341.3 


341,3 






5.8,-10 


49 


J36.4 


1H.3 


93.6 


193 9 


n.7 


n.6 


02.6 


93.9 


8t.6 


34.96 


24.86 


39.38 


341.3 


341.3 


I.H 


o.r- 


5.apa 


.19 


■ 39.6 


99.7 


99 1 


206.1 


H.2 


11.3 


61. t 


H.2 


•,-•.9 


34. M 


24.92 


39 38 


341.3 


341.3 


0.88 


I.H 


5.0*)J 


49 


.42.1 


98.5 


96.0 


193.5 


89.9 


07.8 


93.3 


103.9 


9(1.9 


39.11 


24.94 


9^.46 


341.3 


341.3 


0.00 


O.H 


3.P-B 


■V9 


i4b.e 


93.6 


93.9 


1H.5 


93.2 


93.6 


93.1 


iin.o 


Otl.l 


35 60 


24.04 


55.49 


341.3 


341.3 


O.H 


6.00 




49 


i49.9 


9S.8 


94.9 


199.6 


92.7 


91.9 


91.5 


98.3 


n. 7 


3: ' 


24.« 


9>.49 


341.3 


341.3 


O.H 


I.H 


5.DC0 


49 


IS2.2 


94.4 


94.4 


IM.I 


92.2 


H.O 


H,6 


M.0 


r^.i 


35. i,^ 


34. n 


99.57 


341.3 


341.3 


O.H 


1 H 


s.oto 


49 


139.4 


94.8 


93.9 


174.3 


91.7 


H.9 


86,6 


99.9 


»12 


34. C» 


24.83 


91,49 


341.3 


341.3 


0.01 


O.H 


r.i.ra 


49 


151.6 


93.4 


93.9 


193.8 


VM .4 


67,9 


97. 6 


94.3 


0' 9 


35.39 


24.93 


3i,53 


341.3 


341. J 


U 


O.fJ 


b.i-'G 


59 


I I.I 


•*«««« 


94.2 


199.2 


11.8 


77.2 


n.i 


92.3 


71' 9 


39.33 


24.b0 


53.67 


341.3 


341.3 


O.H 


H.H 


t KB 


SI 


■ 4.1 


92.7 


92.5 


194.6 


91.3 


87.6 


87.6 


94.4 


l'.9 


34.94 


24. H 


39.57 


341.3 


341.3 


8.B4 


l.fK) 


S.0P& 


SO 


1 8.9 


91.1 


91.6 


193.4 


P9.6 


B7.9 


87. 3 


94.4 


B' 7 


39.31 


75.01 


51.61 


?41 3 


141.1 


H P-* 


a.^1 


■ p-: 


5d 


111. 2 


91.3 


91.1 


192.1 


b9.l 


67.0 


66. a 


93.7 


8 1 


34.K 


24. P6 


5S.53 


341.3 


.Ml. 3 


B.f'J 


r.tr 


S.fi fl 


ra 


>14.4 


98.6 




166.6 


00.4 


86 7 


H6.5 


92 5 


9' 8 


11.23 


24.73 


55.42 


341.3 


341 3 


a.bif 


B.DU 


5.r 3 


38 


117.4 


n.9 


H.I 


1H.3 


79.9 


38.2 


24 8 


23.3 


2>. 4 


34.22 


74.03 


55. «« 


341. J 


341.3 


IC) 


I.li0 


f.tf'.C 


9" 


128 B 


tee. 7 


108.7 


14.3 


47.6 


34.7 


62.6 


90.0 


11 1 


33. W 


?4.36 


35,91 


541.3 


3^1.3 


0.8'. 


P.'-r 


L.: ( 


5Q 


t33.6 


H.3 


M,3 


1B7.4 


07.9 


92.4 


93.1 


99.4 


8' 1 


33.13 


Z4.06 


55. Gl 


341.3 


341.3 


O.BO 


b I'D 


I..' e 


» 


;27,l 


107 6 






I.I 


4.8 


4.1 


0,1 


■1 1 


32.28 


39.06 


93.92 


341.3 


141.1 


8 n 


O.Oit 


5 c.s 


58 


129.8 


92.6 


92.1 


in.i 


n.3 


184 1 


163 6 


110.3 


9' 2 


31.83 


24. K 


55.76 


341.3 


341.3 


I.H 


I.H 


• 8)0 



6-8 



^; aiiaiii'inJlirti > 



900-850 



Table 6.1.'!!. Samples of Data Printout for Test No. 4 (45 mph) 



I V H T aOUlTI I 



MMII «fH 



WLT vaT va.T VCT 

uviL rn. uriL rii 



KTT mm BBT fOT flfW 



■•"I i«n» iKTT inTr 



nwn imn ruo 

■V «* CM.I- 

rii unrii. mni 





tll.l 


117.9 


■ 19.9 


192.9 


99.3 


99.9 


197.9 


199.4 


117.4 


41.99 


17.19 


23.99 -91 




1*4.1 


lU.J 


119.4 


111.9 


■11.9 


199.9 


193.x 


139.1 


131. 9 


44.14 


17.19 


M.7] -91 




tl7.4 


llS.t 


119.7 


111.2 


113,2 


199.9 


197.9 


14.7 


l«.S 


49.97 


27.24 


B.79 -91 




• M.C 










99.3 


92.4 


191.9 


91.4 


44.93 


17.19 


29.79 -91 




tn.i 


121.7 


129.9 


M.9 


97.4 


79.1 


91.9 


93.9 


9<.9 


49,99 


27.39 


29.91 -91 




■2i.l 


129.4 


129.9 


79.4 


99.2 


139.9 


131.9 


143.1 


141.9 


49,49 


17.13 


25.92 -91 




129.2 


Ui.S 


lli.4 


111.9 


i99.3 


194.2 


99.7 


97.1 


9<.7 


49.79 


27.17 


13.77 -91 




1X2.4 


124.4 


124.1 


11.3 


33.7 


93.4 






4C.1 


4B.34 


27.17 


29.75 -91 




in.i 


129.1 


124.9 


39.7 


93.1 


19.9 


19.9 


23.1 


4r.9 


44. M 


27.12 


19.94 -91 




t3t.2 


11S,« 


133.9 


112.7 


92.4 


19.9 


43.9 


91.7 


9?, 9 


44.97 


17.19 


35.91 -91 




141.4 


123,4 


122.9 


44,4 


79.2 


33.9 


94.9 


93.1 


9',9 


43.29 


27.13 


29.99 -91 




■ 44.t 


119,9 


119.9 


199,1 


199.3 


99.3 


117.3 


111.9 —m^ 




27.19 


29.91 -91 




147.2 


119,1 


119.4 


199.1 


193.1 


194.9 


112.9 


134.9 


111,1 


49.21 


27.19 


29.93 -91 




'3t.4 


tlt,i 


lli.l 


119.7 


199.9 


119.9 


124.9 


111.4 


1U,I 


47.94 


27.19 


29.97 -91 




tSJ.I 


122.2 


122.9 


37.1 


39.9 


41.4 


29.9 


23.9 


4f.3 


«.99 


27.19 


29.99 -91 




tSC.I 


129.4 


124.9 


77.7 


91.9 


14.9 


39.1 


49.9 


m.t 


44.99 


17.31 


■•MM -91 




iSf.l 


123.1 


124.1 


99.9 


99.2 


19.3 


39.9 


41.2 


9! ,9 


44.33 


27.13 


29.99 -91 




■ 2.* 


122.9 


123.9 


111.9 


72.9 


194.1 


97.9 


11>.3 


191,9 


43.99 


27.17 


29.99 -91 




t £.1 


119.3 


129.2 


192.9 


93.3 


99,9 


94.1 


199.9 


19!.S 


49.11 


27.22 


29.11 -91 




' 9.2 


127.9 


131.9 


42.1 


93.7 


99.1 


73.9 


194.9 


91.4 


44.17 


27.19 


2C. 19 -91 




M2.I 


•M««* 


131.4 


37.S 


93.1 


99.9 


79.9 


91.1 


97.3 


«.71 


27.11 


29.13 -91. 




ilS.t 


122.9 


121.7 


99.9 


93.4 


77.9 


79.9 


111.9 


91.3 


43.79 


27.17 


39.32 -91 




Hi. 2 


122.9 


121.9 


94.9 


98.7 


99.9 


79.9 


93.9 


91.9 


v.m 


17.17 


29.24 -91 




121.4 


123.3 


121.9 


113.4 


93.9 


97.1 


71.1 


■19.1 


9>.3 


44.39 


27.17 


29.11 -91 




124.4 




M««M 


97.S 


91.9 


99.9 


79.9 


97.J 


9C.1 


41.94 


27.24 


29.19 -91. 




127.2 


113.9 


121.9 


93.3 


91.9 


71.4 


71.1 


99.2 


97.9 


44.77 


27.19 


29. « -91. 




iN.4 


123.7 


121.7 


99.9 


99.9 


93.4 


79.9 


W.2 


9r.i 


44.23 


27.24 


19.34 -91 




■ 33. ( 


119.2 


119.9 


ir.9 


93.3 


131.1 


199.2 


lu « 


ii:.9 


42.91 


27.22 


19.47 -91 




tSC.I 


119.9 






93.9 


i.^.t 


199.7 


I99.r 


lis. 9 


43.99 


27.13 


29.49 -91 




il>.< 


119.7 


119.9 


111.4 


93.9 


119.9 


199.9 


129,9 


ll.'.9 


43.19 


2^.14 


M.9C -9J. 




141. • 


129.2 


119.9 


111.9 


9J.7 


199.9 


199.4 


129.7 


ii:.9 


41.91 


27. H 


29. G9 -91 




t4S.I 


11C.2 


119.3 


119.9 


111.3 


199.9 


194.9 


139.4 


19J.7 


43.97 


27.24 


29.93 -91. 




149.2 


119.9 


11S.9 


112.3 


MMiaM 


139.4 


139.1 


191.1 


131.3 


43.97 


37.29 


29.79 -91 




IS2.2 


121.9 


139.9 


199.3 


93.7 


99.9 


91.9 


99.7 


IC.l 


«.19 


37.11 


29.74 -91 




i99,4 


119.4 


139.2 


199.1 


93.» 


199.4 


99.3 


129.9 


19:. 4 


44.73 


27.33 


39.79 -91 




t99.C 


129.7 


129.3 


199.2 


91.9 


199.9 


99.9 


129.4 


10'.3 


44.29 


27.11 


29.79 -91. 




1 l.t 


119.2 


119.9 


47.5 


99.9 




194.9 


137.9 


141.7 


44.21 


27.33 


29.91 -91. 




1 4.t 


119.9 


121.9 


72.9 


99.7 


93.4 


19.4 


121.3 


19>..9 


44.99 


27.31 


29.91 -91. 




t a.f 


119.7 


119.7 


111.9 


112.3 


199.9 


•C9.4 


194.4 


13:. 9 


44.14 


27.33 


29.99 -91 




■ 11.2 


119.7 


1!7.2 


119.1 


197.3 


139.9 


_H9.9 


139.9 


13. 1 


49.19 


27.33 


29.93 -91 




■ 14.4 


129.1 


■ 19.2 


199.1 


99.( 


97.2 




137.9 


11: .9 


43.99 


17.39 


29.97 -91. 




-17.4 


119.9 


M9.3 


199.1 


99.1 


91.4 


191.4 


131.1 


11: .7 


■O.lf 


37.39 


29.99 -91. 




i2a.« 


129.9 


119.4 


91.4 


97.9 


119.3 


193.4 


117. 9 


11: .9 


43.11 


37.13 


19.91 -91. 




■ 23.9 


129.9 


119.4 


47.9 


99.9 


129.9 


1M.4 


124.3 


11' 9 


44.19 


17.91 


27.99 -91. 




S V M T RCsaTS • 



atna 


99TT 


9iirr 


IWT 


rOT 


•9TT 


WTT 


mT 


roJ 


H7TH 


K£,C 


WC.C KC.C KC.C 


IHVT9 


IMV19 


f\mt 


Tin 


var 


sa.T 


var 


WtT 


i«* 


Ptf 


ter 


Pi' 


Mf.. 




FMHT Km 


Hfr 


9tf> 


CALI- 






UMTIL 


71L 


t9VIL 


71L 


m-': 


fIL 


i9»:l 


F- 


UN 


*t«'T 


mrm mn Mtrr 


711. 


a*iL 


9W1II 


HM 


SIC 


1 


3 


3 


4 


9 


9 


7 


t 


9 


19 


11 12 13 


14 


19 


19 


99 


■ 39.2 


99.9 


99.9 


99.3 


97.9 


119.9 


119.9 


194.9 


195.3 


41.49 


39,43 


59.43 -91.91 -91.91 


9.99 


9.C9 


5.999 


K 


141.4 


99.9 


99.9 


99.9 


97.1 


I'.l.l 


119.9 


199.3 


195./ 


48.93 


29.49 


59.39 -91.91 -91.93 


9.99 


• 199 


9.988 


99 


144.9 


•9.9 


95.7 


97.1 


97.9 


197.7 


19;. 7 


193.1 


18:. 3 


41.39 


29.54 


39.93 -91.93 -91.93 


9.99 


9.99 


9.989 


99 


■ 47.9 


19.7 


95.9 


99.5 


97.9 


195.4 


193.1 


99.3 


95. ! 


41.99 




5C.33 -91.93 -91.93 


9.99 


9.99 


9.908 


99 


199.9 


99.5 


99.9 


97.9 


97.9 


192.9 


193.9 


97. » 


97.5 


42.33 


29.29 


99.94 -91.91 -91.93 


9.99 


9.99 


3.989 


99 


154.9 


99.4 


93.3 


99.5 


99.9 


191.9 


191.9 


95.9 


9S.I 


42.32 


3f.4S 


99.94 -91.93 -91.93 


9.91 


8.99 




99 


■ 57.2 


99.9 


99.4 


99.3 


K.9 


199.9 


99.9 


94.1 


94.4 


43.15 


39.42 


55.89 -91.83 -91.93 


(.99 


9.a9 


51999 


97 


1 9.4 


95.9 


19.4 


99.5 


97.9 


99.2 


n.3 


93.4 


92.7 


43.95 


29 42 


«---. -91.81 -91.91 


9.9) 


9.98 


9.988 


57 


1 3.4 


99.9 


95.S 


?3.5 


73.4 


93.9 


91.2 


54.9 


7i.J 


43.99 


2£.94 


59.99 -91.91 -91.91 


9.91 


8.H 


5.888 


57 


I C,( 


91.9 


91.7 


95.9 


94.9 


99.) 


99.4 


93.9 


•1.9 


44.33 


2£.49 


55.49 -91.93 -91.91 


9.B9 


9.88 


5.588 


S7 


1 9.9 


97.9 


99.1 


74.5 


69.1 


£1.9 


39.3 


75.9 


91.9 


43.27 


39.27 


95.37 -91.93 -91.93 


9.99 


9.83 


5.808 


97 


113.9 


59.9 


94.9 


91.9 


•9.1 


79.9 


79.9 


97.3 


94.9 


43.59 


2f,42 MM» m-m,m -91.93 


9.18 


9.99 


3.809 


37 


■ 13.9 


52.9 


93.4 


•7.1 


93.5 


97.9 


99.2 


99.9 


•5.9 


44.99 


2t 48 


99.21 -S1.93 -91.91 


9.B9 


9.98 


9.M8 


97 


119.11 


91.1 


51.3 


K.r 


94.3 


91.7 


W.9 


32.5 


•5.9 


43.99 


29. I 


95.11 -91.93 -91.91 


9.99 


9.99 


5.888 


97 


132.3 


59.9 


H.3 


97.4 


95.3 


94.2 


94.9 


92.9 


91.( 


45,95 


29.93 


35.19 -91.91 -91.81 


9.t9 


9.98 


9.8W 


97 


.-33.4 


99.5 


99.4 


97.3 


99.9 


94.9 


93.9 


91.f 


91.5 


44,49 


29.42 


S5.9< -91.93 •— a- 


9.99 


*.99 


9.999 


97 


■ 29.4 


■9.9 


K,t 


U,2 


99.3 


99.9 


93.7 


91.1 


9C.7 


43,11 


29.33 


94 52 -91.93 -91.81 


9.90 


9.18 


3.989 


97 


131.C 


99.9 


99.'' 


97.1 


92.4 


93.9 


91.5 


9f.4 


9S.3 


«S,M 


29.47 


35.89 -91.93 -91.91 


9.99 


9.99 


9.998 


97 


134,9 


192.9 


193.9 


19.3 


31.9 


29.7 


14.5 


42.3 


27.9 


44.94 


29.43 


95.99 -91.(1 -91.93 


9.99 


9.99 


5.988 


97 


■ 39.9 


99.9 


•5.9 


C3.9 


97.9 


99.4 


99.4 


94.7 


94.2 


43:99 


39.45 


53.94 -91.93 -51.93 




9.99 


3. 88c 


97 


141,9 


99.3 


99.9 


99. 2 


99,3 


97.4 


»7.l 


93.9 


93.1 


43.93 


29.93 


95.39 -91 83 -91.91 


9.99 


8.19 


3.998 


97 


■ 44.2 


99.4 


99.3 


95.9 


95,9 


£2.3 


94.1 


44.5 


97.2 


44.59 


29.49 


55.94 -91.91 -91.93 


9.99 


e.8{i 


9.998 


97 


147.4 


191.9 


191.9 


1.9 


37,4 


35.5 


99.9 


74.9 


75.1 


43.44 


3(.49 


94.92 -91.83 -91.93 


8.99 


8.>8 


3.Bii« 


97 


139. « 


51.4 


99.9 


99.5 


94.4 


95.3 


99.9 


93.9 


93.1 


43.11 


M.47 


59.94 -51.93 -91.n 


9.96 




3.r«8 


97 


153.9 


99.1 


99.1 


95.1 


95,3 


99.9 


73.5 


14.4 


8.5 


43.99 


2f.47 


55.94 -91.91 -91.91 


9.99 


0.88 


9.rN8 


S7 


IX.9 


197.2 


197.1 


1.9 


1.7 


4.3 


4.2 


9.3 


9.2 


41.94 


39.47 


95.94 -91.91 -91.91 


9.99 


8.81 


i.lK 


99 


1 9.9 


199.9 


199.9 


1.7 


1,7 


4.3 


4.5 


9.7 


9.4 


39.9C 


3f.<5 


95.4* -91.91 -91.81 


9.99 


8.99 


S.iM* 


99 


1 1.3 


IM.7 


195.9 


1. 9 


1.9 


4.2 


4.3 


9.1 


8.1 


39.13 


39.49 


53.19 -91.91 -91.91 


9.99 






99 


1 CM 


119.3 


119.5 


l.L 


1.9 


4.1 


4.3 


9.1 


8.1 


19.99 


2f.4S 


95.13 -91.91 -91.91 


9.99 


9.99 


9.999 


93 


■ 9.3 


111.9 


MI.9 


1.5 


1.5 


4.9 


4.2 


9.1 


8,1 


34.73 


2£.49 


95.19 -91.91 -91.91 


9.99 


9.98 


9.808 


99 


113.4 


111.9 


111.5 


1.4 


1.4 


4.9 


4.2 


9.1 


8,1 


31.14 


39.47 


95.49 -91.91 -91.93 


9.99 


9.99 


9.899 


99 


113.9 


111.9 


111.9 


1.4 


1.4 


4.3 


4.2 


9.1 


9,1 


11.93 


39.42 


J3.9I -91.91 -91.91 


71.99 


9.99 


9.909 


99 


119.9 




113.1 


1.1 


1.9 


4.3 


4.3 


9.5 


8.1 


M.19 


39.95 


K.K -51.93 -91.U 


8.88 


9.99 


9.908 


99 


121.9 


113.4 


113.5 


1.3 


1.3 


4.1 


4.2 


9.1 


i .1 


29,9f 


39.43 


95.92 -91.91 -91.61 


9.99 


9.99 


9.999 


99 


125.9 


113.9 


113.9 


1.3 


1.3 


4.1 


4.2 


9.1 


9.3 


37,91 


39.19 


59.97 -91.91 -91,91 


9.99 


9.99 


9.948 


91 


123.2 


113.1 


113.1 


1.3 


1 3 


4.3 


4.2 


9.1 


I..1 


3£,C9 


29.43 


59,27 -91,01 -91. Ul 


H.K 


9.99 


9.808 


99 


(31.4 


lU.l 




1.3 


1.3 


4.2 


4.3 


9.1 


9.) 


39,91 


a.v 


M.43 -91.93 -91.91 


9.99 


9.99 


S.K9 


98 


134,4 


113.3 


113.9 


1.3 


1.2 


4.1 


4.3 


9.1 


11.1 


23,99 


29.49 


59.93 -91.91 -91.91 


9.90 


9.98 


5.989 


99 


■ 57.9 


113.7 


113.7 


1.3 


1.3 


4.3 


4.5 


9.1 


l:.9 


21,43 


29.43 


39.59 -91.01 -91.91 


9.99 


9.90 


9.808 


99 


149.9 


113.9 


111.9 


1.1 


1.1 


4.1 


4,2 


9.1 


9.1 


19.99 


39.42 


99.59 -91.13 -91.91 


9.08 


9.18 


9.908 


99 


.44.9 


U4.9 


114.9 


WMMi 


1.1 


4.2 


4.3 


9.1 


9.4 


19.91 


29.45 


97.19 -91.9] -91.91 


9.99 


9.98 


9.909 


90 


■ 47.9 


114.1 


114.2 


1,1 


1.9 


4.2 


4.2 


9.1 


0.1 


17.49 


2£.42 


97.19 -91.91 -91.93 


9.99 


9,99 


8.999 


99 


isa.l 


114.3 


114.3 


1.1 


1.9 


4.4 


4,2 


B.l 


0.1 


19.71 


29.49 


97.19 -91.a -91.91 


9.98 


9.98 


3.998 


99 


■ 53.4 


114.4 


114.4 


9.9 


9.9 


4.2 


4.2 


9,1 


0.1 


14,79 


39.39 


97.74 -91.81 -91.93 


9.99 


9.98 


9.980 



.trl 



6-9 



iff 



900-850 



Table 6.1.5. Samples of Data Printout for Test No. 5 (Max Speed) 



I V H T ■nu.n I 








•9 Mil 


l9IX99a9 




•n.c 


KC.C 


wc.c 


NC.C 


I11VT9 


IKlTt 


HXl 






F90HT 


HW 


MT 


tt9 


CALl- 


tlU'T 


ISTM 


991' 


iarr 


711 


IMFIL 


8MTN 


It 


II 


12 


1] 


14 


13 


16 


VMM 


M.19 


-91. 9J 


-91.91 


9.99 


9.88 


3.880 


11.94 


n.» 


-91.93 


-91.91 


9.98 


8.88 


9.8118 


ii.n 


IS.44 


-91.91 


-91.91 


9.99 


8.88 


9.808 


ii.n 


19.19 


-91.9J 


-91.91 


9.99 


9.88 


9.888 


li.M 






-91.91 


9.99 


8 68 


9.688 


It.U 


29.49 


-91.93 


-91.91 


9.88 


8.88 


3.888 


II.H 


B.99 


-91.93 


-91.9] 


8.99 


8.88 


9.809 


ll.H 


a.55 


-91.93 


-91.91 


9.99 


8 88 


3.886 


1I.I7 


n.M 


-91.93 


-91.91 


1 1 ■! 1 1 »manm 




IS. 92 


23. r9 


-91.99 


-91.91 


9.88 


9.61 


9.888 


II.M 


29.77 


-91.91 


-91.91 


8.89 


8.89 


3 808 


19.01 


23.77 


-91.91 


-91.91 


8.98 


8.88 


3.809 


I9.» 


29.99 


-91.93 


-91.91 


8.88 


8.88 


3.90- 


i9.n 


23.79 


-91.91 


-91.91 


8.08 


8.88 


9.86, 


I9.H 


23. 9C 


-91.93 


-91.91 


8.98 


t.88 


S.Di:6 




23.79 


-91.91 


-91.93 


8.90 


6.08 


3 »^ 


19 99 


23.92 


-91.93 


-91.91 


8.88 


8.88 


3.086 


19 >4 


29 79 


-91.93 


-91.93 


8.68 


8 88 


3.8C6 


19.91 


23.79 


-91.91 


-91.91 


8.88 


8.88 


9.888 


19. 9C 




-91.91 


-91.91 


8.8J 


8.i8 


3.989 


19.99 


23.77 


-91.91 


-91.91 


8.88 


8.88 


3.808 


19.91 


29.77 -91.93 


-91.91 


8.98 


8.88 


9.908 


19.99 


29.79 


-91.91 


-91.93 


8.88 


8.88 


9.886 


19.91 


23.77 




-91.93 


8.98 


6 68 


3.688 


19.99 


29.79 


-91.93 


;91.93 


8.88 


8.88 


S.8C8 


19.99 


23.79 


-91.93 


-91.93 


8.86 


8.86 


9.8n 


19.94 


29.79 


-91.91 


-91.93 


8.88 


6.88 


3 808 


19.99 


29.92 


-91.91 




6.88 


6.98 


9.888 


19.99 


29.77 


-9I.U 


-91.93 


8.88 


8.99 


3.808 


19.97 






-91.93 


9.9€ 


9 99 


3.999 


19. r4 


29.92 


-91.91 


-91.91 


9.98 


e 98 


5.908 


u.rr 


23.99 


-91.91 


-91.91 




8.66 


5.IM9 


19.f9 


2) 91 


-91.91 


-91.91 


9.83 


6.89 


9.^08 


■t.ri 


23.99 


-91.91 


-91.93 








19 U 


20.99 


-91.91 


-91.93 


0.88 


6.99 


: I.. 9 


19.F3 


29.92 


-91.93 


-91.93 


8.83 




S.OtiO 


19. H 


26.11 


-91.91 


-91 93 


8.88 


9.99 


3.808 


19.33 


26.13 


-91.61 


-91.93 


8.88 


9.98 


3.Dce 


18.59 


26.29 


-3. .91 


-91.03 


9 80 


8 N 


3. oca 


19. eg 


26.36 


-91.93 


-91.91 


8 08 


D.CO 


K...4 


19.61 


29.29 


-91.93 


-91.83 


8.08 


6.09 


3.800 


19.39 


2C.» 


-91.93 


-91.93 


9.88 


6 68 


3.008 


19.49 


26.39 


-91.93 


-91. ei 


9.98 


8.80 


5.0O9 


19.44 


26.49 


-91.91 


-91.91 


« 88 


8.89 


3.800 



c V H T icsuLn I is-nw-rr na ho. » •i miz rnx skec 



CLMn» 


MTT 


•UTT 


nn 


HIT 


WITT 


•BTT 


tVT 


fOT 


FIFTH 


K6.C 


K3.C 


BCE.C 


DEC C 


IMVT» 


I;*VT» 


FI«D 


Tin 


WtT 


VOLT 


MJLT 


WXT 


DTP 


«rr 


Ptt 


trr 


h»CEL 






FROMT 


RCM 


XT 


nrv 


CRLI- 






ItlFIL 


FIL 


UNTIL 


F[L 


UHPIL 


FIL 


UW" 


' 


rw 


uri'T 


nOTD* 


0STT 


0BTT 


FIL 


UNFIL 


00ATH 


ntN 


KC 


1 


2 


1 


4 


9 


S 






9 


19 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


91 


141.4 


las.z 


119.1 


I09.S 


IM,4 


111.2 


III. 4 


IN.9 


1M.0 


40.70 


19.01 


40.40 


-91.83 


-91.03 


0.H 


O.N 


5.000 


31 


[4(.C 


in.s 


in. 2 


107.2 


IH.I 


III. 9 


112.1 


107.0 


i0;.4 


40.77 


19.01 


40.49 


-91.01 


-91.03 


O.M 


o.oe 


S.SOd 


M 


■ 49.t 


m.i > 




107.2 


IH.4 


112.3 


lll.-l 


1H.3 


10; .3 


47.99 


19.01 


40.49 


-•1.03 


M.03 


o.n 


O.BB 


9.8.11 


SI 


iS2.» 


ItS.I 


1M.2 


IM.I 


IN. 4 


110.0 


111.2 


IU.9 


101,0 


49.4] 


19.63 


40.40 


-91.03 


-1.1.93 


0,H 


O.M 


9.8ti3 


SI 


iK.a 


It9.3 


IM.I 


IM.4 


IK.S 


111.2 


110.9 


IK.S 


101.0 


49.24 


19.03 


40.31 


■91.03 


-91.03 


0.M 


O.M 


S.6M 


SI 


t59.2 


in.2 


119.1 


1H.0 


IK. 4 


110.4 


110.3 


IN.0 


t0(.3 


40.01 


19. n 


48.56 


-91.03 


-91 03 


B.M 


B.M 


S 630 


s; 


- 2.4 


IM.I 


IM.I ' 




IK.4 


111.3 


lll.l 


107.3 


I0r.2 


40.34 


19,20 


40.67 


-91,03 


-91.03 


0,00 


8.m 


s.onn 


32 


! S.4 


160.9 


in.t 


IK. 7 


IK. 2 


III. 3 


117.2 


107.0 


10. .0 


40 94 


ij.n 


40.62 


-9I.B3 


-91.03 


O.M 


Bt) 


S.febP 


u 


' I.C 


in.9 


IH.9 


IH.7 


IK.l 


113.4 


IIS C 


in, 7 


lO*' 


40.03 


19.07 


40.62 


-91.03 


-91.03 


0,00 


M 


3.0<'8 


52 


>ll.t 


IM.2 


IM.7 


1M.7 


100.0 


114.9 


113.0 


110.6 


111..0 


47.63 


19.03 


'10 64 


-91.03 


-91,03 


0.00 


0.00 


5.800 


U 


■ IS.I 


iM.r 


lH.fi 


IBS. 3 1 




IIS.O 


IIS. 9 


lit. 4 


11 .4 


47.22 


19,87 


40.62 


-91 .03 


-91. B3 


O.M 


00 


9 0(10 


32 


ilS.t 


iM.r 


IM.C 


I04.C 


109.0 


IIS.O 


110.7 


112.3 


IK.O 


46.84 


19.03 


4B.7I 


-91.03 


-91.83 


B.M 


O.M 


3 00? 


32 


I2I.2 


m.r 


IN. 4 


103.5 


in.i 


117.9 


119. 


114 9 


IIS. 9 


45.59 


19.03 


49.33 


-91 ei 


-91.73 


0.00 


O.M 


9 000 


M 


t24.4 


IM.l 


iN.a 


103.3 


104.9 


1 24. 4 


IW.I 


119 S 


12K.0 


4S.62 


19.03 


40 42 


-91.03 


-91 hi 


M 


00 


3 030 


32 


i27.t 


IM.I 


ie7.K 


103.4 






120.7 


134. J 


1: '.4 


43.93 


19.01 


40.40 


-91.03 


-91.03 


e.u 


0.88 


5 Bofl 


52 


i3a.4 


1)17. • 


l»7.f 


104.7 


104. C 


123.9 


IM.3 


122.0 


12 .9 


44.73 


19.01 


4n.34 


-91 03 


-9.. 03 


o.n 


8.08 


3 e»8 


S2 


■ 33.1 


itr.f 


i»7.i 


103,0 


104.7 


124.2 


124.4 


120.0 


I2l'.2 


44.69 


10.90 


40.32 


-91.83 


-91 03 


O.M 


8.J8 


3.BM 


SZ 


>M.I 


ii?.j 


iH.a 


103.3 


104.9 


122.1 


123.9 


|[0.0 


11''. Z 


43.49 


19.22 


40.43 


-91 03 


-91 C3 


e.M 


ee 


5 9'<3 


52 


t4e.f 


117.9 


iB7.i 


1«.0 


104.9 


[?3.0 




119.3 


III). 5 


45.48 


19. n 


40,29 


-91.03 


-91 'J 


04 


8.81: 


s.eBO 


32 


143.1 


iN.f 


187.9 


les 


104.9 


121.2 


121.9 


117.9 


iir.2 


43.04 


19.03 


40.32 


-91.03 


-91.03 


9i 


8.00 


5,e>-o 


32 


I4C.2 


IK.l 


IM.I 


104.0 


in.i 


120.9 


1IJ.9 


tlC.0 


n'H.2 


46.61 


19.03 


40.37 


-91.83 


-91.03 


0.D0 


08 


s.Boa 


S2 


149.4 


IM.t 


IM.I 


103.2 


105.3 


110.9 


110.7 


JI3.6 


11-1.4 


40. S3 


10. N 


40.40 


-91,03 


-91. BT 


O.M 


8 00 


9 BM 


S2 


■ 32. C 


1M.2 


■M.2 


104.0 


103.3 


110.2 


117.3 




112.2 


47.43 


10.94 


48 42 


-.91 03 


-91.83 


O.M 


0.«0 


5.000 


S2 


■39. C 


m.3 


IH.t 


103.0 


105.3 


113. 1 


ll«.4 


112,9 


11?. 


47.26 


10.96 


40.33 


-91 03 


-91 B1 


09 


U 


9.B8U 


32 


ise.i 


IH.2 


iM.3 


I0S.4 


1« 5 


113. C 


1U.9 


111.2 


II 


47.60 


10.93 


40.31 


-41 03 


-91 P3 


O.M 


M 


5, org 


33 


1 2.1 


iet.3 


in. 4 


104.4 


lOS.S 


ns.s 


114.9 


III.O 


111.7 


47.43 


10.94 


40.6? 


-91.03 


-91 93 


n 


00 


3 OOB 


93 


. 9.2 


ioa.3 


109.3 


IBS. 7 


1BS.5 


113.9 


114.0 


110.3 




40.44 


10.94 


40.63 


-91.03 


-?1 03 


O.Otf 


4 Bb 


S.P^O 


S3 


■ $.3 


IM.2 


1H.3 


103 S 


t03.5 


114.5 


114.3 


111 1 


l|r» 7 


47,17 


1B.B7 


48,63 


-91 B3 


-91 03 


O.M 


D M 


5 10 


33 


■ 11.4 


IM.2 


1H.3 


I0C.I 


IMS. 3 


II3.K 


113.4 


lll.l 


11. 


40.19 


19.03 


48,04 


-91, B3 


-91.03 


0.n 


0.B0 


^.0110 


SI 


114. S 


IH.2 


IH.2 


103.5 


103.3 


lie 7 


1)0 3 


112.7 


II' 


47.59 


10 94 


40 67 


-91.83 


-91 03 


O.M 


00 


3 8B0 


S3 


■ ir.i 


l«.t 


IN 2 


104.7 


109.3 


113.0 


.13.0 


II3.I 






10.90 


40 67 


-9l,B3 


-91 03 


0,W 


B.OJ 


5 , Of.e 


33 


• 2« S 


IM.I 


IM.I 


IK. 3 


103.3 


1.6 


IIC.C 


110.0 


11' 4 


47.13 


12. n 


4B G3 


-91 83 


-91 B3 


OB 


8 CJ 


^.O'.-a 


S3 


■ 23.1 


tM.t 


IH.t 


I0S.3 


103. 1 


117.0 


117,7 


113.0 


III 3 


47.1? 


19.01 


40.64 


-91,01 


-91.03 


0.n 


OS 


3 


9J 


'7T.» 


IM.I 


IM.t 


[03 5 


1O«.0 


117.3 


117,9 


113 


111.0 


46.66 


19.96 


40 S3 


-91.03 


-91 0] 


0.98 


e.M 


5.e'"i 


33 


<3a.3 


117.9 


107.7 


184.2 


103.0 


117.1 


117,7 


II3.0 


111 3 


4? 03 


— —** 


48.53 


-91.03 


-91 83 


0.0J 


63 


5 RtiO 


93 


i».2 


in.i 


107 • 


107.9 


103.0 


110.2 


117.0 


114.7 


lit 9 


46.37 


10.92 


40.40 


-91.03 


-«I.B3 


0.00 


<:e 


3 Ode 


SI 


i3«.4 


IM.l 


If 7.0 


]M.7 


105.0 


110.0 


110. 1 


114 


111 7 


45.62 


10 92 


40.31 


-91 03 


-91.03 


e Ao 


0.-: 


5.P'*? 


33 


II9.C 


IM.t 


107. 


103.5 


in 1 


117. 1 


117,1 


113,0 


111 


46.13 


10,98 


40.56 


-91.03 


-91. B3 


M 


0.fl> 


9.£L.J 


33 


■ 42.1 


IIW.I 


118.9 


IK. 4 


in. 2 


lis C 


IIC.O 


110.3 


ins 


47. rt 


IE 07 


MMOiM 


-91. ?1 


-91 03 


0.00 


r,n 


1 l'"i 


S3 


■ 43. • 


IM.t 


IM 1 


[04.7 


l«.4 


114.9 


114. C 


110 1 


111 1 


47.45 


19,03 


41. N 


-91 03 


-91.03 


0.0] 


p.e-f 


6 0..0 


33 


!4».t 


rM.fl 


100.2 


103. 2 


in.s 


113 


112.0 


107.4 


10' ■ 


47 10 


I0.B7 


41 00 


-91.83 


-91 B3 


M 


0.06 


5.e^-c 


33 


■ 92-2 


IM.l 


IM.2 


104.2 


in. 3 


III. 2 


112.1 


107.0 


101 1 


47 K 


10 n 


4t.l4 


-91.01 


-91.03 


0.00 


M 


3.o^e 


13 


>39.4 


IBS.3 


in.2 


iti.s 


lCi.3 


112.3 


112. 2 


in. 4 


IB' 7 


40.43 


10.92 


41 20 




-91 03 


o.eo 


0.P0 


3 H : 


V 


■M.4 


1M.2 


in.2 


103.0 


in.s 


III. 4 


111.4 


in. 2 


10'. 5 


47.91 


I0.M 


41.20 


-91.03 


-91.03 


O.M 


O.M 


s.eco 



6-10 






900-850 



Table 6.1,6. Samples of Data Printout for Test No. 6 (35 mph) 



C V H T RESULTS ■ 



«c mtt Mfm i^n 



^'^^■i 




H6.C KC.C m.C INVn IHVTt 
nOTDI MTT MTT FIL UtTIL 



It. 29 -fl.ll -91. U 
.a. 29 -91. U -91. tS 
19.V •91.U -91. U 
l».2t -91.13 •9I.U 
11.13 -9I.9.* -91.93 
19.11 -91.11 -91.93 
It.ir -91.13 -91.93 

17.92 -91.93 -91.93 
MMW -91.93 -91.93 
19.99 -91.93 -91.93 
\T.7t -91.93 -91.93 
IT.n -91.93 -91. M3 
ir.U -91.93 MMV 

17.93 -91.93 -91.93 
ir.54 -91.91 -91.93 
17.59 -91.93 -91.93 
ir.-m -91.93 -91.93 
17.39 -91.97 -91.93 
17. C3 -91.93 -91.93 
17.17 '91.93 -91.93 
17.33 -91. U -91.93 
17.33 -91.93 -91.93 
17.37 -91.93 -91.93 
17.22 -91.93 -91.93 
17.24 -91.93 -91.93 
17.19 -91.93 -91.93 
17.15 -91.93 -91.93 
17.17 -91.93 ■•! 91 
17.15 -91.93 -91.93 
17.29 -91.93 -91.93 

|].99 ■ i w i I -91.93 -91.93 
12.92 17.99 -91. B3 -91.93 
17.99 -91.93 -91.93 
17. 9S -31 93 -91.93 
17.29 •»«- -91,93 
17.11 -91.93 -91.03 
17.09 -91.91 -91-93 

MMU -91.91 

17. ?9 -91.03 mmmm 
12.39 17.x -91. a -91.93 
12.43 17.24 -91.03 -91.93 
12, 3C 17.2S -91.91 -91,03 
12.41 17,37 -91.03 -91.93 



e V H T RgnJLTS t 



H MIX jam s/ii 



Eunn 


•KTT 


ariTT 


BIT 


nOT 


6«TT 


86TT 


noT 


noT 


FIFTH 


Kt.C 


■CE.C BK.C ats.c 


Iievll 


iwn 


Fll« 


Tilt 


SflLT 


WH.T 


VOLT 


«LT 


arr 


mr 


•♦ 


(rF 


i6<a 




FBwr Man 


«r 


aw 


CBLI- 






UHFIL 


FIL 


UHFIL 


FIL 


ia»iL 


FIL 


i»»ii 


FIL 


Tti 


m-T 




FIL 


UNFIL 


(MIM 


niN 


stc 


1 


2 


3 


4 


9 


6 


7 


8 


1 


16 


II 12 11 


14 


19 


16 


in 


141.4 


III.9 


iii.a 


97.8 


92.2 


96.9 


61.9 


IK.9 


86,6 


14,17 


19.29 


48.29 -fl.n -91,61 


8.66 


6.61 


9,CW 


lis 


■ 45. S 


iia.3 


118.9 


97.2 


92.3 


93.2 


88.7 


73.6 


H,7 


14,92 


19.29 


49.2« -91,61 -91,61 


6.66 


6.86 


9,066 


lis 


:4fl.e 


112.5 


118.9 


182.9 


92.4 


77.3 1 




99.2 


8!',» 


34,46 


19.91 


49,16 -9l,n -91.61 


6.66 


(.8t 


9,666 


in 


.51. » 


118,3 


118.9 


9a.4 


92.3 


81.8 


aj.c 


81.1 


6t,7 


14.99 


19.29 


43.11 -91.61 -91.61 


6.80 


6.86 


9,800 


149 


:53.e 


111.3 


118.8 


186.1 


92.9 


89.5 


aa.7 


183.1 


89.6 


14.58 


19,27 


49.66 -91.61 -il.Bl 


8.66 


(.86 


9.K1C 


las 


IS9.Z 


iia.e 


118.7 


98.1 


93.4 


79.1 


«7 2 


M,9 


K.i 


34.76 


19.29 


M.t -91.63 -91.61 


a.af 


6.86 


9.666 


IK 


'■ 1.4 


III. 5 


IIO.C 


161.8 


94.7 


K.6 


83 9 




96.5 


14.11 


15.29 


44.99 -91.61 -91. U 


8.66 


8.66 


9.F66 


lU 


t 4.4 


IB*. 5 


118.5 


189.9 


94.7 


79.7 


84.8 


K,l 


an. 6 


14, 5( 


19.29 


44.96 -91.63 -91.61 


8.86 


6.66 


9.866 


IK 


■■ r.i 


m.t 


118.7 


48.4 


94.6 


72.2 


F3.9 


94.4 


S6.( 


14,69 


19.12 


44.67 -91.61 -91.61 


8.86 


(.88 


9.886 


IK 


MI.B 


lie. a 


118.9 


98.9 


94.4 


79.3 


P3.7 


82.4 


9(>.8 


I4,K 


19.29 


44.P7 -91.81 -91.63 


6.28 


6.66 


9.686 


IK 


lu.e 


III. 2 


lia.9 


.02.1 


94,1 


89.2 


83.1 


162.1 ■ 




14.26 


19.34 


44.96 -91.63 -9I.U 


8.86 


8.H 


9.8M 


IIU 


M7 3 


iia.2 


118.4 


98.9 


S3,8 


98.3 


83.7 


71.6 


9«.9 


13.81 


19.34 


44.93 -91.01 -91.63 


8.06 


6.66 


9.886 


IK 


i2a.r 


118. a 


116,9 


ie4.9 


93.7 


77.6 


83.7 


97.9 


98.9 


M « 


15.34 


44.87 -91. r3 -91.81 


8.06 


e.M 


9.861 


IK 


■ 2J.4 


laa a 


MB. 9 


98.9 


94.6 


74.9 


83 9 


67.9 


96.3 


14.62 


19.16 


44.96 -91,03 -91.61 


B.H 


6,81 


• 866 


llh 


TH.t 


lia.a 


118,3 


96.2 


93 9 


92.3 


83. 8 


67.9 I 






19.34 


44.87 -91.63 -91.8} 


8.66 


8.811 


9.« 


IM 


12-1.4 


HI 2 


118.4 


187. 1 


94.2 


77.9 


83.9 


98.2 


96.8 


14.87 


19.14 


44.87 -91.61 -91.61 


8.86 


8,11 


9.186 


IK 


Z12.C 


IIS.5 


118.4 


186.8 


92.2 


89.7 


B2.9 


163.7 


91.9 


n.77 


19.12 


44.64 -91.63 -11.63 


8.66 


e,M 


9.f6 


IK 


:]5 t 


187.1 


187,4 


164.6 


184.6 


117,7 


118.6 


113.3 


112.1 


13.94 


19.34 


44.78 -91,61 -91,61 


6.06 


^,m 


s.aia 


IK 


:39,« 


187.4 


187.7 


183.1 


109.1 


118,9 


118.5 


IK.4 


161.3 


n.K 




44.71 -91.61 -91.81 


a. 66 


6.66 


9.66. 


IK 


;42.« 


114.1 


• 14.4 


82.2 


63.2 


52,7 


36,1 


69.7 


SI.9 


U'.M 


19.36 


44.78 -91.61 -91.61 


n 86 


6.16 




IK 


t45.? 


114.. 


114.6 


93.9 


73.» 


43.9 


51,9 


76.1 


67.8 


11.64 


19.21 


44.99 -91.61 -91.ei 


6,M 


6.66 


9!866 


IK 


tM.a 


II'. 8 


112.2 


92.1 


61.7 


K.4 


69.8 


166.1 


78. 1 


34.96 


19.34 


44,(4 -91,61 -91,61 


8,« 


0.88 


9.686 


IK 


151. C 


118.7 


III. 9 


91.9 


83.8 


71,4 


69.9 


K.7 


78,1 


11.16 


19.12 


MM»< -91,61 -91,63 


6,M 


6.86 


S.803 


IK 


iS4.< 


118. 3 


111.8 


91. < 


84.7 


(3,6 


6i.C 


76.1 


76.6 


M,(6 


19.11 


44.76 -91.6] -91,61 


8,66 


6.68 


9.006 


IK 


.57.8 


112.8 


III. 8 


45.9 


69.5 


B6,3 


86.9 


(1,7 


78.2 


14.26 


19.29 


44,81 -91,61 -91.81 


6,89 


6.86 


9.866 


l«? 


■■ l.l 


112.4 


112.6 


9r 9 


84.6 


98,2 


(3,9 


63,7 


75.1 


M.K 


19.27 


*1.87 -91,61 -91,13 


8,66 


6.80 


9,806 


1ST 


1 4. ; 


113.4 


113.1 


45.8 


7S.8 


.''6.4 


96,9 


78,3 


S3.6 


19.97 


19.17 


44,99 •«»> -9..61 


6,H 


6,66 


9,6H 


117 


; r.2 


112.5 


11J.2 


IK.6 


79.8 


78.« 


96.4 


71,9 


(3.9 


19.2? 


19.29 


49.88 -91.61 -91.81 


8,66 


6,66 


9.868 


ir 


■IB. 4 


112.1 


113.3 


182.4 


79.4 


M.I 


56.4 


76,4 


(.1.2 


34. K 


19.29 


«.I7 -91. 8i -91.61 


6.86 


6,M 


9,6F0 


ia7 


il3.( 


112.8 


113 3 


97,2 


79.2 


94.6 


56.7 


82,6 


64.8 


34.H 


15.46 


«.9I -91.61 -91.81 


8.86 


6,66 


3,860 


197 


il£.u 


lll.i 


113.2 


96.4 


79.8 


U 2 


56.5 


91,5 


64.9 


34.92 


19.29 


49.39 •"-» -.r^ 


6.66 


6,H 


9.666 


It' 


■ 19. C 


114.9 


113.2 


29.8 


74.8 


96.6 


96.9 


99,9 


es.8 


14.63 


19.23 


49.41 -91.61 -91.81 


8.86 


6,66 


9.800 


itr 


■ 22 a 


III. 9 


113.3 


96.7 


74.9 


49.9 


98.9 


66,2 


(.'..7 


14.87 


19.23 


48.91 -91. 8J -91.61 


6.80 


6,n 


9.806 


107 


■2£.a 


112.7 


113.2 


K 8 


74.8 


32.8 


96.5 


83,2 


(...( 


34.62 


19.23 


49.(6 -91.61 -91.81 


a.w 


6,86 


9.80( 


iU 


■ 25.2 


114.8 


113.2 


89.2 


74.a 


39.6 


9C.9 


96.3 


6-' B 


34.66 


IS. 14 


fi.U -91.83 -91.6- 




6,86 


9,000 


13" 


■ 32.2 


114.4 


113 8 


28.4 


74.8 


44.5 


96.3 


37 6 


«, .1 


34.96 


19.18 


49.79 -91.01 -91.81 


4.86 


6,16 


9.000 


1-^7 


■ 35.4 


114.8 


113.2 


K.2 


74.8 


36.6 


58 5 


93.4 


6 .( 


34.71 


19.16 


45.77 -31.81 -91.91 


. n 


8,00 


9.000 


Ii7 


■ .fS.f 


113 9 


113 2 


aa.3 


74.8 


41.3 


58.5 


E4.( 


(. .5 


34.29 


19.21 


49.96 -91.87 -91.(1 


a 01 


6,K 


9,800 


107 


■ 41. a 


113.7 


113 3 


28.3 


74.7 


43.1 


9a 9 


91.7 


....9 


14.H 


19.21 


49.96 -91.81 -91.83 


8 06 


rjmm** 


9,808 


107 


■ 44. r 


111.7 


113.2 


l«8.7 


74.1 


71.8 


98.6 


(7.1 


t^.t 


14.(9 


19,16 


45.N -91.81 -91.61 


6.n 


6,00 


9.686 


IV 


i40.a 


114.8 


113.3 


FC.2 


74.8 


14.4 


96.6 


85.9 


(■•,.4 


14.25 


15,18 


46.69 -91.61 -91.81 


8 n 


6,80 


(.606 


l«7 


■ 51.2 


114.5 


113.2 


89.1 


74.8 


32.2 


96.9 


69.1 


6, t 


11.9? 


15,12 


4(,l» -91,81 -91,61 


8. >B 


l.n 


9,6M 


137 


.54..1 


114.7 


113.3 


89.3 


74.7 


12.5 


96.6 


(6.6 


6,1 8 


14.(1, 


19.12 


46,19 -51.61 -yi.81 


6. in 


• .6L 




117 


■ 57.4 


114.9 


113.2 


(9.6 


74.8 


M.< 


96.9 


64.6 


64,7 


14.91 


19.12 


46,18 -ll.lf -11.8] 


6.66 


•,.• 


9,686 






6-11 



ORIGINAL PAGE IS 
OF POOR QUALITY 



900-850 
Table 6.1.7. Samples of Data Printout for Test No. 7 (Max Speed) 



[ V N 


T f 


KSULTl 1 


U-mA-n 


ma HO. 


2 








EUtngD 


•HIT 


••TT 


nti 


rUT 


WTT 


BATT 


roT 


r«' 


FIFtM 


KC.C 


TIM 


VOLT 


VW.T 


WLT 


VDtT 


PIT 


nrr 


MP 


Uf 


tfCCL 








Iff* It. 


FIL 


UNTIL 


Fit. 


ur#iL 


Fit 


WFIL 


Fll 


rrM 


m'T 


niN 


sec 


1 


2 


3 


4 


3 


fi 


7 


U 


9 


18 




I 1.4 


iir.fi 


117. t 


\l*.» 


■ 13.2 


I2« i 


121.9 


lis 2 


llfi . 


51. r 


19 fifi 




■12. C 


ii7.fi 


117.7 


114 fi 


114 9 


132 4 


123 1 


117.9 


113 '. 


51. C7 


19.66 




>l) • 


11?. J 


117.5 


tl3.Z 


114.7 


123 2 


123 9 


121.1 


i.;i 1. 


SB. 46 


19 64 




MS e 


iir.3 


117. J 


114 9 


114.4 


I2B.I 


127.8 


123 8 


'21 . 








21.2 


11?. fi 


117.2 


114.2 


114.4 


129.5 


178 1 


124.2 


113 11 


49 53 


)9.62 




(2« 4 


117.3 


117.1 


113.9 


114.3 


I3«.l 


ITB.B 


123.4 


124 II 


49.31 


19.68 




i2? C 


117.2 


117.1 


i:i.i 


114 2 


129 fi 


ija.3 


124.5 


125 • 


58.33 


19.64 




■30.1 


iir 1 


117.1 


lll.fi 


tU 2 


1J0.5 


170.3 


124. r 


125 4 


49.67 


19.62 




>n.4 




117.2 


U3.3 


114 ft 


129.3 


138.1 


123. 1 


123. 


49.64 


19.39 




l».4 


117.3 


117.1 


114.2 


114.2 


129.1 


129 8 


l-'4 I 


124 . 


43.95 


19 37 




i3«.t 


117.0 


117.2 


IIS.I 


114.2 


129.9 


121.8 


124.3 


1:4 H 


49.52 


19.57 




:42.S 


117.4 


117.1 


114.9 


114.3 


129 2 


129.3 


12-1.8 


125. 


49 99 


19.62 




:4G ^ 




•«««•■ 


113.1 


114.2 


1)2.2 


129 7 


)24.B 


123. 


3«.59 


19.53 




146 


117. 2 


117. 1 


11?. G 


114.2 


US 7 


13B.2 


i;'5.j 


123 1 


49.63 


19 64 




■ 52.1 


iK.fi 


117 1 


113.7 


114.2 


129. 5 


129 4 


in.t 


12b U 


49 Sft 


19.51 




.55. J 


117 1 


117.1 


III ■ 


114.2 


131 ■ 


isr.ft 


125.3 


125 


49. 5« 


19.49 




118.4 


117.1 


117.1 




114.2 


13B.5 


129.7 


124.7 


124.11 


49.76 


19 49 




: 1 4 


117.2 


117.1 


113.7 


114. 2 


129.9 


131.8 


124. i. 


124 


3U.12 


19.46 




I 4.C 


117 1 


1.7.6 


114.9 


114.3 


tu.i 


139. ( 


125.) 


123 


49.83 


19 IB 




: T.t 


lis. 9 


ii7.e 


112.2 


114.1 


13ft. 1 


138.5 


123.4 


125 •* 


49.ftl 


19 44 




ill.l 


117.1 


117. ■ 


tlJ.7 




139. 1 


lie 3 


128.4 


t2fi ;: 


45. M 


19.35 




II4.I 


117.2 


ii7.e 


112.1 


lU.ft 


130 3 


131.4 


127.3 


l?fi.5 


49.88 


19.42 




tir 2 


117.1 


ii7.i 


114.1 


114.1 


I3S.3 


138,8 


125.1 


125. 


48.61 


19.42 




iW.4 


IIC.9 


llfi.9 


114. e 


114. i 


131 1 


13). A 


138. « 


127 1 


48.78 


19.33 




tSJ.C 


Ufi.C 


llfi.9 


113.3 


113.9 




132.5 


127.9 


127. ■! 


50.26 


19 35 




t2£ fi 


llC.fi 


llfi.fi 


113.1 


113.7 


114.4 


139.2 


13D 3 


138 •. 


47 80 


19. 35 




■.29.9 


i:fi.i 


|1S.« 


115. ft 


M3.9 


132 9 


132.7 


127.8 


I2fi '> 


40.94 


19.35 




133. B 


nc 9 


ll«.9 


114 e 


114.0 


131.1 


138 ft 


126.2 


175 ' 


49.39 


19.31 




i3*.2 


tl7.1 


117 1 


111.3 


114.4 






121.8 


122.11 


49.26 


19 33 




>39.t 


ItT 5 


117.2 


llfi.B 


114.. I 


123 2 


17fi.8 


121.8 


121. ' 


38.64 


19 46 




142.2 


lll.S 


111.9 


Vt.lt 


I08.C 


123.4 


125.2 


ll9.fi 


85 f 


50.46 


19.35 




145.4 


122.fi 


127.^ 


45.3 


Bl 3 


46.3 


39.9 


102. 8 


125 I 


49.73 


19.35 




■ 4(1. i 


121.9 


I2«.t 


113 5 


114.3 


127. h 


127.4 




177 1 


50 29 


19 33 




:S1.C 


:i7.i 


117 2 


1-3. B 


114 4 


123. C 


125.4 


128 3 


121 1 


50.78 


19 31 




IS4.I 


121.fi 


119.4 


It: 9 


111.5 


121. t 


133.2 


121.2 


121. ( 


49.64 


19.33 




1^.8 


117.2 


ii7.e 


I1K.3 


114 3 


124. S 


124 9 


119.7 


119 1 


5?.5S 


1?.38 




: 1.2 


116.9 


117.3 


113.3 


114 Z 


i:- 1 


123 9 


119.3 




51.39 


19. :i 




1 U.2 


117. • 


1)7.4 


113.9 


'i4.fi 


122. B 


122 Z 


lie 8 


117 1 


51 27 


19 44 




: T.* 


117.2 


117.5 


113.3 


114 ft 


122.1 


121.8 


US a 


116 . 


51.76 


19. 4C 




!•.( 


11'* fi 


117.5 


Il-'.4 


.14.0 


119.7 


119 9 


ll5.fi 


IIS <: 


52.16 


19.38 




■ 13.8 


117.7 


117.6 


113. J 


119.0 


119.3 


119.2 


)13.8 


IP 4 


m»fi*»m 


19 4'» 




:|B J 


117.7 


117.6 


llfi.4 


113. ft 


118. a 


lis. 8 


112.4 


113 T 


31.96 


19.44 




i2«.a 


117 7 


117 - 


115.0 


115.1 


117.1 


117.4 


113 4 


112 > 


53.62 


19.42 




'23.2 


llB.tf 


117 


llfi.B 


115.1 


113.fi 


llfi.2 


111 fi 


111 . 


52.59 


19 46 



•7 mx snEb 3/14 



KC.C 


KC.C 


KE.C 


IMVTB 


Jtrrjp 


FIXED 




FWHT 


tCAil 


Wf 


an* 


CW.I- 


rOTw 


•ATT 


BMTT 


"IL 


wrtL 


BftATN 


11 


12 


13 


14 


IS 


16 


19.33 


-91.83 


•91.03 


8 80 


8.08 


s.e<^ 


19.33 


-91.83 


-91.83 


8,08 


t.8« 


5.008 


19.38 


-91.83 


-91.83 


B.Bft 


B.BB 


5.086 




•«aM*a 


-91.83 


«.D0 


8.M 




19 29 


-91. B3 


-91.83 


ft AO 


8 8ft 


3.918 


19.36 


-91.83 


-91 R3 


B.B8 


8 Oft 


5.808 


19.35 


-91 83 


-91.83 


8. ft* 


8.BB 


5.800 


19 35 


-91.83 


-91 83 








19.38 


-91. 03 


-91. ?3 


8.0s 


8.« 


3 ftt'B 


19 44 


-91 83 


-9 1 . 83 


8 BO 


• -•ft 


s.eea 


19 43 


-?1.03 


-91.83 


O.BO 


ft. 88 


5.066 


19.44 


-91.03 


-91.03 


0.09 


e.BB 


5 BC3 


19 44 


-91 83 


-91.03 


8.08 


8 Oft 


5.869 


19 59 


-91.03 


-91.83 


ea 


8.88 


5. BUS 


19 46 


-91.83 


-91.83 


C8 


8.ftB 


5.086 


19.49 


-91.03 


•91.83 


8 08 


B.BB 


5 008 


19.49 


-91.83 


-91.83 


B 88 


B.B« 


5 ftDO 


19.49 


-91.03 


-91.03 


8.BB 


8. BO 


5.b::o 


19.31 


-91.03 


'91.83 


8.0ft 


8. 88 


s.Bca 


19.33 


•91 03 


-91.83 


BO 


8 e« 


3 Br^e 


19 41 


-91.0J 


-91 83 


t.M 


B.OB 


S.eu8 


19 55 


-91.03 


-91.83 


Oft 


8.M 


5 830 


19.57 


-91.83 


-9). 83 


8.88 


B.ftft 


5.Bee 


19.57 


-91. 83 


-91. e3 


1.88 


8 BB 


5 era 


)9.fc2 


-91.03 


-91. 83 


ft.BB 


B BB 


5 &Z8 


M.U 


-91.83 


-91.ftl 


8 84 


8.88 


5.88» 


19.39 


-91.83 


•91. B3 


o.eu 


8. Sft 


■ eea 


19.64 


-91.03 


-91.83 


8 oa 


e.Bft 


3.Bca 


19.68 


•91.83 


-91 B3 


B.C>) 


B.81! 


s.ftaa 


19.79 


-91.03 


-91. B3 


B.83 


• 88 


S.BftO 


19. 7B 


-91.03 


-91.83 


8.88 


8,»B 


5.886 


19 73 


-91.83 


-91.83 


8 ri 


9.88 


5.608 


19.73 


■-91.03 


-91.«3 


P.iW 


B.BU 


s.ec-B 


19.75 


-91 03 


-91.83 


D.B8 


e.BB 


s.eM 


19.73 


-91.03 


-91.03 


o.ee 


8.BB 


S.BGft 


19 75 


-91.83 


-91 Lv^ 


M 


e,« 


5. eft" 


19.70 


-91.03 


-91. B3 


a On 


O.Bil 


S.f.'J 


19.81 


-91. e» 


-91.03 


t>d 


a CQ 


5 t 


19.83 


-ot.« 


-91.03 


L.DO 


e.BB 


5.B''e 


19.81 


-U 03 


-91.03 


yi 


00 


s.ece 


19 eo 


-9i.03 


-91.03 


Od 


B.oa 


s.Bce 


19 98 


-91 03 


-91.83 


O.BO 


e.Bft 


s.eco 


19.94 


-91.13 


-91.83 


8.88 


8.83 


s.eca 


19.94 


-91 (13 


-91.83 


C BJ 


a. OB 


5.Bd2 



c V H T F fcsare I 22-nw-7r nu^ r-a. 27 *r mx spcco s^u 




FIFfM 


KC C 


KC.C 


KC.C 


DCS.C 


inVTO 


IHVTP 


FI>ID 


w-esL 






f-iON; 


BCflB 


at* 


KV 


C>U.I- 


rrH 


trfr 


fOTOft 


•ATT 


8ATT 


Fll 


OHFIL 


8RATM 


9 


18 


11 


17 


13 


(4 


15 


16 


58.32 


17.92 


46.86 


-91 03 


-91.03 


a e« • 


KMma 


MMW 


56 03 


17.96 


48. d9 


-91.83 


-91.03 


a oa 


8 ea 


i.wn 


50.46 


17.94 


40.6) 


-91.83 


-91.81 


a.ee 


6.06 


s.eae 


58.49 


IB.M 


48. £14 


-91.63 


-91.03 


a.cB 


e ee 


3 eoc 


49 77 


17.96 


46. 7B 


-91.03 


-91.83 


8.88 


8.80 


5 eea 


49.83 


17.96 


4ft. 75 


-91.03 


-91.83 


e.ee 


a 00 


5.660 


49.73 


18 83 


40.75 


-91-83 


-51.63 


a.ee 


8.86 


s.oee 


47.fl9 


,7.96 


4ft. Bl 


-91.83 


-9!.6» 


86 


e.ee 


3.0?(J 


46,70 


18.112 


46.04 


-91.63 


-9t 83 


e cu 


e.ftfl 


s.ai-e 


40 16 


lO.EiS 


40.84 


-91.03 


-91.83 


e.ee 


a.oa 


s.eea 


47.63 


18.02 


40.89 


-91.83 


-91.81 


t.fZ 


ft ee 


5.686 


47.6ft 


16 B3 


4ft. «2 


-91.81 


91.63 


■l.OB 


e.ee 


5.0*10 


46 M 


18 02 


40 5!i 


-91.63 


91.93 


6.80 


a ea 


3.600 


47.83 


17.56 


46. S2 


-91. U3 


-91 ts 


e 60 


8.88 


s.eeo 


46.t>6 


18.02 


41. ac 


-91. P3 


■91 83 


e.oo 


t.W 


5.eeo 


46.23 


16.88 


<1.11 


-91.03 


-91 rs 


6 oe 


a 06 


5.e-B 


45.9<i 


17.96 


41.14 


-91.63 


-91.83 


e.ee 


B.ea 


^.MM 


46 4\ 


17 96 


41.22 


-91 B3 


-)1.83 


6 ea 


B.oa 


3.666 


<" 45 


17.92 


41.28 


-91.03 


-91 83 


e ea 


8.68 


5.e»!a 


4d.»J 


17 92 


41.28 


-91.83 


-91.83 


ft. Oft 


8.60 


5, MO 


45.66 


17 99 


41.28 


-91.03 


-91 63 


r.M 


e.ee 


5.et8 


4.-*. 46 


17.87 


41.31 


-91.03 


-91.03 


a.ee 


eea 


5. BOO 


44.98 


17.98 


41.53 


91 03 


-91.83 


a aa 


B.ea 


3.808 


45 28 


17.63 


41.42 


-91 83 


-91 e3 


B.ee 


ft ftft 


s.Boe 


44.88 


17 83 


41.47 


-91.83 


•91.03 


a ee 


e.ee 


5.eoe 


44.36 


17.81 


41.45 


-91. B3 


-VI, 63 


a.PB 


8,60 


5.808 


44.19 


17.70 


41 58 


-91 63 


-9l.fc3 


a en 


e.ee 


3.e?o 


43.13 


17. 7d 


4i.se 


-91 03 


-9:. 03 


e 06 


B.ea 


;.Boe 


43 83 


17 74 


41. 5B 


-9:. OS 


-91.03 


e.ca 


8. OB 


5.860 


13.96 


17.68 


41.58 


-91.03 


•9: B3 


e ea 


a ea 


5,006 


4«. 19 


17.74 


41 72 


-1).03 


-91. «3 


a.0B 


e.BB 


5 016 


41 23 


17.74 


41 7B 


-91 83 


-31 83 


a.aa 


6 eft 


5.8^8 


43.74 


17.74 


41.86 


-91.03 


-91 83 


6.6^ 


a. CO 


5 966 


43 98 


17.74 


41.92 


-91. P3 


-91.83 


a 60 


e 60 


5.8d6 


44 59 


17.74 


41 95 


-91, «3 


-91 ft J 


p PI 


" rd 


^.fT 


44.99 


17. re 


41. S5 


-91.03 


-91 8> 


L (Jt: 


O.CJ 


5 t.... 


46.81 


17.78 


41. S3 


'bl 63 


-9I.fZ 


e.ee 


ft 60 


5.Bi,e 




17.78 


41.69 


-91,63 


-91. B3 


a oi] 


o.eo 


s.b:!l1 


46.76 


17.01 


41.89 


-91.03 


-91.63 


'J(J 


e.eo 


5.1 


47.46 


\7.76 


41 7; 


-91.03 


-91 03 


e.ac 


o.co 


s.Bu:) 


^.84 


17 72 


41.64 


-91,03 


-9).B3 


e.Bft 


8.00 


3 coo 


47 37 


«M«r» 


41.64 


-91.03 


-91.83 


e.ee 


0.80 


5.e€6 


47.68 


17. f6 


41.47 


-91 01 


-91 61 


O.Oft 


ft.eo 


5 oca 


48.23 


17 76 


41.53 


-91.03 


-Oj.Ol 


b 00 


8.00 


3.eob 



6-12 



900-850 



Table 6.1.8. Samples of Data Printout for Test No. 9 (25 mph) 



..f. 



C V H T F KSUl T3 i 



. ^= ELWSCD BftTT WTT KIT 

"T Tir€ WtT «LT VDLT 

tJtfiL FIL UNFIL 




MC.C 


KG.C 


KC.C 


KE.C 


IHVTD 


IHW7B 


FIXD 






FtOHT 


nm 


ptr 


wv 


CW.I- 


•••* 


wnm 


•nn 


•an 


FIL 


jirix. 


MATO 


II 


It 


12 


[3 


14 


15 


10 


73.24 


25.75 


-ri.83 


-91. H 


0.00 


O.M 


s.ew 


23.fi 


25. «4 


-91 .83 


-91.03 


0.00 


03 


5.M0 




25. 5S 


-91.03 


-91. IS 


0.08 


O.M 


9 BM 


22. M 


25. U 


-9t.U 




0.88 


O.M 


5.8OT 


22.37 


25, '8 


-91.83 


-91.03 


0,80 


O.U 


5 090 


22. ea 


25.75 


-91.03 


-91.03 


0.00 


O.M 


9. tad 


Z2.» 


25.79 




-91.03 


18 


O.M 


S.M4 


22, «* 


25.79 


-91.03 


-91.03 




O.M 


s.en 


22. h 


2S.H 


-91.03 


-91.03 


0.00 


O.M 


5.K3 


22. K 


25. K 


-91.03 


-91 83 


o.oo 


O.M 


^.004 


22.ei 


25.91 


-91 .01 


«*«««■ 






3.098 


Z3.K 


- 09 


-91.03 


-91 83 


CO 




5.8Ce 


22. «? 


^.m 


-91.83 


-91.03 


0.00 


O.M 


S.MO 


22. U 


2fi.02 


-91.fl3 


-91.83 


O.M 


O.M 


ft.fttlO 


22. M 


Zfi.M 


-91.03 


•91.83 


8.8R 


O.M 




22.t4 


2C.04 


-91.03 


-91.03 


0.00 


O.N 




22.79 


2C.N 


-91.03 


-91. OJ 


e.oo 


O.M 


5.BU 


22.94 


2«.04 


-Si.Oi 


-91.03 


e.oa 


O.M 


S.OtA 


22.02 


25.93 


-91.03 


-91.03 


0.00 


O.M 


s.odo 


22.!12 


2fi.8C 


-91.83 


•91.83 


8« 


O.M 


5.0M 


22. ?5 


2C.t9 


-91.03 


-91.03 


O.M 


O.M 


9.0M 


22.?? 


2C 09 


-91.03 


-9 1.03 


0.00 


O.M 


5.0M 


22. W 


2C.24 


-91.83 


-91.83 


0.00 


O.M 


5.tM 


22. ?5 


2C.II 


-91.03 


-91.03 


O.M 


O.M 


S.M9 


22. rr 


2C.2i 


-91.03 


-91.03 


O.M 


O.M 


5.060 


22.?7 


2C.20 


-91.03 


-91.01 


O.M 


O.M 


5.iM 


22." 


20.27 


-91.03 


-91.03 


O.M 


O.M 




22. r3 


2fi.22 


-91.03 


-91.03 


o.n 


O.M 


sIbh 


2?. 79 


20.3- 


-91.03 


-91.03 


0.00 


O.M 


5. CM 


22.73 


26.24 


-91.M 


-91.03 


0.00 


O.M 


5.8H 


22. M 


2£.4B 


-91.03 


-91.83 


O.M 


O.M 


S.OM 


22. K 


2S.42 


-91 .03 


-91.83 


00 


O.M 


5.090 


22. B8 


?t.47 


-91.03 


-> .83 


u 


O.M 


5.8M 


22. » 


2fi.5C 


-91.03 


91.U 


O.M 


O.M 


5. KM 


22.03 


26.51 


-9I.»3 


-9'. 03 


0.09 


O.M 


3.190 




Zfi.KS 


-91.03 


-91 03 


8 HI 


o.rf 


9.8"- 


22.58 


26 .B 


-91.63 


-91.33 


.UC 


O.M 


s.coo 


22.'* 


26.72 


-91.03 


-91.03 


B.H 


e.oa 


5.0.-- 


22. SO 


Z<; 05 


-91. UI 


-91.03 


B.M 


D.CB 


S.OM 


23.01 


ZS 98 


»v*-f*r 


-91.03 


o.oe 


O.M 


5.060 


22.02 


2-. Bl 


-01.03 


-91.03 


b.Bii 


B.H 


S.OCO 


22.8a 


zs.sr 


-91.03 


-91.33 


Q.&e 


t.M 


5.BM 


22.93 


27.06 


-91.03 


-91.03 


0.00 


O.M 


s.a-w 


22.02 


27.06 


-91.03 


1 "■'*'■ 




O.M 


5. 800 



^ M T F RESULTS i 32-nM-77 F«E NO. 43 "W 2**H J^-'lS ~1 

DEG.C JCS.C KC.C PCG.C 

FtONT REM 

orft'T WTM MTT MTT 

ri . 12 13 

20 . 53.33 -91.03 -91.03 

7»..di 53.26 -91.03 -91.83 

19.94 53.26 -91-83 -91.83 

20.27 53.2? -91.03 -91.83 

28.23 53.19 -91.03 -91. «3 

28.21 53.15 -91.03 -91. B3 

20.23 53.11 -91.03 -91.03 

mMimtm 53.11 -91.03 -91.03 

26.29 53. W -91.03 -91.03 

20.23 53. M -91.03 -91.03 

2B.25 9Z 97 -91.83 -91 83 

28 :» 52 33 -91. B3 -91.33 

20.27 52.72 -91.93 -91 03 

1\29 52.61 -91.03 -91.03 

28.32 52.51 *•*-*• -91.03 

28. i9 52.47 -91.03 -91.03 

.,0 29 52.36 -11.03 -91.03 

20.12 52. 2S -91.83 -91 83 

28.29 52. :9 -91.23 ■»»*• 

28. » 52.05 -91. B3 -91.fll 

20.29 51.90 -91.03 -91.03 

28.29 51 9t -91.83 -91 83 

2B 29 51. H -91.83 -91. CI 

20 29 51.73 -91.03 -9. 03 

20.29 51.61 -91 03 -91.0^ 

20 32 51 5Z -91.83 -9l.f>3 

20.32 51.52 -91. B3 -91.83 

28.56 51.45 -91.03 -91.83 

28.36 5). 38 -91.03 -91.03 

20.36 51. 3t -91.03 -91. f3 

20 36 51 31 -91. B3 -91.83 

20.36 51.20 -91. B3 -91-03 

20 36 51.31 -91.03 -91.03 

70 36 51.31 -91 03 -91.03 

20.42 31.31 -0- .03 -91.83 

20. -6 31.31 -91.03 -91.83 

2d.:« 51.35 -91.03 -91. P3 

29.36 51 35 -91.63 -91.03 

20.36 £1.31 -91.03 -^^1.03 

2D. 34 51.35 -91 03 -91-03 

20.36 51.35 -91.01 -91.03 

20. ZB 51.38 -91.03 -91.03 

20 ■'d 31. 3« -9- 83 -91 83 




1HVT9 


m/ni 


FIlCD 


nrf 


My 


tRLI- 


FIL 


itriL 


Mon 


14 


15 


16 


8.U 


O.M 


5.M0 


8.80 


M 


3 098 


8 M 


O.M 


S.OM 


8 CO 


O.M 


S.BM 


B.OG 


O.H 


5.eao 


B.oe 


B.H 


5.860 


B U 


B.H 


".ooa 


B.H 


O.M 


S.OH 


B.H 


O-H 


5.030 


0.00 


O.M 


5 BBC' 


M 


O.H 


3.808 


i.H 


H 


3.003 


8.00 


H 


5. 800 


B.ar 


O.H 


5.800 


B.M 


OH 


5-MO 


O.N 


O.M 


5.BO0 


O.H 


O.M 


S.Bti 


OB 


0.02 


5.0C9 


0.08 


O.M 


s.e-i 


OB 


80 


s.eoo 


B.H 


O.H 


9. HO 


B.H 


O.M 


S.OM 


B.OO 


O.H 


5 OH 




O.M 


S OM 


B.H 


O.H 


5. HO 


o.eo 


O.H 


5.0« 


8.H 


O.M 


S.OM 


M«J*W 




5.H0 


0.01 


O.M 


5. HO 


O.H 


M 


5 OM 


B.U 


0.80 


5.H8 


B.M 


B M 




B H 


B-H 


5. MB 


B.B# 


B.M 


5.rrp 


e H 


S.BJ 


5.6v9 


H IHl 


C H 


5.6L8 


00 


« JS 


5. MB 


C 38 


B ea 


5.000 


8 fl^ 


D.eo 


s.eje 


?.M 


O.M 


i.ti'-.^ 


a. 98 


O.M 


5 eae 


«,H 


B.H 


5.8M 


8.» 


B.M 


5.M3 


t.ce 


B.M 


s.oca 



6-13 



900-850 



Table 6.1.9. Samples of Data Printout for Test No. 10 (35 mph) 



if 



E V H T F tCSULTS : 



IMTT MTT rVT 
VXT «H.T VOLT 
UMFIt. FIL UWIL 



Z III. I !».• 121.1 — i — 94. r 

1 il4.t 122. K 

2 ilt.t IZI.I 
2 iZI.2 122.3 
Z :24.2 in. 4 
2 i2r.2 




4 :24.4 121. r 122. C tl«.« 71.3 



i^.c K£.: Kcc pce.c 

FtONT KM 
Uta-T rVTIW tOTT HITT 



rt.S tZ.Z IM.2 91 r ]*».e4 11.39 21. re -91.13 -91. tl 



11.5' 27. M -91.13 -91. t3 

It. 39 21. ar -it. 13 -91.13 

11.42 2t.l7 -91.91 -91.t] 

II 42 21.94 -91.93 -91. IS 

11. «9 21 9C -9t.i3 -91.93 

li.Sr 22. M -91.93 -91.9) 

11.39 22 tS -91. »3 -91.13 

11.37 22.97 -91.13 •91-93 

II 39 22.11 -91.13 -9t.lS 

11.42 22.22 -•1.13 -91.13 

tm nm .^.29 -91. H -91.13 

It 33 22.27 -91.13 -91.13 

II 3« 22.29 -St. 13 -91.13 

11.39 22.33 -91 U -91 93 

11.33 22.31 H I " ■■ » II 11 

11.31 22.41 -91.13 -91.13 

19. 4t 22.31 -91. BJ -91.13 

11.33 22.43 -91.13 -91.91 

19.33 22.44 -91.13 -91.93 

11.33 22.44 -91.13 -91.13 

II. 4S 22. 4e -91 93 -91.83 

11.31 22.42 -91.13 -9'. 93 

11.31 22. *K -91.93 -91.13 

11.31 22.42 -91.13 -91.13 

11.39 22.49 -91.13 -91-13 

11.37 22.49 -91 "3 -91.13 

19. 3J 22. 4C -9I.li3 -91.13 

WCMW ,.^.M -91.93 -9t.l3 

11.31 22.49 -91-13 -91 13 

11.39 22.33 -91.13 -91.13 

11.3 7 22.55 -91.13 -«l.eS 

11.39 22.73 -91 13 -91.13 

19.44 22. C2 -91 13 -91.13 

II 33 22 £» -51.03 -91 13 

11 19 22 64 •rr*-* -91.13 

11 37 22.71 -91.03 -91.13 

11.37 22.75 -91.13 -91.13 

ie.48 22.79 -91.03 -91.13 

IS 31 2: 77 -51.83 »»*«*. 

U J7 22.94 -91 13 -91.13 

11.37 22 K -91.13 -91.13 



31. C 39.1 tl- 



33.14 11.37 22.04 -91.03 -91.13 



IfVTB 


IMVTB 


F1>W 


M» 


».■» 


■ «tl- 


FlL 


WFIL 


MflTh 


14 


13 


11 


1 M 


O.M 


3.901 


l.M 


l.M 


3.IM 


l.M 


l.M 


9.1CS 


1 01 


l.CI 


:.iM 


l.M 


l.M 


3.eM 


t.M 


l.M 


S.Ml 


l.M 


l.M 


3.1CI 


I.N 


l.M 


S.IM 


• M 


B.n 


3.BM 


l.M 


l.H 


S.Ul 


l.H 


l.H 


5.BCI 


l.M 


a M 


3.K1 


l.M 


• -M 


S.1<*1 


I.IJ 


B.M 


S.IW 


C.la 


l.M 


a.«i 


■r«>*« 1 




3. HI 


I.W 


■ M 


5.«* 


■ H 


• -« 


S.BfJ 


l.M 


I M 


s.iea 


l.M 


e.n 


5.pf« 


B.ca 


o.u 


5.C>J 


l.M 


«.M 


5 fee 


l.M 


1-M 


s.ew 


■ n 


e.M 


S B?« 


• M 


S.M 


S.Ml 


l.M 


l.M 


3.aH 


lie 


l.M 


s.aei 


O.M 


l.M 


3.o:« 


1 H 


I M 


b Ml 


l.M 


l.M 


3. Me 


l.M 


l.M 


S.bCf 


P.M 


l.M 


S.Ml 


e.N 


B.M 


3 IM 


CM 


l.M 


3.H.1 


l.W 


l.M 


3.iee 


c; 


i.n 


i,r-t 


1 pa 


O.M 


5.C-^ 


• le 


O.M 


^.IM 


l.M 


l.N 


S.IWJ 


l.CJ 


O.M 


S.GuQ 


0.00 


1 UB 


5 U.8 


e.oa 


l.M 


3.PJ3 


l.M 


l.N 


s.ew 


I.K 


l.M 


5.1C? 



£ V H T F RESJ-.n ! 



•II COMT'D 3^tS 




FIFTH 


KC.= 


KC.C 


KC-C 


KC.C 


IMVTB 


IHVTB 


Fll£0 


l«CEL 






FIOHT 


KM 


IWF 


wr 


CW.I- 


f»H 


■m-T 




•BTT 


MTT 


FIL 


UNFIL 


SMTN 


9 


11 


M 


12 


13 


14 


\i 


16 


34.12 


1S.74 


47.43 


-91.13 


-91 13 


i.ie 


B ee 


3.1M 


34. M 


It. 19 


47.71 


-91.13 


-91 13 




l.M 


5. #11 


34.12 


11.74 


47.67 


-91. B3 


-91.13 


I.Oil 


1.13 


5.501 


34.25 


1«.74 


47.74 


-91 -13 


-91.13 


i.ie 


1 Cd 


5. Ill 


33 97 


I«.7t 


47. M 


-91.13 


-91 13 


1 81 


1 M 


s fce 


33.15 


lfi.72 


47 91 


-91.13 


-91.13 


B.Ol I 




3 ICO 


33.96 


:6.t7 


47.96 


-91.13 


-91. B3 


1.11 


l.M 


S.Ml 


33. i3 


1«.74 


41.19 


-91.13 


-91.13 


i.ee 


B.M 


3.101 


33.31 


1*.67 


41.19 


-9t.B3 


-91 13 


8 BB 


a M 


5.K8 


32 12 


\C 74 


43 IB 


-91.13 


-91 13 


1.88 


i.n 




32. 4« 


11.72 


41.23 


-91.13 


-91.13 


e.Bi 


l.M 


3 MB 


32.11 


lfi.72 


41 21 


-91.13 


-91.13 


e 11 


8 W 


s.cna 


31.31 


i«.a2 


48.33 


-91-13 


-91.13 


1 11 


B B« 


3. eel 


31.47 




41 3e 


-ri 13 


-91 13 


l.BB 


l.M 


5. BOB 


29.72 


11.72 


48.41 


-91.13 


-91 13 


i.ei 


1 H 


5.108 


31.93 


16.72 


41 47 


-91 13 


-91.93 


e ee 


B.Bf> 


s.ne 


31.47 


1«.72 


«.S1 


-91.13 


-91.13 


8 18 


e.M 


s.aae 


32.11 


I«.fc- 


48.44 




-91.03 


1 11 


e.ia 


3.«C3 


31. C 


16.72 


46.^ 


-91 13 


-91 03 


C.88 


B 10 


3 BQB 


J1.3£ 


16.63 


41.34 


-91.13 


-91.13 


■ 11 


l.M 


5. (Ml 


31.42 


15.74 


48.61 


-91.83 


-91.13 


l.M 


l.M 


3 800 


31. SC 


16.72 


41.57 


-91.13 






e.M 


S.ICM 


32.19 


16.69 


48.51 


-9;. 13 


-91.13 


i.ei 


e 01 


s.aoa 


32 2C 


11 17 


^.47 


-91.13 


-9I.e3 


1 M 


8 n 


5.1C1 


32 BB 


16-72 


4C.31 


-91.03 


-91.13 


I.Z2 


1 1ft 


3 see 


33.44 


l<t 72 


41.12 


-91.13 


-91.11 


o.m 


l.H 




33. 3« 


16-72 


*7.91 


-9- 13 


-91.1J 


1 M 


B.M 


S.«8 


34.79 


IC 74 


47.71 


-91.13 


-91.13 


l.M 


e.M 


S.IM 


33 79 


16.74 


47.39 


-91.13 


-91.13 


e.o« 


B 08 


s.eie 


32 n 


16-74 


47.23 


-91 13 


•91.13 


1 H 


I.n 


5 BOB 


33.31 


I6.GS 


46.92 


-91 03 


-91 13 


01 


1 M 


5.P« 


32.73 


16.74 


46.73 


-91.13 


-91. e3 


» M 


e M 


•j • - 


32. e5 


16.72 


46.31 


-91.03 


-51.13 


1 H 


e.ee 


s.ace 


32.32 


16.69 


46-31 


-91.03 


-91.13 


l.M 


a.»« 


s.m 


32. W 


'i.74 


46 11 


-91 83 


-*i.e3 


P r* 


8.n 


5 ono 


32.19 


16.72 


4b Su 


-91. li 


-SI C3 


e ;ic 


B.eo 


5. etc 


32.12 


16.72 


43.67 


-S1.B1 


-91.83 


0.00 


D.oa 


5.1-*, 


31.95 


16.72 


43.78 


-91.83 


-91.13 


p.ai 


e.ei 


s.ecfl 


31.17 


16.74 


45. C9 


-91.03 


-91.13 


1.00 


C.lfl 


s.cce 


31.31 


16.63 


45.57 


-91.13 


-91.13 


0.01 


B.M 


5 leo 


33.13 


16.69 


45 34 


-91.13 


-91.13 


p.oa 


1.81 


E.cei* 


33.02 


ir.63 


4S.il 


-91.13 


-91 D3 


f.ii 


e 81 


5.1J1 


34.11 


16-69 


45.41 


-91.83 


-91 13 


i.oa 


8 01 


5 BCf 


33.33 


16.69 


45-35 


-91 13 


-91.13 


P.M 


e.ea 


5.008 



6-lA 



4^.^ 



.,>... ,--,*' I*,. i» 



900-850 



Table 6,1.10. Samples of Data Printout for Test No. 11 (45 mph) 



I r ' wni.n • 




fE.C MC.C KB.C MC.C 

rKWT n^ 

rOTW MTT MTT 



IHWTl IKVTt 



II 



IS 



I" <: 


119 4 


vf » 


ll> 3 


*t ' 


119.5 




I?: . 



-9t.» -ft n 

-SI U -II |] 
-»I.W -»1.« 
-»l.t3 ->l U 
-91 U -9).U 
-91. U -91. IJ 
-91 M -91. « 
-91. U -91. U 
-91.93 -91. »f 
-91. U -91. tS 
-9I.U -91. B) 
-91. « -*■.« 
-91 9] -11.03 
-91 •] -91. il 
-91.91 -91.)) 
-91 U -9I.-1 
-91.9] -91.93 
-91. rS -91 iJ 
-91. 93 -91.11 
-91 93 -91. t1 
-91.9! -»1.93 
-91.9) -91. 93 
-91. •) -91.93 
-91.93 -91 93 
-91. U -91. BJ 
-»l.93 -91 9) 
-91. M -91 93 
-91.93 -91.93 
-91. 93 -91.93 
-91 93 -91 93 
'91.93 -91-93 
-91.13 -91. « 
-91 9] -91.13 
-91.13 -91.93 
-91.13 -91.93 
-<l 13 -91.93 
•.AM. -9i,9J 
-91.93 -91 as 
-9; tfj '91 fl] 
-Vl.tf3 -91.93 
-H 93 M«*.« 
-91 11 -91 93 
-91 93 -91.93 
-91.93 -91.93 



14 



19 



9 99 • 9f 

9 99 9. 99 

9 99 t 99 

B 91 9.99 

9.91 •.M 

9 99 9.99 

9.99 9 99 

l.N f.M 

9.99 9.99 

9.99 • 99 

9 99 t.9i 

9 99 ■ 99 

9 99 • 99 

'1.99 9 99 

9.99 a. 99 

9.BB B.BB 

B.99 ■.99 

9.99 a.BB 

« 99 B.BB 

B 99 9 94 



9 99 

9.B1 

l.BB 

9 99 

9.B9 

9.99 

9.99 

9 M 

9 99 

90 

9.99 

9 99 

9.99 

» tm a in 

C to B.N 

9 CM ON 

B M f> M 

9 9« 9.99 

9.99 9.98 

9 m 9.99 

9 « 9 99 

9 ea t.n 



IB 

S 9«9 
3 9U 

3.999 
9 991 



3 991 
S.U9 
3 909 
3.919 
S.9r9 
S.999 
9.909 
9.900 
3.999 
S 991 



5.9»>'. 
5. tit 

S.9U1 
3 9u9 
S COO 



C V H T f 9CSIJI.T3 ■ 



•II «rn« BfT j^ir 




tor 


nrrn 


Ki c 


BBS C ICC.C 


MC.C 


IIWT9 


iMvre 


M«B 


tn» 


i#in. 




r«OMT 


BfWT 


•rr 


iK 


M1.I- 


n. 


rrji 


^■•T 


rttrm mrr 


9*TT 


FIL 


UI^IL 


9MTX 



It 



17 



43.34 

43. }l 
4} 9J 

*;-^4 

4? «» 

43 H 

■4->.9( 
4w.»2 
4? 91 
4) 96 
*i 49 
42 IC 



19 (9 

JB 9.* 

30.0.^ 



IB 99 

13 93 

IC 13 

li ir 

ic tr 

1« 23 

IC 21 

U 59 

l» » 

U ;3 

!• 1? 

It 71 

tt If 

It 13 

It :) 

It n4 4? 99 

It 94 

13 93 

It 64 

13 « 

:» •. 
lb It 

13 94 

1^ 94 
19 Ml 

lb n 



J* 93 
iQ 91 
jr 4fc 



15 n 
19 93 
19 97 
13 ■»! 
13.91 
13 *»3 
1^ 91 



«S.9t -91.93 
43 09 -91 13 
4?. 14 -91. «3 
43 Zi -91.9) 
*l 2% -91 83 
43 2i -91 01 
41.?* -91. B) 
4J.M -91 93 
43 14 '91 93 
43 99 '91 €3 
*3 ^3 -31 C3 
4] 99 '91 9) 
4? 97 -91.83 
4; 9.' -91 93 
41 91 -91.93 
9t 93 
43 ir -91.93 

4^ 99 -ft b:< 

47 91 -91. B3 
*? 91 -91 03 
47 91 -91 93 
*: 99 -91 01 
47 K -91.93 
47 B3 -9| 93 
47 Ot -91 93 
4; 13 -91 93 
41 83 -91 ri 
47. 9r -91 03 
4.\ 03 -91.93 
43.73 -91.01 
4) 7t -91 03 
41.79 -91 113 
43 K -91 93 
43 73 -91.93 
43 .'< -91 0! 
4. .-1 -91 ^ . 
k..wi« -91 o> 
43 12 -91 13 
43 9t -91 l) 

<i r< -s\ flJ 

4* ilB •»«*• 
42. Vf -91 93 
47.91 -91 S3 

4J St -9r OJ 



13 

-91.93 
-91.03 
-91 93 
-91.83 
-*l 93 
-91 03 
-•I 03 
-91.93 
-91.93 
-91.9) 
-^I 9t 
-51.91 
-91 03 
-91 03 
-91.9) 
-9' 91 
-^1 93 
-91 9) 
'91 93 
-91 93 
-91 9) 
-91.93 
-91 13 
-9i 91 
-91 93 
-9 f3 



-VI 9) 

91.93 
-91 95 
-••I.OJ 
-91 9) 
-•I ^1 
-11 ,i 
-91 OJ 
-«! 93 
-91 13 
-11 P3 
-91 Oi 
-•I 9t 
-91 93 



14 



19 



ft 99 B.M 

9.09 0.00 

O.OB 9 9J 

9.04 84 

B 99 9.00 

9 90 8.98 

9 90 9 90 

9 99 9. 94 

9 99 9 9* 

9 90 9 0«l 

4 99 » 9i 

9. BO eo 

9 OC 9.99 

9.09 0.90 

9 94 9 ■• 

9 9^ BJ 

9 09 9 9' 

9 99 9 90 

9 90 9 HO 

9 ro 9.0^ 

9.09 9 9m 

9 99 9.9>> 

9 90 9.09 

9 9V 9 94 

9 09 #■ 

08 9 91- 

9.99 0.84 

9 09 9 99 

9 99 9.e« 

90 9 OC 

9 90 9.99 

9.9^ 9 04 

9 90 9.9>: 

9 09 9 r9 

ft an p r* 

9 ».- 9 . 

9 or 9 911 

9 99 •< tm 

9 cut 9 C 

9 ?C 9 

9 K) 9 U 

9 99 M 

9 99 9 ».' 

9 C9 u 



3.00* 

9.3ec 



3.0IW 

3.0^ 

9.ai'0 



9.W 1 

3.t»rte 
3 9 8 



'^^ 



6-15 



m^* ■?'- ■-*- 



. ,^. **rf--«" 1-^ 



900-850 



Table 6.1.11. Samples of Data Printout for Test No. 22 (25 and 35 mph) 



I V a F anuLit i 



•a dun </!»-< 



"^SS^ 


•ITT 


wn 


*HI 


rWT 


MTT 


■•TT 


IHI 


•T 


imH 


m.c 


m.c 


IH( 


IH* 


KCCN 


KUN 


FIKD 


TIl€ 


«LT 


WLT 


UTT 


MOtT 


m9 


m9 


■ITT 


-v* 


UCEL 






n 


FHH 


WV 


fltV 


o<i- 






Wh. 


9tL 


>ncM 


tlL 


WFIl. 


FtL 


KO« 


■a. 


ITM 


•••T 


mm 


rmn 


raiai 


7 It 


(14FIL 


9mm 


nm 


KC 


1 


1 


1 


4 


» 


t 


7 


u 


9 


11 


11 


12 


13 


14 


19 


IC 


<i 


llt.4 


in.s 


in.r 


».» 


S3.I 


4«.| 


19.1 


I.I 


4-9 


M.M 


31.11 


34.11 


JK.2 


1.1 


1.19 


I.M 


S.l^ 


>i 


■K.C 


112.9 


tn.T 


34.1 


53.7 


31.1 


29.3 


1.3 




23.73 


Sl.M 


94.11 


JI.9 


1.2 


I.M 


I.M 


5. Kb 


ft 


iM.« 


UI.4 


in.r 


sr.a 


93. « 


41.4 


29.1 


1.1 


*;.9 


X4.39 


SI. 11 


94.11 


41.5 


1.2 


l.ll 


I.M 


5. Ml 


It 


(M.I 


m.t 


ia.7 


5* 


SS.I 


19.1 


29.1 


1.1 


41.1 


14.41 


31.17 


54.29 


44.1 


1.1 


I.H 


I.M 


S.MI 


ft 


•ll.i 


12s. 1 


121.7 


4.1 


S3.C 


H.l 


29.J 


1.1 


4M 


n.«9 


31.11 


94. 3S 


41. 1 


I.I 


i.n 


I.M 


S.l^ 


11 


•15.1 


12 I.I 


122.7 


49.9 


91.C 


43.4 


29.3 


I.I ' 






3:.si 


54.49 


43.4 


I.Z 


I.W 


I.M 


5.IM 


II 


'lt.« 


t«.i 


122.7 


41.1 


SS.S 


22.3 


29.4 


1.1 


4.>.9 


34. M 


31.21 


94.44 


93.1 


I.I 


i.eo 


I.M 


s.nc 


>i 


141.2 


121.9 


121.7 


H.l 


53.1 


41.9 


IS.S 


1.2 


41. 1 


13.57 


31.29 


94.51 


54.1 


I.I 


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«.l 


M.l 


17.9 


I.I 


97.' 


34.99 


Il.H 


47,«7 


«.7 


f.2 


•.■m 


I.M 


5.11 


13 


142.1 


ITi.l 


121.1 


U.7 


C4.I 


99.1 


17.4 


1.9 


97.1 


34. IC 


11.14 


47 77 


lfl3.7 


0.1 


l.»i 


o.rj 


9.0-tf 


13 


■.i\.9 


m.l 


121.7 


M.l 


•2.1 


44.1 


39.1 


I.I 


V.l 


33.73 


11.34 


47. U 


117.5 


D.l 


■ .w 


O.CI 


3. f 11.1 


11 


1H.2 


122.7 


121.9 


IB.I (nm 


ll.l 


19. 1 


a.i 


H.I 


33.U 


31. 3( 


V.33 


111 1 


n.i 


l.im 


o.cu 


9.U .Z 


II 


IV.2 


122 4 


122.1 


IU.7 


C2.C 


»2.4 


n.2 


1.1 


K.I 


1J.97 


31. 3C 


47 33 


114.4 


0.: 


I.W 


0.1.3 


S.biil 


U 


1 t.4 


122.1 


121.4 


III. 7 


C«.l 


39.7 


44.1 


1.1 


CI 


34.23 


31.31 


4«.l! 


llf.l 


1.1 


M 


I.CI 


3 n.^ 


14 


1 l.« 


l2S.a 


121.1 


114.7 


7I.C 


S7.I 


49.1 


1.3 


•:.' 


34.4I 


31. « 


40.13 


123.1 


1.2 


O.og 


I.H 


b n." 


14 


1 <.• 


122.1 


121.1 


IM.I 


ri.* 




4».l 


1.1 


•!.l 


14.13 


31.91 


«.I9 


IM.I 


1.1 


I.H 


I.M 


9.K1I 



6-16 



500-850 

Table 6.1.12. Samples of Data Printout for Test No. 22 (45 and Max 
Speed) 



E V H T F tnucn > u-jm-rf mcc w. 4 •u cut 4/it— « 




e V H T F RESULTS ; n-Mi-TT «« W. 2 •» ML« *'I»- 



CLDPSCV 


■rtTT 


••■n 


W-M 


mt 


mrr 


•ATT 


u--* 


for 


FIFTO 


KC.C 


Kc : 


l*-K 


tf-t* 


IKUn 


KCEM 


- .>£B 


lire 


var 


VOLT 


KtTT 


* f 


mr 


•T 


••rr 


CiV 


OCCL 






TO 


Fion 


■np 


ttf 


CflLl- 






UHFtt 


FIL 


• ISCH 


KlL 


Ui«IL 


riL 


HOC 


HL 


rm 


(•••T 


rOTQf 


HJTOB 


»«T0« 


riL 


UWIL 


800 TN 


nlK 


sec 


. 


2 


3 


4 


3 


t 


7 


8 


9 


IV 


II 


12 


13 


14 


15 


It 




■2* C 


uc.s 


UK. 4 


114 r 


1.4.9 


MS 3 


119 C 


8.3 


llf 9 


31. 63 


31.89 


3l.T« 


133.7 


fl 8 


■ M 


• Bi| 


4.*^ 




■21.1 


11'* 4 


116.3 


itt t 


.I4.« 


I2«.1 


119 7 


B.) 


lir.i 


32 t3 


31.51 


J1.8( 


147 


8.2 


8.86 


8 Bt 


4.9 -f 




Jl.? 


r.(.4 


lit. 3 


isa f 


114 I 


tr« t 


\2» 1 


• 2 


III 3 


32.W3 


31.91 


31.77 


159 9 


8.2 


8.88 


8. 88 


5.K(0 




.S4.« 


'• I*. 2 


Il6.^ 


IM « 


114.7 


1)9. • 


121 3 


8.1 


III. 3 


31.84 




31. CC 


171.1 


3.1 


8.80 


8 88 


5. ace 




■«T.4 


116.2 


ifi 2 


164 t 


114 7 


119.9 


121 ■ 


■ ■> 


iir 2 


52 77 


3. .89 


31.W 


1(14 8 


8 1 


8 Ml 


8 m 


5.0«^ 




.«.k 


ll».4 


Hi. 3 


\' > 3 


114 • 


i:a :> 


U» t 


8 3 


HE 3 


51 97 


3- 9B 


31. V« 


197 4 


8 2 


■-•e 


8 M 


3.88* 




43 1 


1IS.& 


116 1 


li.-.' 


114 7 


I2« 7 


121. 1 


8 2 


IIE.% 


21 84 


31. m 


31 «d 


2«9 5 


f : 


8 M 


B f-n 


3.0-rt 




.47.'! 


M6.4 


ll« 2 


{"y.T 


114 t 


irfl t 


120 3 


8.2 


il! 1 


53. 2t 


31 et 




221 2 


8 : 


8 W 


CM 


3 00* 




■5» • 


116.2 


11* 2 


?.2 * 


114 t 


1?? • 


121 1 


e 1 


lit. 9 


57 24 


31.8« 


37.(18 


231 5 


8 3 


F tm 


8 88 


3 nrt 




;7.2 


tl& ] 


U6 B 


225-. 


114.6 


121.* 


121.7 


8 » 


II'. t 


31.76 


31 84 


32 |8 


245.5 


8.8 


8 n 


B 84 


4 'J-5 




5-^ 4 


ll» * 


116 1 


237 2 


II J C 


121.9 


121. 7 


8 3 


n<.» 


31. M 


31 82 


32.U 


734 4 


8.8 


8 09 


6 M 


s.wn 




';9 t 


HE.] 


116 1 


29«.2 


1|4 t 


122 3 


12! t 


8.2 


111.8 


32.37 


31. B« 






8 1 


• oo 


8. OS 


5 Ct* 




? 4 


11*. 2 


IIS.: 


2*2.4 


114.7 


I.-. ? 


171 2 


8 2 


lit 2 


3-* 47 


SI 79 


3? 28 


211' 5 


» 3 


8 88 


8 01 


5 '*'* 




i 6 


I--V 4 


116 1 


r.4 4 


114 7 


121 • 


:.-o 9 


e 2 


lU-S. 


32.47 


31.77 


3.> 17 


2?4.S 


8 2 


f »y 


0-CJ 


3 »"9 




< • t 




116 1 


21M 4 


l\4 i 


121 3 


12>.l 


8. 3 


n:.4 


31.63 


31.7? 


12 29 


3M.« 


8.5 


L M 


8.BB 


5 C4U 




12 • 


116.4 


116.0 


2*9 9 


114 6 


121 • 


122.1 


V.l 


11! .t 


31.11 


31.74 


« 23 


318.7 < 




8 80 


t.88 


4.9W 




>l9.t 


m.» 


\)K 1 


112.1 


114 6 


123 * 


172.9 


f 1 


121. 1 


».T» 


31.72 


12 27 


3311.3 


8 1 


8 M 


#.09 


5 ffB 




11.2 


U«. 2 


tl6 1 


J2J.3 


II4.« 


122 1 


122.3 


■ 2 


lU.t 


31.18 


3l.8t 


32 32 


2.9 


8.2 


8 Bfi 


■ 89 


5 flb'i 




-21 4 


116.2 


116 ■ 


337.4 


114.4 


124 • 


123.4 


• .• 


121.1 


31. «I 


31. 7t 


32.41 


14.9 


1.1 


8 oe 


e oa 


5 0CO 




■^4 t 


n< 1 


H^ 9 


It 3 


114 1 


174 9 


12^ I 


f 1 


12: 9 


3|t 2«t 


31.7. 


S"" '9 


M.t 


8 1 


•»*-■♦• 


a 0^ 


5 1^-8 




J* i 


Hi- I 


Hi 9 


21.3 


114 2 


127 3 


1.6.7 


8.2 


12- .» 


4?. 58 


31.78 


32 4t 


48.1 


8.1 


8 CU 


« ti 


j.e.4 




H 1 


\\».7 


II6.I 


33 3 


114 3 


123 5 


122 J 


9.2 


Mi 9 


30.44 


31. r4 


32.56 


5? 1 


8.2 


• 93 


e.ft* 


5 OtO 




».• 


1I6.9 


lit 1 


4t 9 


114.6 


121. 3 


121.4 


■ 2 


lit. 3 


91. 4t 


11.78 


52.5C 


t'.I 


8.2 


8 n 


a H 


5.r» 




■J7.2 


116.2 


116 1 


*3 9 


114 t 


119 6 


f^.r 


«. t 


ii;.9 


HI.Tt 


31 7« 


37.58 


74.2 


f 1 


8 88 








40.1 


116.4 


116.7 


^ t 


U4 • 


Mil 9 


119.2 


f.2 


lU 2 


31.33 


31.72 


3* 63 


87,9 


t 2 


8 e« 


■ 08 


5 f a 




43.4 


116 ) 


lit. J 


•2.9 


114 9 


117 6 


117.9 


« 2 


1I..9 


32.43 


51.72 


32 %* 


99.5 


8 t 


ft B8 


■ B0 


4 ?n 




>« ( 


lit ( 


lit. 4 


94 9 


lU 9 


113.7 


tit. 4 


8.4 


m:.4 


32 «* 


JI.72 


S2.U 


lll.t 


8.2 


8 BC 


8.00 


4 y>4 




*».■ 


lie r 


116.3 


IK • 




113 « 


M3 6 


2 


n. 1 


31.18 


31.74 


S>.7^ 


121 


8 2 


« 88 


MMM 






.'>:.6 


116 » 


116.4 


iii.r 


115 1 


114 9 


113.3 


• 2 


11. 1 


32.7* 


31. t4 


J2.W2 


133.9 


8.3 


8 88 


8.eo 


5 e*< 




«.• 


116 r 


lit S 


131 9 


Il3 ■ 


113 • 


114 t 


e.3 


in. 9 


33.55 


31.82 


32 n 


I4E.4 


• 2 


B.M 


« n 


5 >t 




».• 


Ufc • 


lit t 


142.9 


113 2 


114 • 


113 6 


■.• 


111. I 


34.41 


31. •« 


J2.05 


158.2 


8.2 


8 m 


t.n 


5.0W 




. 2 2 


|l^ 4 


IIK 6 


1^1 4 


113 2 


1)2 n 


113 B 


• -3 


iir.9 


%i 81 


51.89 


37.^ 


169 2 


* D 


8 r» 


a M 


5 (Tl 




I 3 4 




116 » 


1« 5 


113 3 


Hi 


1)2. b 


0.2 


III 2 


3j 91 


31. CT 


32 97 


IHt 3 


8.1 


8. 80 


00 


5 a ^ 




■ $ 4 


116 9 


lit ' 


l?» T 


113 3 


112. 6 


tl2.4 


■ 3 


IB- 8 


33.18 


32.81 


32 97 


191 3 


8.5 


B on 


a 00 


5 f/tf 




II ( 


116.9 


lit r 


117 6 


113 3 


!I1 3 


lll.t 


• 1 


181 9 


34 39 


31.M 


31. M 


284 8 


8.2 


8.8C 


8 8« 


s.BCa 




>14 « 




■ If: 7 


I"*! 7 


M^ A 


im n 


MT n 


1 2 


jir 4 


^4 m 


31 •! 


11 #>1 


7M 5 


fl 1 


f» P" 


(» /^^ 






•. 


1 1 • 


• • ~ > 


.■11 -t 


|I3 t 


111 ■ 


iij ^ 


;.i 


I't 1 


V^.l. 


31 'J 


3J . ' 


2-. .J 


0.1 


' , 


U ■ ) 


'j... ' 




;■ « 


111. 


Mb C 


:.' B 


Mi 3 


111 ."■ 


1114 


e 1 


in. « 


M 4C 


3, ?4 


;» H 


2,7 -1 


C 1 


t J> 


.n 


r. ft < 








lln 1 


2i: 1 


»n 1 


1" 


nil 7 


« * 


10 3 


M '}} 


31."* 


i: It 


^-^ 5 


0.1 


P --, 


C I'.i 


:..n ti 




.V 4 


II^ 9 


116 7 


20 1 


115 3 


nil 


Ml 9 


C 4 


M 7 


5- 44 


31 9* 


33 2« 


239 7 


I 


C M 


a 10 


5 «■* 




in •, 


ll> A 


llit.t 




113 1 


l.> 7 


114 4 


8 2 


11 9 


52 '3 


JJ 111 


33 :6 


zn 7 


8 2 


B 0-1 


c« 


'.. * 




n ^ 


M(, 3 


ItC V 


^'C 3 


114 :) 


:iQ « 


II. ".J 


a 3 


11 


32. iO 


3.- bl 


53 33 


231.5 


3 


o.et 


a ra 


5. Li] 




:' 1 


lU '• 


lift J 


279 » 


II I 9 


117 3 


IIJ I 


8 1 


II' 8 


51 97 


31 9i 


31 JK 


r:4 4 


e.z 


80 


a C0 


5 Pt..- 




«i :: 


IK -, 


i\6 : 


2^1 3 


t"4 


m 1 


111 (, 


8 • 


III 1 


',1 n 


J2 C5 


11 (H 


3C«.5 


» . 


80 


w 


v.J 



6-17 



i 



'Ji;,. Al4vil>. ...ann- -,. ._- ' -'***■" - .-— — -» »- m< iM 4^«|, 






900-850 



6.2 MEASURED DATA-DRIVING CYCLE TESTS 

In accordance with paragraph 5.3, Schedule B, C, and D driv- 
ing cycle tests were run, both with and without regenerative braking. 
Initially, nine tests were performed - two Schedule C tests with and 
vithout regenerative braking, two Schedule B tests without regenerative 
braking (one complete and one incomplete test) , two Scheduled B tests 
with regenerative braking (one complete and one incomplete test), and 
a third regenerative C test wnich was run because of the greater than 
10 percent disparity between the thirst cwo. 

In the course of these nine tests, an instrumentation error 
went undetected whereby the motor armature voltage was sensed rather 
than the total motor voltage. Upon correcting this condition, a group 
of short "calibration" tests was run (22F through 22L) . 

Figures 6.2.1 and 6.2.2 display the driving speed profiles 
and range and energy consumption results. Strip-Chart samples are 
recorded speed and displayed in Figures 6.2.3 through 6.2.7. The 
results of all 14 tests are displayed in Table 6.2.1. 

Samples of driving cycle computer princouts iire included in 
Tables 6.2.2 through 6.2.14. 

Plots of motor and ambient temperature vs time are included 
in Figures 6.2.3 through 6.2.6. 

Records of specific gravities are included in Appendix I. 

Computer generated plots of speed and electrical data are 
included in Figures 6.2.7 through 6.2.10. All of this data was obtained 
directly from data tapes which were recorded during the tests. 

Additional tests were performed which included the follow- 
ing: 

Test 29 - Schedule C, no regenerative t raking, LEV-115 
batteries and Solitron transistors 

Test 30 - Schedule C, with regenerative braking, LEV-115 
batteries and Solitron transistors 

Test 24-5 cycles of Schedule D, no regenerative braking, 
EV-106 batteries and 2N6251 transistors 

Test 26 - Repeat of Test 24 

Test 27 - Repeat of Test 25 

Test 31-5 cycles of Schedule D, without regenerative 

brakirg, followed by 5 cycles of Schedule D with 
regenerative braking, LEV-115 batteries and 
SDT-12302 transistors. 



6-18 



\y.A 



900-850 



The results of these tests are summarized in Table 6.2.1A. 
In all of ttiese tests, total motor voltage was sensed. No computations, 
based on Table 6.2.1A data, were performed in paragraph 7.1 



f 
if 



6-19 



900-850 



40 
36- 



1 1 \ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 r 



COAST . 




(18, 30) SCHEDULE C (38, 30) 



M6, 25.5) 

BRAKE- 



(19, 20) SCHEDULES (38 , 20) 

(42, 18f 



-ACCEL 

I I I 



-CRUISE- 



_L 





I / I 



5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 

TIME (seconds) 



Figure 6.2.1. SAE J227a Driving Schedules B and C 

RANGE MILES PER KWH 

SCHEDULE B SCHEDULE C SCHEDULES SCHEDULE C 








;o> 5t-5 ^f^*.^ 




LU 

a. 
{/I 

LU 

zi 2 



2.76 



2^i 



E^ 



lO 






2.96 
2..60M^ 



2, 

2.35 

2.23r 



29^o^^So 



b.^ 



uj MS- ^ONv.y _ 
-J Juj;^ui^^q:n 



t\\\^ 



/■<* 



Figure 6.2.2. 



Range and Miles per KWH for B and C Schedules. Average 
Improvement Duo to Regenerative Braking is: Schedule B 
Range - 46%, Schedule B Energy - 22%, Schedule C 
Range - 2A%, Schedule C Energy - 14% 



6-20 



-1^r^^ 



II "" ■ '*'■- 



V -■ 



900-850 




9 fi» 



-t' ^* %r* 



O U «• 



O O <S^ i^ «)<«>':«> W- -.> 




! I 



■"1 



I I 



1 • i 



— . ti W < i » iim 'iJWtiiM* 



Figure 6.2.3. Strip Chart Speed Samples from Test 12, Schedule C 

without Regenerative Braking (Cycles 2 and 6). Time 
Axis Reads from Right to Left with Each Minor Division 
Equal to One Second. Minor Division of Speed Ax?'s 
Equals One Mile Per Hour. 



6-21 



ORIGINAL PAGE IS 

OF poo;? quality 



900-850 




fe> C 



^» (.> 



o 



w Q <^ 



e o ® o o o « 




'0 a 



OVVVOV^i^Vi^W 



Figure 6.2.4. Strip Chart Speed Samples from Test 13, Schedule C with 
Regenerative Braking (Cycles 109 and 113) 



6-22 



900-850 



t - . . . i . . 1 I . : 




i>i © i ■<j «i 



^ 



I « O 6 <> K> «> « I 



i \\\\ 
i ill' 
I 1 'J L 



i ! I I 

; ! h 




•■- w 



O 



i> ft O ^ & ^ (^ %i O ( 



Figure 6.2.5. 



Strip Chart Speed Samples from Test 17, Schedule B with 
Regenerative Braking (Cycles 169 and 172) 



6-23 



900-850 







^ *l V <* « u u • » v 



K' w J 



Ow«)vK<>w<^«»<tf«>l. WtvMUWWa'tlvt 




Figure 6.2.6. Strip Chart Speed Samples from Test 24, Schedule D 
without Regenerative Braking (Cycles 2 and 3) 



6-24 






900-850 






<"'V* 





Figure 6.2.7. 



Strip Chart Speed Samples from Test 25, Schedule D 
with Regenerative Braking (Cycles 3 and 4) 



6-25 



900-850 




]o'Uv:uK >o<?^>?iT i 



20 40 CC 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 

TIME (min) 

Figure 6.2.8. Motor Case and Ambient Temp, vs Time for Test No. 17, 
Schedule B with Regenerative Braking. 




Of 

< 
0£ 



a. rie. ~ 



10 20 30 40 f>0 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 

TIME (min) 

Figure 6.2,9. Motor Case and Ambient Temp, vs Time for Test No. IS. 
Schedule C w:thout Regenerative Braking. 



6-26 



1 flf/ 



900-850 



V 



u 

t- 
< 

a. 




20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 ?40 260 280 300 320 34' -.0 380 

TIME (min) 

Figure 6.2.10. Motor Case and Ambient Te'np. vs Time for Test No. 20, 
Schedule B without Regenerative Braking. 



o 

o 
UJ 

p 
o: 

UJ 




20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 

TIML (min) 
Figure 6.2.11. Motor Case and Ambient Temp, vs Time for Test No. 71, 
Schedule C with Regenerative Braking. 



6-27 



900-850 



5-u) 



Ol 



>- 



o_ 




0.0 



0,2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 

NORMRLIZED TIME (MIN) 



1.2 



Figure 6.2.12. 



Computer Plot of Spe-^d vs Time for Test 22. Schedu'- 
C without Regenerative Braking. Data Points are from 
Cycles 7, 8, 9, 10, and 11, Line is obtained by "X-Y 
Filter Function" applied to data points. 



6-28 









Ld® 



CD 

a 



(V 



0<s 






3- 



900-850 




Q 



0.0 



0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 

NORMfiLIZFD TIME (MIN) 



1.2 



Kigun- h.J. I !. 



:ompuiiM- rioi of H.ittory Volt.ino vs I'lmo i\.r T«.'.><t 22. 
Sihoduio I" witluHil RogtMicrat ivo Br.ikinR. Hat.i points 
.iFo from lAvIos 7. 8. "* , 10. aiul II. l.ini- l-s obtainoJ 
In- "X-Y '•iltiT Fuiut ion" .ipplii-d to il.it.i points. 



6-29 




0.0 



0,2 



1 — 

0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 

NORMALIZED TIME (MIN) 



1.2 



«^ 



Figure 6.2. U 



Complete Plot of Battery Current Vs. Time for Test 22 - 
Schedule C Without Regenerative Braking. Data Points 
are from Cycles 7, 8, 9, 10, and 11. Line is Obtained 
by "X-y Filter Function" Applied to Data Points 



6-30 



»»*> 



!• 



900-850 



I 



vf 



01 



a- 



CXI 




-m- 



e.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 

NORMOLIZED TIME (MIN) 



1.2 



4 



Figare 6.2.15. Computer plot of Motor Voitage vs Time for Test 22. 

Schedule C without "degenerative Braking. Data points 
are from Cycles 7, 8, 9, 10, and 11. Line is obtained 
by "X-Y Filter Function" applied to data points. 



6-31 



««»r 






900-850 



Table 6.2.1. Driving Cycle, Uncorrected Raw Data 



Tut No. 


12 


n 


15 


Ifc 


W 


IS 


l« 


20 


21 


27r 


22C 


2211 


22K 


22L 


^tx* oi Test 


j/;o 


J/.'l 


1/2S 


t/26 


MV> 


l/» 


*/l 


«/« 


♦/5 


4/W 


♦/17 


*/w 


4/17 


4/17 


T»t DMcrlption 


c 


C.Br 


B.inc. 


B.Br, 

Inc. 


B,Br 


c 


C,Br 


1 


C.Br 


c 


C.Br 


c 


B 


B.Br 


Nuab«r of Cyrles 
Orlwn 


I6i 


217 


200 


281 


)64 


\n 


117 


}26 


211 


5 


5 


5 


10 


10 


i'ncorrect«fil 


Si.JO 


7'».»9 


W.iO 


- 


75.01 


60.75 


66. M 


65. M 


81.96 


1.73 


1.81 


l./l 


2.04 


2.07 


Corrected lUstanco" 


•••i.-iO 


'i.lS 


J'l.iO 


56.76 


71.01 


60.75 


61.90 


65. W 


78.94 


!.71 


1.71 


1.71 


2.04 


2.04 


End of To^tt Bact. 
Voltage' 


W.S 




ll.'.h 


no. 1 


94. « 


48.2 


<»2.6 


89.6 


92.8 


" 


- 


- 


- 


- 


MITERT DISC-HARCL 






























Discharge Aap-Hours 


151. Jl 


'•<B.b5 


101.->2 


U4.08 


H2.}3 


161.20 


177.1* 


170.6/ 


202.56 


4.11 


4.19 


4.50 


4.71 


4.66 


Discharge KWh' 


HF 


HF 


HF 


HF 


HF 


HF 


HF 


HF 


24.62 


0.505 


0.511 


0.52) 


0.604 


0.592 


C«ERCY TO >«1VR 






























KWH to tlotor" 


1S..M 


It.S-i 


10. -i 


1...7i 


I". 52 


16.66 


18.17 


17.16 


21.50 


0.475 


0.489 


0.491 


0.556 


0.551 


«VTTtRV RECH. 






























14 
Recharge Anp-Hour.-t 


- 


:o.>>6 


- 


14. KS 


18.66 


- 


17.04 


- 


19.54 


- 


0.50 


- 


- 


0.5S 


Recharge KUM"" 


- 


2. 5-) 


- 


2.15 


;.:.- 


- 


1.16 


- 


- 




0.0"6 


- 


- 


0.06) 


EMlRCY FRim WTOR 






























KWH 


- 


4.12 


- 


.'.■"5 


t.ai 


- 


\.tS 




- 


- 


0.031 


- 




0.069 


BATTERY Ri;CliAIU^E 






























Recharge Aff^-Houm 


iiij. ;• 


I7S.5t 


us.t. 


115. W 


1S4.20 


174.15 


15S.75 


1 2.2S 


- 


- 




- 


- 


- 


Recharge KVIH 


17.^0 


Ib.iU 


18.4) 




20.15 


18.47 


21.48 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


CHARGER INPCT 






























Line KWH 


:i.o 


2». > 


- 


It.O 


2('.5 


2^.8 


2 '-.I 


26.5 


26. r 




- 


- 


- 


- 


Recharge ri«- (hr.) 


It..' 


2.. J 


16. » 


u.- 


20 . 6 


10.2 


21. 1 


10.5 


- 


- 


- 




- 


- 


WMTHKR aWDlrlONS 






























Aabient Temp. l"l) 


i8-:4 


!» 20 


lS-21 


U-I1 


1I--2 1 


•2-24 


10-18 


10-22 


21-21 


W-II 


10- !1 


m-u 


10-12 


)0- 12 


Wind Sp«-eJ (o^in) 


:-s 


4-S 


IS-." 


2-S 


J-5 


U>-15 


0-IS 


2- i 


0-1 


7-12 


7-12 


;-i; 


:-i2 


:-l2 


XllTlS: HF . Hardua 
luc - TeMt oi 


re Failure 

Jt .un to conpletion 






















J 



6-32 



*■¥ 



900-850 









u m 






































c - 






































t-( ir> 


































09 




«.H 














CO 




















.-1 




M .-4 >o 






Ox 




o 




vO 




m 
















cn 




CO 1 CM 1 OH 

«> 
Q U r-( 
•J 


1 




1 00 
m 

• 

o 




00 

m 

• 

o 




1 CM 

O 

• 

o 




• 

o 




1 1 




1 1 




CO CO 

CM 1 

CM 


t~< 






CO 
































M 






o m 










o 






















T3 


< 




B rH vO O 






C3> 




vO 




















CO 


d 


i-i 




•H ^ 00 00 


1 




00 




m 




















CM CO 


va 


m 




• 1 in • • 

Q > St -d- 






• 1 

en 




• 




1 1 




1 




1 1 




1 1 




) 1 
CM CM 








3 






i-i 
























CM 


CM 






































«k 


"*"— 




































P~ 






m 
































rM 












CM a> 




o 




O CO 




r^ 




crv CO 










* 






H r-l O r>. CO 






00 r^ 




•^ 




r-( a\ 




•^ 




r-H CO 




m 00 




m o 


VD 


o 




M .-1 cyi • • 


1 




• • 




• 




• • 




• 




• • 




• • 




CO CM 


CM 


n 




• 1 1-4 <ri KO 






o o 
en CM 




1-4 




00 CM 




CO 




m 1-4 




CM t-l 




1 1 

O CM 


* 






u 






1-) 
















I-I 








tn 


u-l 






kJ 
































CM 






































^ 






































<T 






m 
































CM 






in o o 






o -* 




m 












O ON 










00 






r-i iri \o \o 






m m 




m 












CO o 




m \o 




•<t 


U 


en 




O »H VO • • 


1 




• • 




• 












• • 




• • 




CO sf 


0) 


CM 




1 rH r^ »^ 






fH r^ 




VO 




1 1 




1 




-? r-i 




\0 CX3 




1 1 


01 






> mm 






VO .-1 




1-1 












!-» CM 




CM r-l 




O CM 


H 






►4 






i-t 
















M 








CO 


01 






































•H 






































t) 


■" 




































?s 






M 






.H 




CM 




m 




m 














C3 


r-s 




u o \o cy> 
CO C m i-i 00 






O CO 




m 

CO 








t-i 
t-i 














60 


CM 




• 1-1 • • 


1 




• • 




• 




• » 




• 




1 r 




1 1 




1 1 


c: 






a m vf 






CM .-1 




r-i 




r-l O 




o 












00 


i-» 












T-* 


























> 






































1-1 


""^ 




































u 






u 






CM 




r-» 






















a 


vO 




iH m CT> 00 






00 CTi 

ON <r 
























m 


u 


C\l 




• • • 


1 




« • 




• 




1 1 




1 




1 1 




1 1 




1 1 


o 






Q -3- vf 






CM ^ 




.H 




















00 


lU 












t-t 


























«« 


""™ 




































u 






» 






00 








00 


















(8 






>j o en CT> 






n \o 








-3- vO 
















o 


Q 


to 

CM 




M C m (Ti 00 


1 




vD CO 

• • 




b 




r-l t-H 

• * 




S 




1 1 




1 1 




CO vO 
1 1 


•a 






Q <t •* 






.H rH 




3J 




r-{ O 














00 CO 


<u 












»-( 
























CM 


4J 






































ti 






































0) 






U 






o 


























u 




c^ 


(S ON <y. 






^ a> 
























o 


u 


■^ 


.-1 


•H m 00 00 






vO sj- 




d^ 




















a\ rH 


o 


CM 


■ — 


« * • 


1 




• • 




EC 




1 1 




1 




1 1 




1 1 




CM 1 


u 




-a- 


o •<r -vt 






CM -H 
























m 


c 












<-< 


























t> 


























































*^-s 






















^^ 


0) 














• 
















tf 






•rl 


00 














kl 














/'^ 


< 






a B ^ 


(d 














eq 














u 


iH 






0) ^-^ iH 


4-1 




























o 


• 






> 6-f 














• 














s^ 


CM 






•H 01 '-' 


o 














00 
















• 






^ u 


> 




0) 






y— V 



















QJ 


vD 






oca 
C0 u 


• 




h 

9 






• 


»4 


— » 






to 
u 








U 

3 


01 


• 




c to u e 


4J 




o 






m 


3 








a 




JC 


M 


U y-> 


rH 


o 




o a» (0 Id 


4J 


M 


S 








o 


OS 






o 




■«^ 


Z 


CD JS 


U3 


T. 




1-1 iH -H 4J 


18 


U 


1 






• 


EC 


o 


u 


w 


X 






o 


U O. 


« 






w u a 0) 


pa 




1(1 


Oi 




00 


1 




o 


o 


1 




<0 


M 


<0 B 


H 


4-1 




O. ?s 1-t 




^ 


o 


W 


(U 


a^ 


o 


u 




o.^ 




e 


H 


a^-' 




0) 




•H O TS O 


u 


»E 


n 


o 


tA 


li 


y* 


o 


^ 


^i 


g 


a 


M 


8 




0) 




W 0) 


■a 


o 




o 


4J 


N-X 




:r 


tc 


H 


Q 


0) -a 




H 


« 


O 1*J 4J "O 


4) 


:/J 


0) 0) 


5: 


o 






s 




u 




^ 




2 


H 0) 






u 


» O O (U 


H 


M 


eo 00 




S 


s 


01 « 


5 


a 


a 


01 0) 


cC 0) 


O 


lU 






a 


0) 0) 4J 




Q 


M h 


o 




o 


00 00 


(< 


o 


00 00 


M 


3 00 


O 


u p. 






o 


O u u o 


U-l 




10 tf. 


H 


o 


a 


c c 


u. 


u 




u u 




& »4 




C C/3 








a u 0) 


^ 


>- 


X Ji 




iJ 


ta (d 




lu 


>- 


03 0) 


oi 


(Q 


OS 


« 






4J 


jj ^ o :-! 




tf 


<J J 


>< 






^ j= 


SH 




PJ 


j: J= 


UJ 


0) £ 


w 


1^ "O 






tA 


tfi e o u 


•o 


W 


0) 0) 


o 


^ 


• 


u u 


o 


Ji 


w 


u u 


u 


C O 


EC 


.a B 






0) 


« D C O 


c 


H 


1-t 1-1 


aJ 


3 


H 


OJ 0) 


OS 


5 


H 


0) (U 




1-1 0) 


H 


IS 






H 


H r: D o 


u 


H 


O Q 


w 


^ 


H 


«: PS 


w 


O 


H 


OS OS 


2 


-3 OS 














^ 




§ 




^ 








^ 




o 




1 





6-33 



900-850 



Table 6.2.2. Samples of Data Printout for Test No. 12 (C Cycle, 
no Regen Br) 



•i< tax wt i/n 



CM.I- 

•Mn 



^trto mn mn ihi iot wtt •«« 
T« tiLr i«.r MtT tar mr nv 



14 n 





>«.« 


lli.f 


IIJ.7 


JII.9 


IM.9 


999.3 


299.7 


1.1 


179 ! 


19.93 


19.93 


29.3« 


93.9 


73.9 




t«.« 


llS.f 


»amm» 


ni.f 


99.4 


4.9 


3.1 


1.1 


• < 


11.95 


19.t«9 


n.m 


99.7 


73.a 




1)1.2 


119.2 


114.9 


219.7 


91.7 


123.2 


119.9 


1.3 


131 . 


».99 


19.9' 


ia.3» 


93.9 


74.9 




194.4 


IK. 9 


113.9 


7.9 


197.3 


291.4 


199.9 


1.2 


199 - 


29.41 


19. fc- 


29.4a 


r9.9 


73.9 




iV.i 


12J.4 


122.9 


22.f 


44.9 


9.7 


9.1 


1.1 


9 • 


19.lt 


19.91 


29.4? 


191.4 


73.9 




I f .t 


129.1 






21.7 


14.9 


19.9 


1.2 


27 1 


17.92 


19.99 


2«.41 


182.9 


97.9 




> i.s 


119.4 


129.9 


».9 


W.J 


99.9 


99.9 


•.7 


199 £ 


ia.S7 


19.99 


39.4a 


112.4 


97-5 




I ••• 


129.9 


■21.2 


39.9 


•4.3 


22.9 


39.9 


1.3 


99 1 


19.93 


19.57 


.19.39 


119.2 


99.9 




tlf.t 


122.2 


121.7 


41.1 


71.7 


32.2 


99.7 


l.i 


■2 1 


19.97 


19.57 


29.49 


124.5 


97.5 




IIJ.l 


119.4 


119.3 


S3.9 




ia3.9 


193.9 


1.2 


99 : 


n.92 


19.V 


2l>.49 


132.4 


97.9 




lie. 2 


129.9 


129.1 


S7.« 


1.9 


3.2 


3.2 


1.2 


9.'. 


19.92 


19.57 


29 41 


132.4 


97.5 




II*. 4 


129. C 


I«,7 


W.7 


1.5 


3.2 


3,2 


1.3 


9 3 


29.39 


19.77 


29, 9C 


131.9 


97.4 




tit.t 


129.9 


129.9 


99.9 


1.3 


_ 3.9 


3.9 


1.1 


9 < 


2B.71 


19.57 


29. a 


132.4 


97. S 




i^.l 


12^.1 


127.9 


99.9 


9.9 




3.9 


1.4 


9.t 


19.29 


19 *a 


29. «9 


112.4 


97.5 




i20.t 


I2r.i 


127.2 


M.9 


9.9 


3.7 


3.7 


1.1 


9 «^ 


4.99 


I9.C3 


29.5.1 


132.4 


97.7 




iX2.» 


ar.i 


127.3 


99. 3 


9.4 


3.7 


3.7 


1.2 


9 ' 


9.17 


19.99 


29.39 


132.4 


97.5 




115.2 


izr.i 


117.9 


99.3 


9.4 


3.9 


3.9 


1.3 


9 M 


9.19 


i9.9a 


39.99 


132.4 


97.9 




iM.4 


127.9 


«?.« 


*9.l 


9.4 


3.9 




t-t 


9 *t 


9.17 


19.72 


29.9/' 


132.4 


97.5 




■ 41.4 


W.7 


I2f.7 


99.3 


9.4 


2.9 


3.1 


1.1 


9 * 


•.J7 


19.72 


29.97 


132.5 


97.9 




i«4.( 


127.9 


12».9 


11.7 


9.4 


3.3 


3.2 


1.1 


9 4 


9.17 


19 91 


29.79 


'32.4 


97.9 




147. t 


127.9 


127.9 


91.9 


9.4 


3.1 


3.1 


I.I 


9 4 


9.1? 


19.99 


/9.9a 


112.4 


97.9 




:5t.« 


12^.9 


129.9 


91.7 


9.4 


3.2 






9 4 


9.17 


19.97 


19.92 


1.9.4 


97.9 




■u.t 


1J9.I 


129.1 


92.9 


9.4 


2.9 


t.t 


1.9 


9 4 


9.17 


19 92 


29.99 


1*1.4 


97-9 




iV.i 


129.9 


124.J 


94.4 


24.1 


13.4 


99.7 




197.2 


5.S3 


19.99 


29-91 


in>.2 


159.4 




> (.z 


12J.7 


119.4 


72.4 


99 7 


199.7 


119.9 


r.3 


IM 2 


12.9) 


if.ai 


29.99 


■ 49 9 


199.1 




1 J.4 


112.9 


lll.S 


9^.1 


IK.3 


299.7 


193.9 


1.2 




19.33 


i9.»r 


11.92 


IC9.9 


149-9 




• •-4 


119.9 


119.2 


194.9 


49.9 


3.9 


3.3 


I.I 


S3 4 


21.43 


19.19 


21 -tC 


|77..» 


159.1 




1 f .« 


1IJ.7 


111.2 


113.4 


99.3 


131.9 


19I.9 


2.9 


219.4 


29.33 


19.25 


21.23 


199.1 


199.3 




II2.I 


112.4 


I12.S 


1J9.9 


199.9 


177.4 


174.9 


1.1 


99.' 


19. 9f 


19.29 


21.12 


Z13.C 


159.1 




IIC.I 


tM.9 


123.7 


141.9 


tr.i 


•1.2 


99.2 


9.* 


124..* 




19.31 


21.17 


221.4 


159.1 




iH.t 


121.9 


129.1 


I9i.9 


•9.7 


199.9 


79.9 


9.9 


«9.-t 


29.99 


19.33 


21.12 


229.9 


159.2 




'22.2 


119.9 


129.1 


192.9 


91.2 


99.9 


73.9 


9.9 


9*. I 


29.49 


19.99 


21.17 


237.9 


159.2 




S25.4 


119.7 


129.1 


179.7 


• 1.9 


99.7 


n,» 


9.7 


H : 


29.42 


19.35 


21.12 


244.2 


199.1 




•2C.« 


119.9 


129.9 


l.f.I 


91.2 


41.4 


'5.9 


1.5 


Ti I 


25. 19 




21.17 


252.9 


IU.4 




:lt.t 


117.4 


t2*.9 


199.3 


■ 1.9 


49.1 


79.1 


7.9 


99 1 


39.37 


19.31 


21.19 


299.1 


■90.3 




t)4.l 


119.9 


I2«.l 


191.9 


1 4 


3.3 


3.4 


9.9 


• t 


27.94 


19.4!l 


21. t* 


2W.9 


159.1 




■ ».t 


129.9 


129.9 


191.9 


1.4 


3.4 


3.4 


9.9 


9.1 


25.27 


19-35 


21.21 


na.T 


iw.t 




141. 2 


129.9 


129.9 


1«.9 


1.2 


3.5 


3.7 


S.« 


9.1 


29.(7 






»4.e 


139.3 




I44.I 


127.2 


127.1 


192-9 


9.9 


1.3 


3.5 


«.s 


9.1 


9.45 


19.^ 


21.23 


299.7 


tM.2 




:47.2 


127.1 


127.2 


193.9 


9.5 


3.9 


3.7 


9.1 


1 


1.94 


«.^ 


21.23 


2S9.) 


ise.5 




:sa.< 


127.5 


127.3 


I94.Z 


9.4 


3.9 


3.7 


9.9 


9.1 


9.17 


19 49 


.^1.32 


2M.7 


isa. t 




iSJ.C 


I27.S 


127.4 


194.2 


9.4 


1.9 


3.9 


• .C 


9 1 


9.;? 


19.49 


21.37 




ISii.l 




iSC.C 


127.9 


127.9 


194.2 


9.4 


2.9 


3.2 


9.5 


9.4 


9.19 


19.43 


21.41 


2S9.9 


isa.i 




•99. S 


127.9 


127.7 


194.4 


9.5 


3.2 


3.3 


9.9 


9.1 


9.19 


l».W 


21.99 


299-7 


199. 1 



9.99 9.99 9.999 

9.99 9.99 9.990 

■ It 9.99 9.9:9 

9.94 9.99 5.999 

9.99 8.99 9.9^ 

9.9ft 9 99 9.949 

a.99 9.99 S.9W 

9-M 9.99 9.939 

9.99 9.99 5.99» 

9 m 9.99 9.999 

9.99 9.90 9.9C4 

•.aa a.99 s.ow 

9.99 9.9a 9.9r9 

9.99 9.99 9.a99 

9.99 9.99 9.999 

9.99 9.99 9.909 

9.e« a.99 9.M9 

9.«a 9.*9 9 999 

9.89 0.99 S.9>i9 

9.99 9 90 5.9C9 

9.99 9.911 9.9*9 

9.99 9.99 &.4<lt 

9.aa 8.99 5.999 

0.99 9.99 9.999 

9.99 9.98 5.999 

9.88 9.99 5.849 

9.99 9.n 3. OH* 

9.92 099 S.aN 

».» 9.99 5.989 

9.99 9-89 9.9Ja 

9.M 9.98 s.aa 

9.99 9.99 5 999 

9.99 9.99 5.90C! 

c.n 9.99 S.0M 

9.D9 9-98 3.9 9 

f.Vy 9.»9 s.r*« 

9.b4 0.90 i.tr'. 

e.ci o.u s.0.9 

9.94 9.09 3. 8.. 

tt.e.) 9.U ZA-t. 

O.Ci) 0.99 S.L.M> 

e.cu 9.0c s.i.'4 

L.99 9.98 3.923 

9.99 9-98 S.989 



c V M T r ocsuLn t 88 aft-fr ma no. 35 •12 comt'o —2 

riFIH KC.C m.C 



f 




I' I8V1L fIL 9I9DI riL I9VIL fIL 9(OC HL rPH M«'T rtlTOB HMIM rflTO* 

18 

2'. 18 54.:4 191.9 

71.97 53.91 295.9 

2t.»« 53.M 295.9 

21.94 57.19 393.7 

U.94 52.98 383.7 

23.94 U.SI 30.'. 9 

24.91 53.33 

23-93 S?.8^ 

23.81 51 C7 

2J.74 51. .'7 

23.72 51.77 
21.78 51.94 
iZ.r* 5^.91 
23.ba U.22 
23.78 52.39 

23.73 52.54 395.1 
23 72 52.99 3Ufi 4 
23.71 52.79 312.1 

■i» — 52 K 324.1 

23.. '4 y. 

23.77 U.tl 

23.77 52 .72 

23.99 53.33 

33 92 53.1* 

23.99 5t.99 

23. W 51.77 

23 '.19 31.99 

3J.W St. 43 

33.57 51.11 

23.57 91.14 

23.54 59 97 

23. 5< 38. 99 

23. » 59.99 

2J.!fl Sa.97 

33. 4» St. 14 

33.Sa Sl.JS 

23 i* 51.99 

3.1 33 9: 9C 

z.tt iif.r. 

l-.V 53.:'l 

^3.54 52.98 

23.99 93. -a 

■ 19. t 193 C 195. C 59.9 74.7 1M.9 |N.4 :a.9 19J 9 19.97 23^9 53.01 79 9 31« 7 




6-3A 



900-850 



Table 6.2.3. 



S£iinples of Data Printout for Test No. 
with Regen Br) 



13 (C Cycle, 



I V M T F Hsun I 



•II cam i/>i —I 



cumcfi 


••TT 


WTT 


It-H 


l«T 


•ITT 


•ITT 


IH< 


(llT 


rvm 


KC.C 


KB.C 


IHI 


tHt 


inCH lEOii 


Fim 


T(/« 


Wtf 


yOLT 


mn 


wtr 


*» 


«rr 


mirr 


«r 


tttti 






re 


nan 


•F 


atm 


OIL1- 






tfriL 


riL 


• IICM 


nt 


ura 


Fit. 


■KCNE 


fi 


im 


•••T 


IttTOI 


HDTOt 


rorai 


FIL UNFIL 


•M1H 


niN 


sec 


I 


2 


1 


4 


9 


i 


7 


I: 


9 


It 


II 


12 


11 


14 


19 


tt 




Ill.t 


l»fl ! 


.29 S 


2«.7 


«>.i 


•.» 


t.t 


21.7 


t • 


a.» 


27.87 


99.73 


l3t.C 


124.1 


-24.79 -48.94 


9.tM 




tl4.i 


1)1. t 


irt.4 


M.9 


S8.4 


t.t 


•.• 


Zt.f 


*• 


It. St 


27.44 


9t.7t 


I97.t 


Ill.t 


-J9.M •2>.C0 


9. tot 




11^.4 


ta?.5 


izr.s 


392.7 


3a.< 


8.8 


t.t 


29.C 


8 8 


t.'i 


27.39 


99.92 


trt.t 


119.7 


-91.99 - 


l.tt 


9.ttt 




:».K 




l2C.t 


2lC.f 


W.7 


C.3 


2.1 


J3.t 


tt 


2.12 


2r.it 


99.rs 


194.9 




9.99 


!.lt 






tZI.4 


I24.t 


123.« 


7I«.I 


8.4 


•..- 


C.3 


n.t 


8t 


t.2t 


27.39 


99.tl 


1*4. t 


119.2 


9.89 


l.tt 


9't9t 




.2fi.& 


tn.a 


I2S.1 


'17.5 


8.4 


9.9 


*.t 


IS.fl 


8 8 


8.2t 


2f.3t 


9t.99 


l»4.9 


llt.2 


t.tt 


l.tt 


S.tut 




.■2».t 


123. ■ 


123. J 


•17.3 


8.4 


t.2 


«.« 


13.2 


8 


t.22 


27. 4t 


9t.lt 


1»4.3 


117.9 


9.99 


!.■• 


9.tit 




:27.t 


U4.t 


123. • 




•.4 


9.8 


3.9 


33.8 


tt 


t.lt 


27.31 


9t.3» 


t94.1 


139.1 




!.•• 


9.t8t 




:».• 


123. ■ 


124.9 


211.9 


8.4 


i.2 


9.3 


X9.t 


8 t 


t.l3» 


27.39 


99.49 


199.4 


119.4 


9.tt 


.•8 


9.«tt 




:39.« 


U4.7 


124.9 


3?t.l 


•.4 


9.- 


3.9 


S3.8 


8 8 


1.29 


2/. 47 


f.n 


194.9 


119.2 


t.tt 


.at 


S.ttt 




:-«.* 


m.i 


124 9 


221.3 


8.4 


9.7 


3.t 


3S.t 


8 8 


t.2t 


»?.« 


Ct.97 


194.9 


119.1 


t.tt 


l.tt 


s.tea 




.45.4 


lii.i 


122. 9 


222. « 






91. b 


13.8 


It8.4 


4.M 


27.91 


SI. 14 


289.1 


219. r 


t.tt •■ 




9.t0t 




:4« • 


122 4 


III.C 


229.7 


S2.( 


124. » 


192.4 


39.3 


im 3 


It.t2 


2^.99 


CI. 12 


2tr.9 


219. 1 


t.tt 


l.tt 


9.9n 




:5I./ 


1(1.1 


1(3. f 


241. t 


•2.J 


210. • 


t7§.t 


39.t 


193.1 


It.Jt 


27.C9 


<l.4f 


223.2 


2(9.'' 


9.99 


rtt 


9.^u9 




I3J.4 


111 » 


III. 3 


2S9.3 


■11 3 


119.1 


IM.S 


n.i 


124 9 


22.tt 


2^.51 


91.41 


239.7 


211.1 


9.9i 


l.*9 


3.989 




:V.t 


DC - 


2.7 


2M.I 


33.8 


Z2t.) 


192.2 


nMM« 








C(.4I 


247.9 


2lt.t 


•.It 


.tt 






:59.l 


tl« 


l.y 


2«7.« 


I8C.9 


irs.4 


179.2 


39.1 


IC3 4 


29.M 


i7.a 


ft. 32 


2«4.< 


2it.r 


t.tt 


.tt 


S.Btt 




I 3-t 


irt ' 


1.2.2 


29'. 1 


24.3 


9.9 


11.4 


35.« 


30 t 


29.31 


ir.t» 


91.14 


299.9 


Zit.t 


t.tt 


l.tt 


S.MS 




: C 2 


ii/.* 


lit. 9 


3*1.3 


7%.T 


9(.9 


7t.4 


19.t 


9t.2 


2t.7t 


2^.49 


99.92 


2».9 


219.1 


t.tt 


l.tt 






t 9.4 


119.9 


IIS.C 


3«.2 


•9.8 


rt.8 


ltt.7 


33.t 


113.t 


29.41 


2f.59 


••.73 




21t.t 


t.99 1 


.•t 


9.9^ 




»J2.4 








S,2 


C.8 


8.7 


92.9 


8 t 


I.C4 


2T.m 


99.91 


iir.z 


tXi.9 


9.99 


.•t 


9.ttt 




-33. i 


124 4 


124. t 


«.? 


8.) 


7.7 


7.4 


S2.C 


8.4 


t.l9 


27-91 


9».« 


Slt.7 


229.9 


t.l* 


t.m 


9.9ta 




ills. I 


t2<i r 


124.1 


• .■ 


• 4 


3. 8 


9.8 


32.C 


8.1 


t.2t 


2«.99 


99.S3 


9ir.t 


224.9 


9.99 1 


.m 


s.ttt 




.41.4 


(24. r 


124. r 


7.9 


8.4 


9.8 


9.8 


32.9 


t t 


t.l9 


29.94 


99.7t 


3lt.7 


229.9 


9.99 1 


.m 






:44.4 


•i^^ 


124./ 


18.7 


•MWIM 


9.7 


9.8 


52.3 


t.t 


9.19 


29.99 


99.tt 


919.2 


229.9 


•.tt i 


.m 


9 avt 




i47,2 


I24.t 


124.7 


11. 1 


•.4 


9.4 


3.C 


92.3 


t.t 


•-19 


29.39 


tt.99 


SIt.C 


223.9 


t.tt 


.tt 


s.'tta 




:Sa.4 


12.. 3 


124.1- 


12.1 


8.4 


9.C 


9.C 


32.9 


* t 


9.19 


29.99 


99.31 


Slt.t 


229.5 


t.tt 


.tt 


9.tt^ 




i<3,t 


124.? 


.24.7 


13.3 


8.4 


9.7 


S.I 


52.3 


t.t 


9.19 


2f.N 


*n.93 


lit. 7 


229.9 


t.tt < 


.tt 


9.att 




i5i t 


122.3 






24.7 




t2.l 


52.7 


I7t.9 


S.7S 


2«9S 


fia.«i 


I22.t 


2«.7 


•.It 1 


.•• 


9.999 




.5>.4 


118.2 


117.4 


22.8 


S8.4 


S8.4 


119. A 


32.7 


17fi.| 


12.21 


K.I9 


99.83 


S12.1 


277.9 


t.tt 1 


.tt 


s.ttt 




: 2.C 


113.2 


112.1 


37.7 


94.1 


194.8 


213 2 


V t 


Its. 7 


19.21 


29.79 


ct.ti 


4.2 


279.9 


t.tt 1 


.tt 


9.«tt 




I 5.t 


113.3 


113.3 


Sfi.4 


II*. 3 


133.8 


1IS.3 


52.9 


124.2 


22.99 


2C.II 


99.97 


l?.l 


279.9 


t.tt 1 


.8t 


5.t(4 




: S.t 


H5.8 


ItS.l 


<#■• 


57.« 






32.3 


4^.4 


24.19 


29. 7C 


«9.n 


29.9 


279.9 


t.tt 


.tt 


S.ttt 




itl.l 


IH,2 


119.3 


82.8 


IM.9 


192.9 


192.4 


S2.( 


ltt.3 


29.94 


29.79 


99.73 


42.2 


279.9 


t.tt 1 


.tt 


9. tot 




:IS.I 


Ul.l 


Ill.t 


99. C 


53.4 


14.7 


22.1 


92.5 


3:r.2 


29.91 


29.78 


69.93 


SI. 2 


279.9 


•.tt 


.tt 


S.Btt 




:|«.? 


122. d 


122.2 


1«.3 


».9 


78.3 


97.8 


52J 


tl.t 


29.24 


29.79 


C9.^9 


SS.' 


279.9 


t.tt 


.« 


9.«^ 




= 21. < 


Krt.Z 


lir.9 


IUS.9 


>>•.• 


£9.3 


t2.1 




IK. 3 


29.83 


zc.ct 


80.89 


«l.» 


277,9 


•.to t 


.tu 


S.GOO 




«4.4 


in.s 


117. S 


ll(.9 


62.3 


Itl.l 


t4.2 


S2.9 


Itt.t 


29.99 


2C.St 


99.M 


99.3 


279. -J 


t.tt 1 


.tt 


9. tea 




:?:•.« 


:if.c 


117. C 


12C.4 


V.8 


84.8 


74. C 


92.9 


75.4 


39. «a 


29.91 


99.79 


75.3 


279.9 


t.ta 1 


.ta 


9.999 




■^.1 


121.4 


lit.» 


131.9 


«5.9 


94.9 


39.8 


92.K 


1.4 


29. "J 


29.49 


99.C2 


77.9 


279 9 


t.tt 1 


.•• 


9.909 




:34.t 


123.4 


18'. 3 


133.2 


1 5 


C.t 


C.t 


S2.7 




27.SS 


2C.42 


99.45 


Tt.t 


273.9 


t.tt 


.•• 


5.9u9 




sjr.o 


123.5 


123.3 


134.4 


1.4 


9.7 


5.9 


32.3 


t.S 


i9 97 


2S.« 


9<-4| 


79.4 


27C.t 


t.tt 




9.9Cf 




C1.2 


12?'. J 


127. 7 


134.5 


».t 


0.8 


t.t 


SS.3 


c.r 


21.29 


2C.42 


' 2t 


79.9 


391.9 


-24.32 -49.59 


9.99« 




43.4 


12!. S 


127.7 


134.4 


4?.8 


t.l 


t.t 


Ct.7 


•.' 


19.^ 


29.42 


. .19 


79.4 


2tt.9 


-22.27 -29.92 


9.*tt 



E V H r F acsuLTs I 



*U COMt» l/«l —4 




JRotN. >- PAGE ;:, 



6-35 



900-850 



Table 6.2.4. 



Samples of Data Printout for Test No. 
no Regen Br) 



15 (B Cycle, 



I V > T F laain i 



MS ic»4 wt vtt 



tuna 


»«n 


•HIT 


tf-H 


WT 


inn 


■ITT 


IHI 


m- 


ritiH 


m.c 


■l.C 


U-H 


IHI 


■an 


lUtH 


eim 


T|l« 


W.T 


W.T 


HIT 


MLT 


m9 


■* 


MTT 


Ml' 


U«Sk 






TO 


nw 


mr 


RfV 


om- 






l«»IL 


HI. 


• ItCH 


rr< 


■MIL 


71L 




711 


IVH 


m-T 


rann 


laioi 


■am 


rii 


IMFIL 


199IN 


niN 


uc 


1 


1 


3 


4 


S 


t 


7 


. 


9 


19 


11 


12 


13 


14 


19 


:t 


11 


44.1 


iir s 


I27.S 


14S.< 


1.4 


4.2 


4.4 


141. 1 


1..- 


1.19 


29.45 


M.M 


211.1 


9.5 


l.M 


e.M 


S.Hl 


:i 


V.i 


itr.i 


i:7.t 


24S.7 


1.4 


4.9 


4.4 


141.3 


1.. 


9.19 


29.47 


K.M 


291.1 


1.9 


l.M 


9.M 


5.1M 


II 


S«.4 


ur.t 


127.1 


2«.l 


1.4 


3.9 


4.9 


141.1 


1..- 


9.14 


21.43 


K.M 


IM.l 


1.1 


■ .M 


9.M 


s.in 


11 


si.i 


m.« 






1.4 


1.9 


4.1 


141.1 


1.. 


9.19 


M.M 


M.M 


m.l 


(.1 


9.99 


9.H 


S.fM 


SI 


SC.4 


lU.I 


IM.l 


• 17.1 


l.S 


4.1 


4.1 


Ml. 3 


l.ll 


9.22 


n.si 


21.27 


297.1 


(.2 


9.M 


9.M 


9.909 


11 


tSS.t 


IM.l 


121.2 


14'. 9 


1.4 


1.9 


3.9 


141.1 


1..- 


1.19 


29.4* 


M.IS 


111.2 


1.5 


9.M 


9.M 


5 9H 


u 


■ !.• 


l».l 


I2t.2 


241.5 


1.4 


4.1 


4.1 


141.1 


l.'t 


9.21 


29.19 


11.22 


219.1 


(.1 


9.M 


9.H 


5.11 


14 


1 f.* 


I2t.] 


121.3 


24J.2 * 




4.1 


11.7 


Ul.l 


119 •. 


1.41 


21.42 


21.24 


212.2 


M.9 


9.W 


9.H 


S.(..1 


M 


f.l 


122.3 


123.1 


2S2.2 


34.7 


114.1 


51.3 


141.1 


131. .1 


7.47 


21.42 


2(.27 


211.1 


•4.1 


9.99 


9.M 


S.Hl 


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un.i 


V» 4 


29.1 


21.1 


52.9 


4.1 


14, 6 


(.32 


13 79 


47.17 


12.. 1 


4. .1 


9 fl.1 


9 :j 


» 


SO 


t 9.4 


'i7.2 


1K.9 


1,7 


49.1 


125.9 


72.3 


1.6 


141 4 


9.45 


19.13 


47. 3( 


132.7 


«.• 


9.9a 


9 Ui 


S.l. J? 


SO 


■ 12.( 


II.!. 6 


iir 1 


'1,4 


92.9 


91.1 


91.1 


4.1 


11. S 


11.11 


19.11 


47.41 


141.9 


17.1 


9.01 


0,1 '1 


s.r.t 


u 


■ is.e 


114 


lis. 7 


19.1 


n,r 


M.9 


197.5 


4.1 


13' 7 


K.M 


19.00 


47.50 


151.7 


47.1 


9.911 


9,0.1 


5.C-9 


59 


■ 19.9 


11!..' 


lis.'; 


12.3 


97.1 


17.1 


(4.9 


4.2 


7% 7 


16.71 


19. » 


47 64 


159.9 


47.1 


9.1A 


1.... 


v.* .. 


SO 


122.9 


aw.«. 


129.9 


37.7 


54.1 


17.1 


11.9 


4.2 


91 1 


19.H 


19 97 


47.67 


1(1.9 


47. • 


l.M 


1,14 


5.1 -1 


39 


■ 29 9 


U..( 


123. 3 


41. < 


i.e 


4.7 


4.9 


4.1 


1.9 


19.74 


19.97 


47.64 


1(5.1 


47.1 


e.M 


• ,N 


9.4M 



6-36 



S'00-850 

Table 6,2.5. Samples of Data Printout for Test No. 16 (B Cycle, 
with Regen Br) 



E V H T F icsuLrs ■ ft-tft-rr ma do- c •!• Ci>fT» j/M 

ZLAPSEft ■MTT WTT 

T»f« VOLT wOlT IUTT 

W^!L riL BISCN 



«T 


■•TT 


••TT 


U^ 


ftr 


FIFTH 


VDLT 


*1» 


arr 


MTT 


UtP 


tfCfL 


FIL 


IMF II. 


FIL 


RFCHC 


»ll. 


fTH 




/ M T F tESUl-re - M-*Fft-r7 f«CE W- » •!« WMTB 1^ Ta-- 



ELftPSSO 


WTT 


earr 


thM 


TOT 


BftTT 


BftTT 


J-H 


i-r 


FIFTH 


•ct.c 


BCS.C 


U-M 


»■« 


CCGCN 


REKN 


F|)Cfi 


Tit 


vn.T 


VW.T 


■OTT 


V"LT 


BTF 


WV 


■ATT 


Rf 


IKCL 






TD 


FROn 


tt# 


•rf 


CMI- 






urriL 


fIL 


BISCN 


FIL 


IHFIL 


FIL 


■£CMC 


FU 


TT** 


tf-r 


mm 


MOTOR 


rOTDt 


FIL 


UHFIL 


•WtTN 


niN 


sec 


I 


2 


3 


4 


S 


6 


7 


i 


r 


IB 


11 


12 


tl 


14 


IS 


It 


43 


•3r.t 


122 B 


122.0 


19] 2 


B 5 


3.2 


9.2 


135.6 


e < 


B.72 


IS.W 


49 65 


10?. 7 


107.4 


0.00 


0.00 


5.000 


43 


4f.2 


122.? 


122.7 


193 2 


• .5 


1 1 


3.2 


135 6 


t 1 


P. 22 


16.02 


49., -Z 


107.3 


107.4 


0.00 


•.•;; 


iwm 114 


43 


■43 2 ' 


■^.^■M 


122.7 


193 S 


B.S 


1 2 


Z.9 


134.9 


» d 


B 2« 


1S.B2 


« 89 


IB? ? 


107 4 


00 


0.00 


5.000 


4J 


■ 4S.2 


l.-2.« 


122. t 


193.3 


B.5 


3 2 


3.2 


133.7 


t « 


• .22 


13.97 


sa.az 


107.3 


107.4 


0.0B 


• .00 


S.»«4 


43 


•49 4 . 


t»wm^i 


122 S 


194,9 


fl < 


3 7 


3 2 


;n.« 


B 1 


e 22 


15 99 


9B ?c 


107.2 


107.4 


0.00 


BC 


S.0M 


43 


■!r.4 


12 J 5 


122.5 


is.. 5 


H 5 


3 3 


9 2 


■ 35 B 


C ^ 


B 22 


16 B2 


SB. 39 


107.2 


107 4 


00 


6 M 


5 •^J 


4J 


55 « 


i:i-« 


121 'T 










135 6 


147 ' 


3.99 


i; 99 


50 S« 


109.9 


166 6 


0.cr. 


0.1 


S.Bi* 


43 


SB e 


117 


117. C 


^.■a.R 


36 2 


«■» • 


54 5 


I35.S 


•29 1 


a.z? 


15 91 


SO.M 


il3 6 


105 


0.M 


0.00 


f.tfca 




1.? 


Il« I ' 




jm i 


47 7 


?b 9 


54.3 


irs 7 


:bb ' 


11 5P 


16.19 


^,73 


111 4 


IW.i 


0.00 


0" 


5 0"Q 


44 


■ 4 2 


US. 2 


115.9 


2III.9 


9to * 


3B.B 


5B.2 


135 9 


S3 3 


13.91 


15.93 


3B.69 


l.»4.9 


ie» 3 


0.M 


• .00 


S.0rt0 


44 


■ 7.4 


llj T 


114 • 


217 4 


S.J 2 


59 C 


74 B 


135 9 ' 


M»«i 


i';.5i 


IG 04 


5».73 


130.1 


ies.4 


0.00 


B 99 


a 000 


A* 


1« 4 


114.5 


112 2 


225 « 


§9 9 


l« 4 


1M.9 


1TS.9 


1|4 1 


».»3 


16.06 


30. 7K 


I3tl. 1 


156 4 


0.00 


• V* 


5.r-0 


44 


:l3 S 


11^ 9 


(19 3 




41 3 


i:.6 


?2 5 


9^.6 


41 1 


I?. 97 


If .13 


50 *t 


1J«.3 


193 2 


0.00 


cn 


5 B0«1 


44 


It « 


Ui),3 


113.6 


234 3 


4.- a 


13 7 


r?.3 


135. 7 


47 J 


19.71 


13.93 


30 3* 


142 I 


193.5 


• M 


B.W 


S 0M 


44 


19 I 


II?, s 


119.3 


237 S 


41.! 


1^ T 


.*« f 


135.7 


4f J 


19 -l 




<9.99 


145 6 


193.4 


«4 


W 


S.t** 


U 


2j.i 


n^.4 


IIS. 4 


243 2 


^ " 


19 3 


16 -i 


I'J ? 


C I 


19. '.J 


16 04 


5« 92 


146 3 


I»>.l 


W 


0.0d 


5 fl'.j 


44 


>» a 


119.4 


116 9 


245.7 1 




IB « 


26 3 


135.7 


4* > 


2».«7 


15 93 


49.7* 


140.1 


193 1 


B.IW 


• r* 


3.(r9 


44 


•??.3 


It) 2 


I1G.5 


24* 5 


47 2 


I! ' 


^« 3 


US. 7 


*l 5 


2»> IZ 


15.62 


49.79 


150.1 


19? 2 


00 


0.0A 


*.• AM 


44 


.32.2 


123 7 


I2<) t 


TM.e 


1..' 


3 9 


3.B 


'35.r 


1.2 


19.19 


16.1* 






19^ 5 


0.00 


• 00 


5.IMW 


44 


■ ?; e 


12t.2 


121.2 


251.9 


79 • 


• B 


IB 


136 9 


( « 


13.(1 


19.91 


49.63 


IS*-. 4 


20«.0 


-26 45 -49 52 


S.OOJ 




•38.2 


126.2 


irb 4 


251 i 


42 6 




» 


144 1 


f 4 


7. Be 


15 97 


49 62 


150 4 


206.3 


.7.99 


-12 f» 


5..0B 


44 


41 i 


123.4 


I2J.7 


TM.* 


4 B 


4 4 


4 3 


14i 2 


C.d 


■ 46 


IS.BB 


49. C3 


150 3 


:w 6 


03 


0.04 


s.uia 


•^ 


144 4 


)2S • 


172 9 


2ri 1 


B 5 




3 4 


t^ 1 


( ■ 


• 2J 


15.95 


49 72 


I50.J 


2U6.6 




#.•0 


S.0«« 


44 


■47 A 


I.»'.? 


12' / 


25t.l 


fl.5 


3 4 


3 4 


145.2 


C 9 


• 23 


15 91 


49 05 


ISB.4 


2ftS 7 


0.00 


0.00 


5.000 


44 


:•■) fi 


i^r 5 


t i.A 


257 4 


B 3 






143 1 


t • 


• 22 


15 93 


3«.I2 


15*. 3 


20«.6 


0.WH 


0.04 


3.004 


44 


•iJ 6 


Mi 5 


tl2 6 


259,2 


• 5 


3 4 


3 4 


145.3 


r « 


• 22 


13.91 


30 Z6 


156.0 


310 B 


0.00 


f 0C 


S.ObB 


•A 


H I 


122. i 


122 5 


2i».l 


B 5 


3 4 


9 3 


143 • 


r B 


a 22 


15. »5 


50 4C 


135. 6 


910.2 


t •• 


0.0C 




44 


■39 e 








I 5 


3 5 


3 4 


145 I 


f 3 


• .22 


IS 93 


5.- 63 


155.6 


910.3 


0.00 


•.e« 


9 <r9 


43 


2 4 


1?.' 4 


JJ2 9 


2<« 5 


• 5 


9 4 


3 4 




r 1 


• .22 


15 »5 


30.76 


15^,7 


910.1 


0.00 


n 0fl 


9.0^J 


45 


■ tl 4 


i/1 • 


119 « 


2fi2 • 


21 3 




37.9 


I44.B 


133 .6 


4.67 


16 19 


51.0* 


161 1 


19.4 


0.00 


04 


S.MW 


-5 


s • 


lis « 


U7 5 


2«S 9 


39.1 


45 3 


:>i 4 


• 43.1 


It; 9 


9 n 


15 rr 


91. if 


1C« 9 


13.4 


00 


• 00 


5.K3 


4S 


tl 4 




IIS 1 


27|.» 


'I 2 




98 tt 


!49 4 


IK.l 


15. M 


1^ « 


31 14 


172 


13.5 


B 00 


0<- 


S ► O 


4i 


114 M 


II7 1 


tl3 J 


2' a. 1 


bl 1 


t9 B 


6i.B 


I..5 4 




13 ^ 


16 Vi 


51.11 


177.4 


13 3 


C 00 


e.^ 


3.0. fl 


43 


■AT <i 


115 « 


114 r 


7ft4.f 


71 B 




»7 « 


143 4 


ir:.3 


17.94 


13 9S 


91.14 


104 «) 


13.3 


00 


0.»j 


i.t9 


5 


i\ a 


117 2 


116 « 


292 I 


«.9 


.-5 ? 


44 4 


145.3 


7- .a 


19.34 


13. P6 


31 II 


109 3 


Ij.' 


V.OCi 


• ij 


S.v't 


■«* 


■24 ? 




tl« 4 


2»«.; 


^ 1 


>9 3 






i. 9 


20 " 


|i ■• 


31.04 


19? ; 


n 4 


tn 


^ T' 


9 r 




'.■ 5 


i;*! 1 




iHI ) 


4' ( 


:G 2 


:9 9 


1-^ 2 


C J 


•■'^« 


19 t)1 


90 rB 


IV.*.! 


13 7 


0.*^ 


•.u 


9 a T. 


«j 


!:p • 


li. 9 


117 » 


itli 6 


V.I 


f1 3 


:» 7 


l*^. 1 


5. t 


1-y 44 


li 99 


30 60 


197 3 


1' 3 


O.0.* 


e*. 


•..•-t 


45 


•TJ .-■ 


iW 4 


1 ' ' J 


107 7 


^7 ; 


j: ■» 


J7 4 


l-«.2 


■^ 1 


21 4t 


li, f7 


■r 71 


ZW 2 


U.7 


0.l» 


U Cv 


5.P : 




.36.* 


IM *► 


li: •> 


III r 


<eo 7 


'tt 5 


21 4 


\n I 


J. .? 




•V*T>'* 


»••«'* 


«• .k«B 


1' 5 


IHI 


' 


5 .. 


*^ 


3B 


.IC ' 


11 • 


314 4 




-'? 2 


:• 2 


^*.•.6 


5 1 


111 Cb 




95 51 


?j:.7 


li 1 


.: » 


D r ' 


-^ I .. 


-^> 


■ 41 a 


W* i 


I'f 7 


117 2 


;-> 1 


19 t 


P 4 


I..'-. 2 


1. C 


!• 2. 


IL 91 


«.5J 


207.0 


63 2 


-».06 


-C«.5i 


• 0. 


41 


■45 tf 


124. ( 


127 3 


311.1 


f£ 6 


B B 


B • 


153 3 


I B 


U i5 


IS 93 


•0 39 


20.* 


70 


•» 40 


-J.i.Fti 


9.'W0 


45 


■45 2 


I2j ? 


1.5 1 


31- 2 


.'7 7 


e.» 


B.B 


137 « 


< e 


4 11 


I! 9f 


90 K 


20'.0 


74.2 


^«M> 


M 


5.».iO 



6-37 



'^ " 



900-850 



Table 6.2.6. Samples of Data Printout for Test No. 17 (B Cycle, 
with Regen Br) 



I V H T F MSULTS I 



iuf 


H» 


•UTT 


•l^ 


*Mt 


WT 


•BTT 


5IITT 


M-*t 


njf 


riFT>4 


5CS.C 


5CB.C 


*HI 


IMI 


6^aN 


KCEH 


FIMED 


^itm 


WIT 


WIT 


•nrr 


VOLT 


(•» 


IWF 


••TT 


W1' 


wax. 






n 


nion 


wv 


■n* 


CW.I- 






WFIL 


riL 


51SCH 


FIL 


wrtL 


flL 


ItCHC 


Fl, 


T9H 


5m- T 


fVTai 


niTDt 


WTOt 


FIL 


WtftL 


•WTK 


niN 


sec 


1 


2 


1 


4 


5 


6 


f 


5 


5 


It 


II 


12 


II 


14 


19 


It 


ri 


m.t 


123.4 


121.5 


151 5 


554 


31.5 


55.3 


255.7 


51..' 


16.75 


12.61 


37.21 


265.5 


172.5 


6. 55 


Mwi • 


5.665 


rj 


■u.t 


llt.S 


llS.ft 


157.5 


52.7 


55. 5 


73.7 


255 7 


53.4 


15.51 


11. -t 


37.21 


215.1 


172.5 


6 55 


•.5n 


5. 565 


n 


>» 2 


121. • 


122.5 


in 3 


51.5 


45.4 


37 5 


255.5 


5e.i 


26.14 


II. 5T 


37 14 


IIS 5 


172 6 


5.55 


6.56 


9 0'5 


'3 


I3S.4 


122.2 


122 1 


195.7 


(4 5 


23.5 


49.3 


255.I 


TZ.i 


15.35 


11.92 


3.'.56 


.'24.6 


172.5 


5.5« 


5 64 


5.605 


n 


■ 41. C 


12^.1 


lit. 5 


205 5 


31 5 


2.4 


2.4 


253.6 


6.2 


15.65 


11 54 


37.63 


^25.3 


172.6 


i.05 


5.M 




n 


t44.f 


125.7 


125.5 


255 5 


1 5 


2.1 


2 3 


2CS.3 


• .' 


17.75 


II 56 


35.55 


22^.9 


172 5 


5.55 


-56.52 


5.556 


n 


.4.'.» 


!M 1 


IB^.t 


2«t.5 


53. 5 


5.5 


5.5 


252. C 


5.1 


12.57 


12.51 


16. 55 


225.7 


152.1 


-1« 71 


-31 65 


5 «C 


rj 


!S1.« 


125.2 


123.1 


2«.S 


22 2 


5.5 


5.5 


254. J 


5. J 


2.63 


U.I2 


17.63 


233.1 


ltS.6 


5.55 


5 66 


S-tlM 


71 


• 54.2 


12C.7 


127.5 


25C.5 


5.3 


2.2 


2 5 


2-t5.l 


5 J 


5.16 


11.56 


36.96 


.'33.1 


154 5 


5.55 


-6.13 


5 666 


n 


157.4 


mm»mm 


127,3 


255 1 


55 


2.2 


2.1 


S3i J 


5.1 


6.15 


11.56 


37.65 


2iS. 1 


164.7 


6.05 


-5.57 


9. tat 


74 


: t.4 


127.2 


127 ? 


?f 7 7 


5.4 


1 5 


2.5 


m.7 


«.» 


5.15 


11.56 


J7 21 


"'5 1 


1M 7 


5 55 


-0 15 


5 0*5 


7* 


' 3 t 


127 3 


127.1 


257 r. 


5.4 


2.5 


2.5 


331.7 


t.l 


5.15 


12 51 


17.34 


23b 1 


154.7 


5 56 


-5.67 


S.5u6 


T4 


: (.0 


127 » 


127.3 


217. 5 


4 4 


1.5 


2.6 


331 5 


5.) 


IJ.I5 


11.55 


37.35 


.-14.6 


154 3 


-5.22 


5.66 


3.5«5 


r* 


• It. 9 






25'. 7 


5 4 


1.7 


2.5 


331.7 


5.1 


5.15 


12.63 


37.35 


2J?.l 


164.7 


5.56 


•C.07 


S.5lMl 


74 


'12 1 


127 3 


127.3 


255.3 


5.4 


2 1 


2 1 


57. J 


e.j 


5.15 


11 K 


37.65 


23^. i 


155.6 


5 55 


-5 17 


3.555 


7J 


ut.e 


127.3 


127.5 


2t).l 


5.5 


5.3 


19.5 


67.2 


155 « 


1.56 


|2.»9 


37.55 


236.4 


213.2 


».5d 


5.05 


S.5v5 


74 


>l» 2 


124.6 


12-1.2 


211.5 


27.5 


*2.4 


45.1 


67.2 


126 3 


6.13 


12. D5 


36 ii2 


2i^.\ 


221.1 


6 65 


6.66 


3.6C5 


74 


in.4 


124 5 


12^.7 


mmmm 


35.7 


24.2 


45.2 


57.2 


113 9 


5.51 


12.12 


•5.16 


249.5 


221.1 


5 65 


5.55 


3.ef5 


74 


<?5.4 


111.6 


121.2 


222 5 


52.3 


54.5 


SJ.5 


65 5 


116.3 


11.52 


12 23 


'V.25 


251. 2 


221.5 


5.55 


6.M 


3.500 


74 


!M.* 


ns..' 


115.5 


235.5 


73.3 


154.7 


159 2 


67.1 


145.4 


14.92 


12.16 


3S.2b 


260 4 


221.3 


5 05 


5.54 


5.(.C5 


74 


'Jl 8 


114.5 


115.7 


243.5 


57 2 


124.2 


142.7 


57.x 


122.7 


16.55 


12.15 


35.23 


172.6 


221 5 


».H 


5.65 


3. set 


74 


.35 H 


117.5 


125 1 


253,1 




M.^ 


73.3 


67 2 


91. * 


19.46 


12.21 


38.75 


27*. I 


221 1 


5 5# 


6.0^ 


3 5M 


74 


.3«.e 


J22 • 


121.5 


2t.l.4 


71.1 


51 3 


32. « 


67.3 


7-i..T 


15.22 


12.^1 


iS.-M 


i«4.6 


221 6 


6.5* 


5.PJ 


S.6U 


74 


-41.2 


122.5 


125.2 


2C7.1 


7. .5 


44.5 


69 4 


6r.3 


57.! 


19 92 


.2..^ 


36.41 


265.3 


325 5 


5.55 


5.55 


3.uS' 


74 


144.4 


122.5 


121 5 


273 5 


M 5 


15.4 


37.9 


67.2 


5t 7 


15 95 


12.16 


36.15 


294.1 


221 I 


5.55 


6 55 


9.56 


74 


r47.J 


12I.3 


135.5 


271.1 


72 7 




54.5 


57.5 


iir.7 


15.55 


12.14 


35.17 


365.5 


221.5 


6.65 


5.55 


3 5^ 


TA 


)59.« 


124. < 


124 


2t3.2 


51 7 


33.2 


35.5 


67.2 


6^ -J 


i'».r4 


12 14 


36.47 


'63 4 


221.1 


(1.56 


5.66 


5 t^ 


74 


>S3.fi 


I>3.» 


124 7 


257.1 


2.2 


2.3 


2 4 


67 J 


1 . 


13 49 


12 12 


37.57 


34 ''.4 


:2i 1 


5 C5 


t.t* 


3.W 


74 


■5?.i 


125. t 


■25.5 


257.1 


1.5 


2J 


2.4 


67.3 


l i 


1? 7i 


12.59 


37 19 


307.5 


223.5 


-31.72 


-59 24 


s.r;- 


75 


' •■? 


1?5.5 


112.3 


255.6 


S2.5 






74.6 


(.1 


5 61 


12. tS 


37.92 


♦P' s 


^35.5 


-ir.5' 


-22.34 


5 OTl- 


n 


t 3.1 


l».3 


1C5,» 


3«3.5 


14.5 


5.5 


5 5 


53.5 


f 4 


1.41 


11.91 


J7.ei 


'0,'.5 


233 7 


5 GP 


N M 


3 »5 


n 


> C.2 


127.4 


liT 3 


353.4 


5.4 


1.5 


2.1 


53 5 


1.9 


6.15 


12 Vi 


37.54 


357 4 


333.2 


O.OJ 


-6.29 


3.65C 


75 


> 1.4 


127 4 


127.4 


353.4 


5.4 


1.5 


1.5 


U.4 


r 5 


6.15 


12.53 


37.55 


367.4 


233.3 


5.66 


-6.25 


5 e<^ 


75 


il2.< 


127 5 


127.4 


S«».4 


5.4 


l.fi 


1.5 


•■■*** 


C 5 


5.19 


12.6' 


76 \r> 


5l'7 9 


211.7 


f »* 


-5 37 


- rfi3 


75 


:15.S 


127 4 


127.4 


3W3.3 


5 5 


2.9 


1.0 


53.2 




f.ll 


1? 1-7 


TZ -.1 


.«5.-.4 


23J 2 


f 00 


-e - 


S k><-* 


?S 


..a J 


12' 5 


127. J 


3C*.7 


e 4 


1.7 


l.B 


14J S 


1 ^ 


B.:3 


1^ -i 


ID 31 


ju- 6 


23: 4 


a L2 


-e - 


I c* 


7S 


:22.f 


127.4 


127.4 


3tM.5 


5 3 


2 ! 


2.1 


1*4. J 


. J 


t :9 




ZC '~\ 


.W 4 


2j3.2 


1 CJ 


-5 ur 




7b 


■iS. ' 


li7.J 


12" < 


Zf^.7 


5.4 


1.5 


2 1 


1*4 9 




5. 19 


v:.97 


38.55 


^•^4 


213.2 


P c 


5 CI 


l.t-"'' 


7i 


'28.: 


125 5 


r.'t.* 


351 7 


15.5 


35.5 


27.5 


1-5 e 


14 1 


3 Mi 


1: B7 


:e bs 


3^ 9 


I J 


.' :c 


s.n> 


3 V . 


75 


131.'. 


i;5.i 


:24.5 


3C& 5 


31.2 


■5.5 


35 5 


145.5 


11. 4 


7 45 


12.16 


i» ct 


322 7 


13 1 


I- r* 


M 


s.n 


73 


>"'4.* 


1:4. e 


1»2.S 


314.2 


43.4 


91.5 


45.3 


l.'5.0 


:o. .7 


I« H 


12. W 


33.97 


77.-. 5 


13.3 


U PC 


« 05 


a e-v 


rs 


■37 e 


IIB./J 


121.5 


319 5 


53.5 


3S 4 


57.6 


I--3 1 


9- » 




\2 a7 


39.00 


:;3.3 


13 4 


iJ iH* 


0.00 


b a:e 


75 


•*) c 


123. J 


119 -J 


126 4 


74.9 


12': S 


91.1 


14-. 4 


\Z I 


16 92 


2.\-7 


39 13 


341 3 


13 3 


t iO 


C CO 




7% 


'44.* 


llfc.4 


117.5 


337 2 


5J.I 


95.6 


52.7 


143.2 


K 1 


15.54 


12.57 


35.13 


5.3 


13 3 


5 65 


5.05 


5. KM 



C V H T F 6ESU.n 1 



• 175 Ptt 2 



ELI* 


Kf 


56TT 


66TT 


U-M 


f5»T 


96TT 


56TT 


IM" 


»f>T 


FIFTH 


tax 


KC.C 


«-H 


tf-tt 


tCCCN 


6£ff4 


FlifB 


Tin 


VtSLT 


vaT 


•6TT 


VOLT 


or 


«v 


56TT 


rrr 


MEa 






TO 


FiOII 


or^ 


tirp 


c«»-:- 






UHFIL 


FIL 


ttSCN 


FIL 


WFlL 


FIL 


5EDC 


riL 


f*H 


WSt-T 


WTO* 


nonx 


rVTOR 


riL 


'JhFtL 


tl-Q-N 


IW 


sec 


1 


3 


3 


4 


9 


5 


7 


6 


9 


It 


11 


12 


13 


14 




13 


16 


55 


■92.2 


135.2 


115.5 


52.5 


r.3 


17.7 


36.1 


233.5 


133.1 


^.61 


I'.. •5 


•MM* 


,■ ■ IM 


25.5 


t.»' 




66 


5 *>• 


95 


195.5 


117.5 


117.1 


93.3 


23.2 


36.5 


35 6 


234. », 


1 .'.6 


5.95 


'9 77 


52.31 


114.2 


6I> 7 


5 55 




• 5 


S BlJ 


55 


• 99.2 


116.4 


113.5 


95.3 


34 3 


41.1 


42.6 


233. 7 


ini » 


■ -•a 


19.77 


52.47 


110.1 


66 6 


6.56 




M 


5 i>tt 


66 


1 1.4 


115.5 


113.1 


66.5 


91.3 


33 5 


67.5 


234.9 


1 ' 9 


12 57 


15.73 


52 33 


121.5 


6U 7 


5.65 




M 


9 i*.^ 


55 


> 4.6 


155.7 


111.6 


71.5 


67.1 


113.5 


55 2 


733.5 


:.t 5 


13.56 


15.63 


52 22 


131 4 


mm^mm 


5 64 




ra 


S.B.-^ 


66 


: 7.6 


155.. 


115.1 


61 


51.5 


113.5 


5>.l 


234.6 


l'<t.6 


16.47 


15 76 


52 51 


139.6 


66 7 


5.55 




ee 


s.*»y5 


65 


■ 15.5 


117.? 


117.7 


55.5 


25.5 


19.5 


31.6 


214.6 


'♦ 6 


15.43 


15.66 


91.54 


143 9 


6t.t 


5.55 




m 


9 tot 


Ct 


M4.5 


Ill 1 


113.6 


91.5 


71 3 


35.1 


34 7 


254.6 


** S 


29 '4 


19.62 


^l 66 


147 1 


65 7 


5 .'n 




<« 


5 ce 


65 


■ 17.2 


ir .1 


117.5 


53.3 


31 7 


9 3 


13.5 


233.4 


1 


\9 n 


19.55 


51 57 


147.6 


65 5 






M 


5 P 1 


68 


-26.7 


1 5.3 


117.7 


56.9 


31.4 


5.5 


14 5 


234 1 


.■?.2 


l».I5 


13 17 


51 25 


.49 1 


kT 7 


5 W 




W 


; . * 


%M 


• 23.4 


114.9 


115.3 


59.9 


562 


35.3 


49.4 


234 6 


i.f 3 


19 5^ 


19.57 


51. ii 


131 6 


69 6 


6 65 




lO 


5 1...0 


55 


>26.6 


113 ( 


ll-'.5 


163.6 


59 4 


23 1 


25.5 


2»4 1 


■.' 7 


36 1« 


l<«.57 


51 16 


1^4.9 


ff.t. 


■ 6« 




M 


5 o-te 


65 


125.5 


115.3 


115.3 


154.5 


14 5 


4.2 


4.2 


-'..3. 9 


1.9 


15 5> 


19.57 


96 56 


154.4 


65 6 


5 Ml 


••I*** 


5 cw 


«5 


132.5 


U5.2 


.15.2 


164.5 


1.7 


4.5 


5.6 


23b 6 


f 9 


17.22 


15.62 


96. 7t 


194.; 


M 2 


-r ^2 


-5? 





s.i'.-r 


65 


• 36.5 


12^.5 


125 6 


164.9 


955 


5 5 


5.5 


246.1 


t 6 


5., -5 


15 55 


56.66 


154 S 


72 5 


-Zi 41 


-1^ 


41 


5 t ^ 


56 


iW.3 


122. 1 


122.5 


155.1 


12.7 


2.5 


1.4 


247 t 


r 6 


l.ll 


19 V 


?9 56 


1« 7 


'* 7 


5.M 






5.»?t 


65 


• 42.4 


121.3 


121.3 


J65.3 


5.9 


4.6 


4.6 


247.6 


5 5 


5 27 


15 97 


55 31 


166.6 


7* 1 


6 6tf 


wmtw^ 




56 


143 2 


131.5 


121.5 


115.3 


6.3 


3 7 


3.5 


r47.s 


r.B 


5 24 


|9 *7 


it S3 


lt6.6 


74 2 


I tw 




in 


3 LW 


66 


145.4 


I26.f 


125.5 


115.4 


5 9 


3.5 


3 5 


247.5 


5 6 


6.24 


15.57 


5i,63 


165 5 


74.2 


5 50 


9 i6 


5.IKU 


55 


iSl.t 


135.5 


125.6 


115.4 


5.9 


3.9 


J.7 


247 t 


( 6 


5 24 


15 31 


S6 73 


169 1 


74 3 


6 50 




M 


S ti*<* 


65 


• 54.5 


J^ 


126.5 


111.9 


5.6 


3.7 


3 2 


24fc.7 


r.5 


5 23 


19 57 


90 95 


1M.9 


74 2 


5 44 




1 1 


5 • 


65 


■55.6 




125.7 


111.7 


5.9 


i.7 


3 7 


247.5 


( 6 


6.23 


15.57 


31 II 


160.9 


74 3 


5 06 




i^ 


3. CM 


51 


1 1.5 


TaT 


126.7 


113.5 


6.9 


4.1 


4 5 


247. t 


r 2 


6,24 


1995 


51 26 


165.9 


7* 2 


5 5C 




to 


3909 


61 


I 4.3 


125.1 


115.1 


ii:.6 


11.5 


11.1 


25 1 


247.5 


1--4 5 


3.65 


15.62 


51.49 


169.3 


« 6 


5 M 




m 


9 0-^ 


51 


• 7.4 


117.5 


117.1 


115.7 


27.1 


17 5 


13.6 


247.5 


1.'. .1 


6.57 


t) 66 


51.66 


1.-2.9 


III 5 


5.60 




ct 


5 0u5 


61 


• •9.5 


115.9 




115.5 


17.1 


m.7 


42.1 


247.6 


"; 3 


5 52 


15.64 


31, 7J 


176.4 


111 5 


5 6t 




69 


9 ttt 


51 


<I3.5 


114.5 


114 5 


135.1 


52.4 


35.4 


67.3 


24t.6 


1 1 6 


12.67 


15.6W 


51 57 


IMl 5 


111 4 


5 55 




r« 


3 <r«! 


61 


■ 16.5 


112.3 


III. 7 


131.5 


66.9 


56.3 


77.6 


24.-. 6 


im 9 


It 63 


19 7J 


51.54 


166 4 


111. 5 


t Vi 




fW 


5 p-* 


61 


)36 5 


Hi 9 


115.3 


146.3 


61.5 


61.2 


59.5 


2*7.6 


I :.6 


15.49 


19.79 


51 96 


1% 4 


III 5 


5.M 




M 


5 I'* 


61 


• 21.3 


113.5 


114.9 




46.6 


11.7 


25 3 


247.5 


..; 4 


26.24 


15.75 


51.54 


266 4 


III 4 


t 50 




rt 


s.*>t 


51 


■ 2C.2 


117.2 


117.5 


156.9 


16.5 


16.9 


■ 5 6 


747 9 


't 7 


15 1' 


15.79 


M 57 


2«l.5 


111.3 


5 •" 




1 T 


« f-« 


61 


125.4 


lit-. 5 


IIS 5 


153.5 


52.7 


53. • 


16. 3 


247.5 


'■' 6 


I» 31 


19 61 


51 56 


2fl6.6 


ni.6 


6 U5 




rj 


! 1 -J 


51 


■ 12.5 


116 5 


119.3 


157.3 


57,7 


53 5 


15 6 


246 6 


4 5 


1*.54 


19 tt 


51.77 


2*0,6 


III 4 


5 56 




<» 


3 •^-•1 


61 


• 39.5 


116.3 


117.5 






26 7 


16.5 


247. > 


: 3 


36 19 


l«.56 


51 66 


210.5 


111 6 


t •> 




ca 


9 3 •* 


51 


■ 16 « 


U7 5 


117 1 


1*3.2 


49.1 


•7 ( 


?i 1 


■••' B 


' t, 


^' 11 




*i '1 


7M f) 


■1] ^ 










61 


• 41.1 


IK tl 


tl5.4 


164 3 


1,9 


i 9 


i # 


.'*• « 


. 9 


1- 113 


1« 5« 


11 5v 


.'14 f 


tl 1 


J, 








61 


145.5 


119 


119.1 


1C3 7 


67.2 


6.5 


5 4 


.'=..9 


. 6 


M -If* 


15.12 


•I i2 


21 t 1 


Ml ] 


-61 ?! 


-32 






61 


'46.3 


121 f 


125 2 


165 7 


49.2 




5 6 


294 ! 


' « 


5.IJ 


15 t3 


91 45 


214 1 


ir: t 


-3.- -M 


-14 


, -J 


t.t '• 


51 


• 51.2 


121.5 


122.9 


169.7 


7.5 


6 9 


4 C 


,T* t 


1 6 


0.4G 


15 56 


51 41 


217 5 




l-l 




. ) 




61 


>54.4 


12:. 1 


1.-I.2 


167.5 


6.5 


3 7 


3 7 


233 6 


f 5 


23 


19 77 


9. 52 


i.r 9 


I J 


t fl. 








5t 


1V.5 


121.5 


121 5 


157.4 


6.5 


3.7 


3 5 


253. ■* 


(.3 


6 29 


15 77 


5. 75 


■i: a 


l'-'.9 


u \.^ 






\ 1 


a 


) 5.5 


126 5 


125.5 


157 5 


5.9 


3 9 


^•M 


.-5S.6 


1 5 


6 r4 


15. '7 


SI 77 


/I7 9 


124 9 


t »> 




u 


t I " 


a 


• 3.5 


135 - 


120 5 


165.4 


6 9 


3 7 


3 7 


253.6 


1 6 


5 23 


15 75 


51 91 


2t' 3 


Ub t 


^ 9V 






i I • 


a 


1 7.5 


120 : 


1.5 7 


159 4 


5 ' 


3.7 


3 5 


255 6 


r 5 


.3 


:9 79 


9: 93 


219 3 


i:& 1 


■ u> 




. ' 





6-38 



900-850 

Table 6.2.7. Samples of Data Printout for Test No. IP (C Cycle, 
no Regen Br) 



I T r HS4A.n I 



CLflfSED 


tun 


■PTT 


iir« 


VCLT 


«.aT 




UNTII 


rii. 



•rf Blip WIT 



: i i 


123.1 


i<..e 


2?v I 


?? 4 


43. a 


^0.1 


5? e 


6 2 


1^3 > 


121 ? 


2L:; Z 


7i 3 


w- ? 


71 a 


a?- 9 


9 2 


112 1 


121 r 


«i 5 


^9.* 


S2 3 


Tl 2 


5^.• 


1.' 4 


i2« ; 


121 c 


M) 1 


/|i.« 


3; J 


1 4 


5? s 


1^ t 


irt I 




M4.» 


i? t 


rs 


33 2 


;a 3 


)fl 8 


1^3 3 


in.k 


313 * 


79 2 


K C 


24.? 


3'. 9 


:i B 


1.V.2 


MTU 


315 ' 


I. A 


4 3 


4 2 


57 a 


.^b 


u?.:. 


1.'.' fi 


315 7 


1.3 


4 2 


4 ; 


i7 t 


2j : 


::? a 


li? 7 


iiT 1 


1 1 


4 a 


4 a 


V i 




ir? ? 


12? f 


Sir 9 


• r 


4 


4.a 


5? a 


3J 2 


.:? i. 


i<j 1 


31. 1 


i 4 


4 a 


4 a 


5? a 


I* 4 


u6 : 


\li.2 


311 3 


• 4 


4.1 


4.2 


sr.a 


•M S 


1^8..- 


-.2% 4 


318 3 


• J 


4 2 


4 2 


5'. a 


U il 


1/9 4 


1?« 4 


119 ? 


• .4 


4 4 


* 2 


?-' « 


4l :: 


l-rf.i 


1-0 s 


319 7 


e 4 


•1 3 


4 3 


37 ri 


511 a 


\:« f. 


l-;S £ 


321 2 


a 4 


4 1 


4 2 


3?, a 


ii : 


i2i r 


I2a.7 


3>1 5 


u 3 


4 ] 


4 4 


i7 a 


^G 4 


129 1 


123 r 


32. 1 


a 4 


4 1 


4 2 


5^ a 


■5-- t 




I2J : 


j.'i.3 


a 4 


4 a 


4 3 


sr a 




li^ ? 


i:b.4 


j^ 2 


2.-. 3 


ao.3 


5J 1 


ir a 


V( 


\£*.% 


121 


333 3 


39 2 


5? a 


113 a 


5? a 


."- * 


121 7 


tl6 I 


3 2 


M 4 


2i3 « 


21:* a 


*•? r 




Wf, J 




:: 


5.9 


5S 4 


lt>2 f- 


5.- 8 


15'^ 


115 5 


114 5 


:- a 


91* C 


211 2 


182. 4 


sa a 


lU.o 


113. ■» 


114 


^5 : 


118 4 


104 4 


4a. 1 


5? a 


.:i A 


I2t : 


iia n 


SI 


103 a 


ibH e 


151 9 


»5 9 


J4 e 


121 1 






^a.a 


:9 I 


5^ a 


63 a 


:?■.(; 


i:j.« 


122 8 


-a « 


rt 7 


ft4.a 


sa 2 


S3. 9 


If h 


114 ? 


114 r 


B4 5 


in 1 


33 I 


ptf 1 


6^ a 


:-i.t 


12. .1. 


1^^ (I 


56 5 


k:J.9 


40 I 


33 4 


C.5 a 


3.-. 2 


ir4 r 


l?2 s 


ia3 3 




S.9 


4.C 


C5 8 


«.2 


iri-.* 


12?. I 


ie3 a 


1 4 


4.2 


4 2 


(5. a 


4< 4 


ir^ fi 


nr 5 


IM fi 


1 4 


4 2 


4 2 


fs a 


~ b 


' ■/ ti 


l.'.'.C 


Itf4 6 


:.3 


4 7 


4 7 


t.3 K 




1-?. 


i;?.^ 


1 'Ij J 


f) 9 


^■>«« 


4 7 


«•> a 






1 i. 


loL 9 


e.5 


4 G 


4 S 


b^ u 


-t P 


I 'J ■> 


i-*fl ? 


I1I7.4 


1 


4 3 


4 3 


63 ' 


J .■ 




I/C .> 


\^ 4 


a 4 


.1 1 


t 2 


£3 a 


4 




ir^P 4 


108 n 


a. 4 






S3 " 


*■ .. 


1. . ' 


1 'J !, 


i:.i.6 


4 


4 t 


.) 2 


fr> fl 




l."*E.'i 


r: . 


IJ.I a 


a 4 


4 ^ 


4 1 


61 a 



■ b 120 6 i:a.7 




f V H T F ttCSULn I 



•la* va ccN) 




F)>n 

ULI- 

MHTN 



5 art 

3 K* 

s.aco 

S 00$ 
9 80« 



9.a^ 
5 $n 
3 a^a 
s.ata 



5 I'- 3 

S • B 

5 VbB 

9 Ou« 

3 »>C 
3 PvL 



6-39 



►•?■■ 



900-850 



Table 6.2.8. Samples of Data Printout for Test No. 19 (C Cycle, 
with Regen Br) 



•IMfCU^ 4/1 



im 


■• 


»Tt 


•n 


y* 


l«T 


UTT 


•n 


IH* 


HIT 


PIFW 


m.c 


Mt.C 


IHI 


IHI 


mo 


■Btn 


FIICI 


Tim 


WLT 


va,T 


•ITT 


VILT 


mr 


mf 


•Tr 


mr 


ucn. 






W 


nBi 


wv 


wv 


CNLI- 






IWIL 


111. 


tlKH 


111 


IWll. 


7IL 


•RW 


tTL 


mi 


WT 


ISTO* 


ISIOI 


niTai 


FIL 


IMF 11 


1MTN 


m 


ne 


1 


1 


I 


4 


9 


1 


7 


■ 


1 


11 


11 


12 


13 


14 


i: 


II 


II 


■ 4.1 


IB.I 


m.i 


M.I 


91.9 


1.1 


1.1 


1M.1 


d.l 


ll.M 


9.11 


11.97 


2W.1 


11.9 


-M.13 -41.73 


9.1H 


II 


1 r.4 


in.t 


Ill.l 


41.1 


H.l 


1.1 


1,1 


la.i 


'1.1 


11.12 


l.M 


a.M 


2M.1 


14.1 


-11.71 


-a.K 


9.1M 


II 


■ It 1 


in.i 


131.4 


99.1 


lU.t 


1.1 


1.1 




4.1 


9.21 


1,13 


19.M 


291.1 


.7.1 


-l.M 


-l.M 


9.1^ 


11 


■ ii.t 


iif.i 


121.9 


17.1 


1.1 


1.1 


1.1 


173.9 


4.3 


1.22 


i.n 


M.13 


2H.1 


17.1 


-2.19 


-1,91 


9.11.1 


11 


iii.l 


121.1 


121.1 


<7.1 


1.4 


1.1 


1.1 


172.1 


1.1 


1.17 


l.M 


21.12 


293.9 


17.3 


-1.03 


-2.12 


l.Ml 


11 


iM.t 


m.i 


129.1 


17. 1 


1.4 


1.1 


1.1 


172 1 


1.1 


1.17 


1.92 


21.11 


291,1 


17.4 


-1.13 


-2.12 


I.IN 


11 


ill.l 


IM.l 


129.1 


17.1 


1.4 


1.1 


1.1 






1.17 


l.M 


21.21 


299.1 


17.4 


-2.n 


-2.2' 


i.im 




la.i 


IM.I 


121.1 


U.t 


1.1 


1.1 


1.1 


171.1 


1.1 


1,14 


l.M 


21.42 


2M.1 


17.2 


-2.34 


-2.9( 


9.101 


II 


m.i 


m.i 


121.1 


tr.i 


1.4 


1.1 


1.1 


172.1 


1 1 


1.17 


l.M 


21.47 


299.2 


17.3 


-l.M 


-2.71 


I.IM 




tii.< 


131.1 


m.i 


•7.1 


1.4 


1.1 


1.1 


172.7 


1.1 


1.17 


l.M 


21.(4 


291.7 


17.3 


-2.42 


-2.71 


9.1M 


II 


■ 19.< 


Ill.l 


131.1 


17.1 


1.4 


1.1 


1.1 


172.1 


111.7 




11.11 


M.73 


Ill.l 


71.2 


l.M 


l.M 


s.m 


11 


<».( 


iir.i 


129.4 


«i.i 


29.1 


114.1 


94.1 


119.1 


li> 1 


1.23 


11.11 


21 12 


2(9.1 


13.7 


l.M 


1.13 


9.'..1 


u 


141. • 


119.4 


121.4 


71.7 


91.1 


■3.1 


91.1 


IK.3 


17i.l 


11.21 


ll.M 


21.I1 


279.1 


13.4 


l.M 


l.M 


l.OH 


11 


■ «.• 


114.1 


Ill.l 


11.4 


91.1 


131.1 


174.3 


1*9.1 


21* 1 


17.97 


ll.U 


21.97 


1M.7 


11.1 


I.N 


l.M 


9.W 


11 


I«.l 


119.4 


119.9 


111.1 


112.1 


147.1 


144.2 


IM.I 


131.1 


21.12 




21.14 




11.4 


l.M 


l.M 


i.m 


11 


Ill.l 


• 11.1 


119.1 


in.i 


11.4 


111.4 


111.2 


2M.9 


21! 3 


24.x 


ll.M 


21.14 


322,9 


13.1 


l.M 


l.M 


9. HI 


II 


tM.4 


iii.n 


111.3 


142.1 


IM.t 


111.1 


IM.I 


317.1 


HI 1 


29.13 


11.11 


21.12 


331.7 


11.2 


-1.71 


-2.19 


9,K1 


II 


iV.S 


IM. 


129.1 


191.4 


92.4 


19.1 


il.l 


217.4 


(! 9 


21.23 


11.17 


21.17 


141.1 


17.9 


l.M 


9.00 


9.VJ9 


11 


1 ••• 


iia.4 


lll.i 


197,4 


77.1 


99.3 


41.1 


211.1 


71 1 


29.19 


11.14 




9.9 


11.3 


1 H 


l.KI 


9.«1 


u 


1 3.1 


121. r 


122.3 


112. 7 


74.1 


31.4 


•9 4 


217.1 


91 1 


29.31 


ll.M 


31.17 


11.1 


13.1 


l.M 


I.n 


9.1^: 


u 


■ '1 


121.4 


133.1 


171.1 


19.7 


92.7 


41.1 


219.9 


S«-l 


21.41 


11.12 


n.M 


11.1 


13.2 


l.M 


l.M 


9.Mt 


11 


■ It.l 


in.' 


114.1 


174.1 


91.3 


17,4 


34.9 


Ill.l 


11 1 


21.14 


11.11 


21.11 


11.7 


11.3 


l.M 


l.OJ 


J.l"l 


u 


111.4 


124.1 


1Z9.1 


179.9 


3.4 


1.1 


1.1 


2I(.. 


1 4 


29.42 


ll.M 






13.4 


-2.12 


-2.(4 


3.^M 


11 


• II.I 


ltr.9 


137.9 


111.9 


1.3 


1.1 


1.1 


217.3 


1 4 


27.14 


ll.M 


n.M 


21.1 


13 2 


-2.12 


-2.41 


9.1M 


u 


■ 11.4 


iir.i 


127.1 


IH.l 


1.9 


1.1 


1.1 


317.3 


1.4 


21.13 


ll.U 


21.M 


M.I 


li.4 


-1.32 -M.K 


9.001 


II 


111.* 


114. 1 


134.1 


IM.I 


•7.7 


1.1 


1 1 


121.9 


1.1 


22.(1 


ll.M 


n.i2 


M.I 


W.9 


-a.2i 


-92.45 


o.rn 


11 


i».i 


119.9 


111.2 


in.i 


91. C 


1.1 


1.1 


321.7 


1.1 


17.37 


11.11 


2II.M 


M.I 


aM««* 


-33.19 


-17.22 


i.ni 


It 


IM.I 


113.1 


112.1 


Ill.l 


39.1 


1.1 


1.1 


333.1 


1.1 


11.91 


l.M 


21.H 


M.I 


Ill.l 


-11.79 


-12.27 


9.K1 


11 


Ill.l 


13* .9 


Ill.l 


117.1 


19.1 


1.1 


1.1 


239.1 


1.1 


1.19 


11.11 


21.12 


21.C 


119.7 


-3.11 


-1.(4 


9.H1 


1> 


in.i 


111.4 


la.r 


111.1 


1.1 


1.3 


l.I 


2.'«.1 


1 1 


1.24 


9.94 


21. M 


37.9 


197.9 


-1.3* 


-1.(0 


9.n 


u 


IM.4 


i».n 


121.1 


m.i 


1.9 


1.1 


1.1 


2M.3 


1.1 


l.ll 


1.94 


21.17 


37.9 


117.1 


■aa*«« 


-2.31 


i.Kt 


u 


141 % 


i».r 


131.7 


111.1 


1.4 


1.1 


1.1 


239.4 


1.1 


1.17 


9.94 


21.M 


37.9 


ir.i 


-2.71 


-3.04 


9.1M 


11 


144.6 


in.r 


129.7 


211.1 


1.4 


1.1 


1.1 


237.9 


I 1 


1.11 


9.14 


21.11 


37.9 


117.1 


-2.(4 


-3.n 


9.1C* 


11 


141.1 


in.i 


I39.1 


319.1 


1.4 


1.1 


1.1 


237.1 


1 1 


1.21 


11.11 


21. » 


37.3 


IK.l 


-2.K 


-2.91 


l.ont 


12 


111. 9 


121.1 


i:i.s 


211.1 


1.4 


1.1 


1.1 


237.1 


1.1 


1.17 


l.M 


21.43 


37.9 


117.1 


-2.(4 




5.0C1 


11 


IM.1 


IK.f 


1.1.1 


221.1 


1.4 


1.1 


1.1 


2M. 1 


3.1 


1.22 


9.92 


21.99 


37.9 


117.3 


l.M 


o.n 


9.W4 


11 


iW.l 


in. 4 


13S.3 


131.2 


29.9 


9.: 


91.1 


<M.C 


171 9 


9.M 


11.11 


21.(9 


41.1 


132 7 


l.M 


D.fl'l 


i.ot: 


1? 


1 1.4 


12&.4 


121 II 


229.3 


11.9 


97.1 


119.4 


231. < 


ICl 2 


12.74 


9.71 


21.13 


!J.( 


IV.S 


l.W 


O.Cl 


9.1 :■ 


11 


1 3.( 


111.2 


114.3 


244.1 


Ill.l 


114.9 


111.9 


299.1 


171 7 


11.41 


9 99 


ll.M 


71.1 


133.2 


fl.Cil 


^b-. r 


W. ti ^ 


13 


1 1.4 


lir.3 


117. J 


349.1 


114.9 


99.1 


19.1 


2S1.I 


2«.9 


23.91 


19.11 


21.91 


n.7 


i:?.e 


Ir.H 


1.1 1 


9.0.'. 


11 


1 f.i 


117.11 


119 9 


271.2 


97.1 


191.1 


179.3 


291.7 


191 7 


K.K 


l.M 


21.71 


M.9 


111.4 


1 10 


O.QJ 


9.0.5 


13 


112.1 


iir.2 


119.1 


289 » 


72.1 


13.1 


44.9 


2!9.1 


7..1 


29.12 


11.01 


21.13 


IN.2 


132. C 


e.o!i 


0.11 


S.C.i 


13 


ili.l 


I2S.2 


129.2 


292.1 


41 3 


1.2 


17 S 


2M.1 


41 2 


29.13 


9.113 


21.71 


119.9 


13^. ( 


1.03 


O.H. 


S.C'O 


IS 


Ill.l 




124.3 


299.3 


IS.i 


91.3 


33.1 


217.1 


13.1 


29.17 


l.M 


21.19 


119.1 


112.4 


l.M 


l.M 


s.ou 



I V H T F KWLH ■ ■THMh'TT FRGI Ml. 21 VIM Ot^ *^l 



tuw 


m 


WTT 


WTT 


IHI 


tar 


MTT 


MTT 


IHl 


TOT 


rIFTIt 


ta.i 


KC.C 


U-H 


U-H 


KKH 


auiH 


riif 


TW 


■KIT 


>«LT 


MTT 


VB.T 


ttr 


orr 


MTT 


«» 


WCB. 






TO 


Fion 


m 


ttr 


COLi 






IMFIL 


Fll 


lliOl 


FIL 


IIVII. 


FIL 


HOC 


FIL 


m 


m-T 


rnnt 






!-lL 


UWIL 


MATH 


Wl 


KC 


1 


2 


1 


4 


9 


1 


7 


1 


1 


11 


11 


12 


11 


14 


15 


l( 


41 


1 1.1 


la.i 


IM.I 


m.i 


1.9 


3.7 


1.3 


2M.1 


113.1 


1.91 


^^m 


42.4* 


219.( 


71.1 


l.M 


a.M 


i.no 


41 


1 3.1 


111.1 


111.9 


197.1 


37.9 


M.4 


»3.3 


2M.4 


1!».9 


1.7: 


ii.n 


<S.f9 


219.1 


n.3 


l.M 


a.M 


9 *?• 


41 


1 (.1 


111.1 


IM.7 


at.! 


tl.2 


111.3 


111.1 


2M.1 


l!(.l 


14.97 


11.31 


42. M 


a7.i 


11.1 


l.M 


a.M 


9.KI* 


41 


Ill.l 


192.1 


in.9 


211.1 


1N.2 


14(.2 


l«.l 


2M.9 


in.i 


M.n 


11. a 


41.91 


2M.5 


71.2 


-I.n 


-1.17 


5.1M 


41 


113.2 


119.2 


IM.I 


2in.i 


M.4 


Ilt.7 


111.2 


2M.9 


3i;.9 


a.M 


mmi4m 


4*M4ai 


ai.9 


71.1 


• .M 


a.M 


9.1W 


41 


Ill.l 


Itl.I 


111.9 


2«.l 


M.2 


112.9 


IM.t 


2M.2 


113.1 


M.37 


14.17 


43. M 


217.2 


71.1 


1 M 


l.M 


».F")1 


41 


■ 11.2 


IW.l 


111.9 


291.1 


17.7 


17.1 


22.1 


2M.2 


!1.7 


M.n 


ii.n 


42.17 


274.1 


71.2 


• .M 


1.89 


S.CjS 


41 


122.4 


111.3 


119.2 


ill .9 


94.9 


97.1 


17.4 


»7.t 


12.1 


a.94 


11.43 


a.M 


27t.t 


(1.9 


• .M 


I.IHI 


9.C01 


41 


■».l 


113.3 


111.9 


2M.7 


12.1 




41.3 


2M.2 


72.7 


M.41 


11.41 


42.71 




71.1 


a.M 


l.M 


9.M1 


41 


iH.l 


111.9 


112.4 


271.4 


n.i 


Mil 


9S.2 


2M.1 


77.1 


a.M 


11.44 


42.49 


2M.I 


19.1 


l.M 


I.n 


9.1M 


4( 


Ill.l 


113.9 


HI 9 


271.1 


71.1 


17.1 


Si.l 


2M.2 


ri.i 


a. 32 


11.42 


4i.a 


212.1 


(1.9 


1 n 


l.U 


5.»:5 


41 


m.i 


114.1 


114.1 


ai.i 


M.t 


21.1 


a.4 


2M.1 


!*.9 


a.M 


11.42 


«.12 


2*3.1 


(l.I 


l.M 


l.H 


s.na 


41 


IM.I 


119.1 


111.2 


2M.2 


M.I 


11.7 


1.1 


2M 4 


f.f 


M.47 


Ii.n 


41.92 


r/s.t 




-54.19 


-71.75 


i.o-a 


41 


141.2 


113.4 


1M.9 


214.1 


M.I 


1.1 


1.1 


2(4.2 


1.1 


23.41 


11.37 


41.7* 


299.1 


•2.1 


-94.M 


-95. M 


5.014 


41 


■44.4 


122.3 


It4.( 


M4.7 


91.7 


1.1 


*.* 


26*.* 


0.1 


17.44 


11.24 


41. M 


a«.* 


M.7 


-45.41 


-X.U 


9.0U1 


41 


■ 47.1 


122.1 


113.7 


2*4.1 


a.i 


a.l 


*.* 


I73.t 


l.I 


11.91 


11.11 


41.93 


2H.9 


11.4 


-3?.i9 


•23. M 


9.1C1 


41 


■M 1 


124.2 


122.4 


M4.t 


M.2 


t.l 


>.l 


171.4 


1.1 


<.2I 


1J.31 


41.47 


7*9.( 


99.1 


•M««* 


-9.79 


9 CJl 


41 


■93.1 


1M.7 


IM.I 


2M.1 


2.9 


1.4 


1.1 


M.I 


1.1 


l.M 


ll.M 


41.41 


299.7 


M.9 


9.M 


-a rs 


9.1i'1 


41 


■V.l 


1M.2 


1M.3 




l.t 


t.l 


1.1 


H.I 


1.1 


l.M 


11.31 


41. M 


2K 9 


K.4 


-1.54 


-l.Gl 


9.9.1a 


47 


■ 1.2 


1M.2 


IH.l 


im!i 


1.1 


l.« 


1.7 


M.I 


1.1 


3.M 


ll.M 


41. L4 


2*9.( 


K 4 


-1.32 


-l.ll 


i.aeo 


47 


■ 1.4 


1M.2 


IM.I 


2H.4 


1.1 


1.1 


1.9 


M.f 


l.I 


I.n 


10. a 


41. *4 


749 9 


K.4 






9.0-0 


tf 


■ (.2 


UO.l 


IM.I 


3K.1 


l.I 


t.4 


1.7 


M.I 


1.1 


l.M 


ii.a 


42.41 


299.9 


M.4 


-1.47 


-I.n 


9.tM 


47 


1 1.4 


121.1 


1:^.1 


2M.1 


1.9 


t 1 


l.( 


M.( 


1.1 


1.27 


u.a 


41.2.: 


299.9 


M.4 


-1.(1 


-l.M 


9.in 


47 


112.1 


la.i 


IM 1 


2M.I 


1.1 


1.7 


1.7 


M.7 


1.1 


l.B 


ll.M 


42.4* 


2n.4 


M.9 


-l.» 


-1.54 


i.iac 


« 


119.1 


Ill.l 


1H.7 


2W.1 


1.9 


e.7 


1.7 


M.I 


I.N 


l.M 


11.31 


42.19 


2?9.( 


K.4 


-l.M 


-1.54 




47 


• 11.1 


111.9 


119.1 


at.i 


l.I 


11.9 


M.9 


ir.i 


:m.2 


l.M 


ii.a 


42.M 


3H.1 


141.9 


I.n 


1.01 


5.001 


47 


la.i 


III.* 


114.1 


2M.1 


24.1 


14.4 


7.1 


M.t 


91.1 


t.ll 


ii.a 


43.14 


M].( 


199.9 


• n 


l.M 


9.0i» 


« 


ia.3 


IN.3 


117 ,1 


at.* 


«.l 


114.7 


Ill.l 


M.I 


Ill.l 


11.13 


ll.M 


<i.n 


119.7 


IH.l 


• M 


a.M 


s.m 


47 


■a.4 


m.i 


112.1 


111.2 


M.I 


144.9 


141.1 


M.t 


Ill.l 


M.n 


11.24 


43.31 


330.7 


199.9 


l.M 


l.M 


9.100 


47 


■ 31.( 




1 7.1 


n2.7 


1H.9 


17*. ( 


213.1 


M 1 


2*9.9 


a.n 


It. 42 


43. « 


341.3 


153.9 


ll.M 


l.M 


9.ttl 


47 


■ I4.( 


111.2 


Ill.l 


ia.7 


17.7 


119.1 


Ill.l 


M.7 


199.4 


27.M 


Ii.a 


43.17 


13.1 


in.i 


l.M 


a.oi 


9.CU 


er 


■ 17 1 


111.4 


103.9 


1.4 


IM.t 


7*.> 


47.1 


M.I 


M.I 


a. 17 


ll.M 


4I.M 


21.1 


194.9 


• .H 


l.CT 


9.l'~l 


47 


141.1 


111.1 


112.3 


14.1 


(7.! 


M.2 


(1.7 


V.l 


93 2 


M.ll 


11.11 


42. M 


».3 


!»>.» 


• ■M 


*.« 


S.ID 


47 


•44.2 


1M.9 




tl.t 


71.7 


4(.4 


14.1 


M.7 


11 2 


a.M 


ll.M 


42.1* 


33.7 


139.1 


• .M 


l.o-i 


i.t^ 


47 


■47.2 


Ill.l 


113.3 


r.i 


a.4 


r. • 


m.r 


M.7 


71.1 


a. 11 


11.11 


42.41 


a. 2 


1(0.1 


a.M 


l..** 


l.M* 


47 


IM.4 


IM.I 


111.1 


11.1 


71.1 


'V 


M.I 


M.t 


11 I 


M.H 


11.19 


42.34 


44.3 


tJ9.» 


l.M 


•.r- 


9.f-f 


47 


■93.( 


tul.9 


111.3 


».i 


77.1 




71.1 


W.t 


11.9 


a. Id 


ll.M 


42. l-j 


91.1 


1. J.l 


1 L.I 


a '. 


Z L 


47 


IM.( 


111.0 






M.I 


! • 


7.( 


St.l 


1.7 


a.47 


11.11 


42.12 


93.1 


IM.I 


-l.ls 


-l.I' 


.0 - 


47 


■».( 


117.7 


117.7 


47.1 


1.1 


1.1 


1.1 


M.t 


l.t 


M.f9 


11.11 


4r 13 


33.1 


159.1 


-1.17 


-1 'h' 


5.IJ< C 


41 


■ 2.1 


111.: 


111.1 


47.1 


1.1 


1.1 


1.1 


M.7 


1 1 


24.n 


11.19 


«. 4b 


93.1 


1(4.1 


-M.n 


-61 ..1 


9.L ; 


41 


■ 1.1 


122 1 


124.2 


<T.I 


».l 


1.1 


1.1 


13.9 


1 1 


11.17 


11.37 


42. n 


93.1 


174.1 


-21.47 


-40. b. 


5.C - 


41 


■ 1.2 


131. • 


173.1 


47.2 t 




1.1 


1.1 


57 4 


1 1 


11.94 


11.11 


42.19 


S3 1 


170.4 


-11. If/ 


-a.l 


9.0 9 


m 


■ 12.2 


IM.I 


121.1 


tf.l 


17.4 


(*.! 


1.1 


11.1 


■ 1 


4.M 


11.19 


42.H 


(9.9 


IM 1 


l.M 


-l.M 


9.7^9 


41 


■ 19.4 


:l».l 


119.4 


94.2 


1 3 


1.3 


1.7 


71.2 


1 t 


1.11 


ll.U 


42.41 


H.9 


in.i 


-1 t. 


-1.9» 


9 M 



6-40 



;j;^f".-L PAGE IS 



4 ^...^ 



900-850 

Table 6.2.9. Samples of Data Printout for Test No. 20 (B Cycle, 
no Regen Br) 



■ V H T r muiii I 



■unn 


Tim 


niH 


nc 


i> 


IB.I 


11 


143,4 


I] 


■ 4S.t 


11 


t4>.l 


11 


■31. C 


1] 


<94.> 


II 


tsa.s 


14 


> 1.2 


14 


< 4.2 


)4 


I 7.4 


14 


■ ll.C 


14 


111.! 


14 


■ li.l 


14 


lit.l 


14 


■ 21.2 


14 


■2e.4 


14 


12S.4 


14 


■ 12,< 


14 


ilS.I 


14 


■ ».l 


14 


■ 41.1 


I* 


.3.1 


14 


■ 41.3 


14 


ISI.4 


14 


■ 34.4 


14 


i».t 


19 


■ t.l 


13 


1 4,( 


IS 


I r.i 


'J 


>lt.2 


S 


■ 11.4 


IS 


IM.I 


IS 


;«.» 


1^ 


<».■ 


IS 


ijf.t 


IS 


•a.! 


IS 


■ U.I 


IS 


■ .55.2 


IS 


<».4 


IS 


■ 41 C 


13 


t44.fi 


:s 


■ 47.fi 


IS 


■ Sl.S 


IS 


■ 34.2 



Mtr 


MTT 


IHI 


rOT 


9ATT 


iOTT 


U-M 


AT 


firm 


m.: 


BtS.C 


tf-M 


tf-H 


MOM 


KGEN 


riieo 


WLT 


VOLT 


99TT 


VOLT 


MP 


tt* 


•ftTT 


¥» 


U«L 






to 


nwi 


tfP 


fin 


C91I- 


urvfL 


FtL 


9I9CH 


rtu 


WFIL 


fit 


KCMf: 


■TL 


fTH 


Wt'T 


mm 


roiw 


ronit 


rtt. 


UHTtL 


9MtN 


I 


2 


1 


4 


9 


9 


? 


a 


9 


19 


11 


12 


'3 


14 


19 


K 


122.1 


121.4 


ll.l 


73.2 


27.9 


99.9 


|9».9 


91.9 


29.39 


11.29 


19.49 


22.9 


139.1 


e.99 


9.90 


9.9i9 


IM « 


122.9 


10.9 


<3.9 


79.9 


39.9 


109.3 


9i.9 


29.14 


11.99 


19.39 


39.9 


139.2 


-2.12 


-2.4J 


S.038 


I2C.2 


I2«.4 


21.3 


1.9 


9.9 


9.9 


199.3 


1.7 


19.24 


11.99 


19.33 


29.3 


139.1 


'1.19 


•2.3'! 


9.999 


I2C.I 


Mapw 


■MMM 


1.2 


«.9 


9.9 


199.3 


J. 9 


11.92 


11.99 


19.33 


29.3 


134.9 


-1.60 


-1.99 


9.909 


12?. • 


12?. 1 


21.3 


9.9 


9.9 


9.9 


•99.4 


■a.-" 


9.23 


11.(19 


19.27 


29.1 


1331.2 


-2.2« 


-2.34 


9.909 


I2?.2 


12?.! 


21.3 


9.3 


9.9 


9.9 


|9«.? 


9.9 


P. 19 


19.99 


19.10 


29.3 


139,2 


-2.99 


-2.34 


S.999 


l2T.i 


I2?.4 


21.3 


9.3 


9.9 


9.9 


199.9 


;.9 


9.19 


11.99 


19.13 


29.3 


139.1 


-2.99 


-2.34 


9.090 


tZT.i 


12?. » 


21.3 




9.0 


0.9 


I99.i 


}.9 


9.lfi 


11.9? 


19.49 


29.3 


135.1 


'2.29 


-3.34 


9.C'-0 


W.t 


12?. C 


21.3 


0.3 


9.9 


9.9 


199.9 


1.9 


9.19 


11,0? 


19.46 


29.4 


I3S.2 


-2.27 


-2.71 


3.»j3 


itr.i 


J2?.» 


29.9 


9.2 


9.9 


9.9 


199,9 


J.? 


9.19 


n.f? 


19.9? 


21'.3 


139.1 


-1.99 


-2.55 


s.ejt 


12T.T 


12?. • 


21.3 


9.3 


9.9 


9.9 


199.9 


■».? 


9.1fi 


11.99 


19.(2 


29.3 


139.4 


-2.29 


-2.?1 


5.9"9 


I2«.» 


I2?.» 


21.3 


9.4 


■<■••« 


9.9 


199.S 


J.? 


9.1C 


11.19 


'9.79 


29.3 


139.1 


-2.20 


•2.94 


5.989 


itr.9 


I20.t 


27.9 


9.3 


9.9 


9.9 


119.9 


9'.9 


9.19 


11.19 


19.99 


29.3 


133.1 


9.09 


9.KU 


9.980 


122. J 


129.9 


29,3 


21.2 


2C.4 


31.fi 


110.9 


i3!.g 


4.94 


11.22 


29.91 


33.4 


199.9 


9.99 


0.99 


s.oeo 


129.9 


l?J.? 


M.4 


34.9 


99.9 


41.4 


I19.fi 


111.9 


7.94 


tt.27 


29.91 


37. 4t 


219.9 


9.IH1 


9.m 


s.e'B 


122. S 


121,9 


S9.9 


94. 9 


7fi.| 




IIB.9 


I3I.0 


11.91 


11.31 


29.12 


4S.3 


215.7 


9.93 


9. tit. 


5.tK.8 


122.8 


119.C 


49.3 


S9.3 


139.8 


0?.S 


Iti.l 


izi.s 


19.11 


11.29 


20.14 


Si. 3 


215.5 


9.6C 


9.tt 


s.ot.'e 


121.9 


111.5 


9?.« 


94.9 


I29.fi 


99.9 


IM.2 


12:.Q 


19.99 


11.34 


29. IC 


M.3 


219.7 


9.99 


UB 


5.01.C 


\\7.i 


ll?.4 


99.3 


9?.? 


tl.4 


19. S 


IU.9 


41.3 


19.92 


11.39 


20. IC 


79.9 


219.9 


9.99 


0-on 


5.8^ 


I23.fi 


122.9 


72.3 


91.4 


49.1 






■ ) 3 


19.4fi 


11.41 


79.16 


74.9 


215.3 


O.IW 


9. 9 J 


9.PjO 


13I.2 


122,1 


77.9 


fiO.l 


24.2 


49.1 


111.3 


7^.9 


19.CS 


11.34 


29.91 


9U.4 


215.6 


9.98 


9.00 


S.OuO 


121.7 


121.9 


93.4 


fiO.S 


34.7 


49.2 


111.4 


?i.9 


19.97 


11.29 


19.94 


94.fi 


219.3 


9.98 


9.99 


h.090 


I24.fi 


122.9 


99.4 


fi1.7 


fiB.2 


39.3 


lll.l 


«^s 


19.94 


11.34 


19.94 


97.9 


215.5 


9,90 


9. 90 


5. 9^9 


124.9 


122.9 


93.9 


71.9 


94.9 


9fi.t 


lia.9 




19.79 


11.34 


19.99 


93.3 


?17.6 


0.D8 


f'i 


5.9^9 


111.)' 


121.4 


99.1 


91.9 


5.9 


4.9 


121.9 


11.3 


19.33 


11.29 


19.99 


K 1 


21S.fi 


-2.43 


■i.,b 


5.»9 


I2fi.fi 


125.4 


109.9 


1.4 


9. ( 


9.9 


121.0 


).? 


17.29 


11.31 


19.99 


9S.V 


2t9.6 


-2.95 


-2.4.-< 


5.0''9 


tSfi.S 


I2fc.9 


leg.s 


1.1 


8 


1.9 


121.0 


».? 


7.91 


11.29 


19.73 


9C.2 


216.0 


-2.2? 


-2.3b 


9.O11B 


i2r.i 


12?. 1 


189.4 


9,3 


9.8 


9.9 


121.? 


1.9 




11.27 


'• ": 


M.B 


^ij.? 


-2,93 


-2.42 


9.CIC-0 


127.1 


.2?.! 


199.4 


9,3 


8.0 


9.9 


121.? 


t 9 


9.19 




19.93 


9fi.l 


215.6 


-2.2? 


•3.4i 


S.BbG 


12?. 9 


:2?.9 


189. 4 


9.3 


9.t 


..t 


(21.t 


1 9 


8. If 


ii!» 


l9.Kf 


9C. 1 


219.fi 


2.12 


-2.4? 


S.f^ 


IS?. 3 


12?.fi 


109.4 


0.4 


0.0 


f J 


121.4 


1.4 


9.11 


11.31 


19.9? 


96.1 


215.3 


.71 


-2. 9 J 


s.ee? 


12?. 7 


12?. 9 


199.4 


8.4 


0.0 


' a 


123.1 


>.? 


9..« 




2- 93 


96.1 


219, fi 


,.,j>^ 


-2.93 


5.PC3 


12?. 1 


12?. 9 


199.C 


8.9 


0.9 


j.i 


123.1 


J.7 


9.1fi 


11.3fi 


28.14 


96.9 


219.7 


-2.2? 


-i.tA 


3.010 


17?. 9 


P?.9 


1»«.4 


8.4 


0.9 


9.9 


in.i 


) ? 


9. If 


11. 3« 


^.ff 


^,1 


?IS.5 


-2.2-1 


-2.f 


3 *"? 


12/. -J 


1 V.9 


li.J.4 


J.3 


8.9 


8.0 


153.1 


ij 7 


P. 16 


11. £i 


:.j.3t< 


*jc.e 


2rj.c 


-2.4J 


-2.1.1 




I2d.8 


12?.? 


188.4 


7.5 


It.l 


19.4 


12J.2 


17' 3 


l.M 


M JK, 


aMvn 


tOi-.S 


■iiQ.ti 


C.LU 


'' L. 


sil' 


12S.9 


123.8 


184.9 


29.3 


34.9 


40.2 


123. 1 


12' » 


9. ,13 


J1.45 


28.53 


112.2 


.Vj. 1 


e.oo 




S.0' J 


119.'. 


..j.i 


109.? 


30.1 


26.9 


43.1 


123.4 


11' 1 


0.52 


11. 5£ 


2e.cr 


116.3 


3U3.9 


o.ou 




9.E. '] 


122. S 


121.? 


113.9 


90.4 


2C.2 


92.4 


123.1 


I2t 3 


nj.7i; 


11.56 


20.62 


121. E 


303.1 


O.C) 


a.ci 


5.6 J 


119. 1 


ItB.? 


122.9 


74. S 


IH 9 


117.1 


123.3 


161 3 


15.13 


11. ;& 


2B.62 


kuhva 


;flJ.3 


8.Ct> 


0.\. 1 


5.2u; 


I2P.0 


tl8.3 


n9.5 


85.9 


rfi.o 


9I.S 


1?3.4 


11- 1 


18. (» 


ti.ss 


20.64 


1<M,9 


Ziiz.a 


fl.Ct' 


o.i . 


S.P'tl 


:i9.2 


II?. 9 


.<3.9 


83.2 


14.1 


19.? 


123.1 


3: 9 


19.lil 


11.54 


20.64 


l-^'i.S 


3-'l.l 


9.c:, 


1 . 


5.. 


124.2 


l?3.9 


148.9 


fi2.1 


Z2.S 


46.3 


134.1 


t. e 


19.27 


11.93 


90.58 


lb.. : 


3'll.2 


ri T'D 


8.1.1 


•j.e 


122 2 


119.4 


I5?.9 


88.2 


56.? 


SO 4 


133.9 


in 1 


20.23 


11.4? 


4ff!.56 


in.o 




a.LQ 


".,'■ 


b.«. J 



C V H T F (tKOLTS i 



•ZOO eu/u 4/4 2 



fUVlEP 


9(»TT 


99TT 


(HI 


fOT 


i*n 


991T 


U-M 


ItIT 


FIFW 


DCS.C 


xc: 


U-H 


U-H 


RECEN 


RECEN 


FI)C9 


Tir« 


VOLT 


VCLT 


9inT 


WLT 


dtr 


MT 


iATT 


dtp 


■i«L 






TO 


FROn 


fVff 


A^P 


cn.1- 






imPIL 


FIL 


9ISCH 


flL 


UNTIL 


flK 


RtCMC 


FIL 


rM 


flr«-T 


KITOK 


rOTDIt 


rOTOR 


FIL 


IWFIL 


CRMTM 


niN 


9iC 


1 


2 


3 


4 


9 


fi 


7 


9 


9 


19 


11 


12 


.3 


14 


19 


IC 


79 
79 


1 6.9 


117.9 


U7.» 


269.1 


9.5 


2.9 


1.9 


94,2 


1.9 


0.2? 


23.24 


99.76 


313,3 


39.3 


-9.66 


-•.66 


9.969 


I 9-2 


117.9 


I' J 


269.9 


8.3 


1.9 


1,9 


94.9 


1.9 


0.23 


23.32 


90.97 


3I'.3 


39,2 


-0.44 


-0.73 


s.ono 


79 
79 


ilZ,4 


«i :«*■ 


. .9 


269.7 


8.3 


1.9 


1.9 


94.4 


1.9 


9.23 


33.32 


31.11 


313.3 


:;9.2 


-0.37 


-0.C6 


9.009 


113.4 


117.9 


M7.9 


299.7 


8.5 


2.8 


l.V 


119.1 


1.8 


9.23 


21,70 


31.21 


313.4 


19.3 


-8.22 


-9.73 


5.8-* 
O.Btlif 


79 

79 
79 


■-'•.• 


11#.« 


118.0 


2?9,3 


9.C 


i.9 


2.1 


119.1 


I.I 


9.22 


23.59 


Sl.ffi 


313.9 


39.9 


-t.3? 


-9.£6 


i«( "^ 


119.9 


flO.9 


»79.1 


9.9 


1.9 


1.9 


119,2 


1.0 


a. 23 


23,32 


91.92 


314.7 


39.2 


COO 


R.U9 


5.9tK 


123.9 






271.7 


29.9 


9i.6 


34.3 


1IB.4 


122.3 


9.13 


23.29 


91.92 


319.1 


93.4 


9.09 


0.90 


9.009 

9.8*'9 


?9 


127.9 


114.3 


IIZ.S 


279, « 


39.9 


f9.4 


45.1 


IIB.3 


194,9 


9.99 


23,39 


31.?? 


rj.9 


95,3 


9.98 


')9 


79 
79 


t3l.9 


100.7 


III. 4 


200 9 


4^.8 


93.9 


99.9 


110.2 


^9.1 


t.92 


23,41 


31.99 


32'^. 9 


99.4 


9.60 


9.8(1 


S.9.')9 


t34.Z 


108.9 


110.7 


209.0 


39.7 


84.9 


55.7 


UB.l 


91.4 


14,92 


23.33 


31.73 


332.4 


92.3 


9.08 


9. US 


S.fiw9 


?C 


137.4 


195.7 


198.1 




73.3 


97.9 


93.4 


113.2 


IK, 9 


17.11 


23.59 


31.9? 


34C.'} 


94.' 


b.93 


9. Ml 


5 OCF* 


79 


■ 40.4 


104.7 


196.1 


399,9 


99.1 


92.4 


9?.4 


119,2 


n.r 


2^.1? 


23. 4f 


1.52 


2.9 


95. 3 


9.09 


o.eu 


s.o-c 

5. 6. Ill 


79 


■ 43.6 


113.3 


113.3 


304.1 


27.4 


7.9 


19.1 


119.3 


24.3 


19.97 


23.39 


91,29 


3 2 


9!>,S 


o.oe 


9.f9 


79 


I4S.9 


119.9 


115.7 


385.2 


27,2 


13.4 


10.3 


119,2 


25.2 


19.fi3 


23. M 


51. <4 


4 3 


95.3 


9.99 


6.-19 


'j.ObJ 


79 


t99.9 


112.2 


114.9 


396.7 


■•MM 


17.9 


29.3 


llt.2 


34.7 


19.39 


23.34 


99,97 


9.3 


95.3 


0.00 


9.00 


3.909 


79 


■93.9 


112.4 


111.? 


319.7 


63.9 


33.3 


*1.« 


119.1 


93,7 


29.23 


23. E» 


SB.&9 


11.9 


K.i 


9. on 


9.90 


S.D19 


79 


iSfi.Z 


114.0 


U4.5 


3IX.6 


4M.S 


17.1 


19.9 


tl9.3 


3?.? 


1^.59 


23.59 


59,4.1 


13.6 


94.6 


9. BO 


0.8d 


S.( iZ 


Ji 


■99.4 


1I4.S 


114.2 


317.5 


44.1 


14.4 


22.3 


UB.l 


43.6 


19.12 


23.59 


56.16 


IS. 9 


95.3 


-8.51 


-o.cs 


S.63D 


79 
79 


t 2.6 


lie. 9 


116.9 


317. < 


1.7 


IMHn* 


1.9 


119.2 


1.0 


19.99 


23.39 


49.99 


15.2 


95.9 


-e.22 


-9.44 


9.01" 


■ 3.6 


117.2 


117.1 


319.9 


1.3 


2.3 


2.4 


UB.l 


1.9 


9.42 


23.43 


49.72 


1^.9 


n.i 


6.09 


-9. IS 


S.9J9 


7* 
79 
79 


■ 9.9 


It?. 3 


117.3 


319.9 


99 


i.; 


2.3 


UB.l 


t.B 


9.26 


23.41 


49.59 


l:».9 


95.3 


0.09 


-9,22 


3.9C( 


112.9 


117.1 


1,7,4 


319.9 


8.5 


2.3 


2.4 


119.2 


1.9 


9.23 


23.39 


49.a 


15.9 


99.3 


9.60 


-9.19 


9.90r 


ilS.2 


117.6 


117.5 


3i9.0 


3 






119.4 


1.1 


3.26 


23.41 


49.42 


19. 3 


94.9 


9.9ft 


O.oe 


5 . '1''1 


79 
79 
79 
79 
79 
79 
79 
?9 
?9 
79 
7J 
79 


tl9.9 


117.? 


117. G 


328.2 


0.9 


2.4 


1.9 


iie.i 


1.9 


9.26 


23.35 


49.39 


14.9 


9S.3 


•4.3? 


-0 .*3 


5.9ti9 


121. i 
124.4 
■ 2?,6 

• 39.6 

• 33.9 


Ji?.9 


117.9 


329 3 


f.9 


i.e 


1.9 


tlO.7 


3.9 


9.23 


2S.2S 


49.32 


16.4 


93.5 


'9.73 


-t n 


9.eC8 


119.9 

117.9 


117.9 
117.9 


339.2 
329.2 


9.9 
8.3 


1.9 

2.2 


!.9 
2.2 


U9.1 


1.9 
1.9 


B.23 


23.32 

23.3? 


49.42 
49.42 


16.3 

16>3 


99.4 

95.3 


-9.44 

9.89 


-6.73 

-* 1? 


a.o&o 
3 r"0 




U7.9 


3 ..e 


9.3 


2.^ 


Z.B 


ue.i 


1.9 


B.23 


23.. 12 


49.42 


16,3 


9j.3 


9.60 


-0 3? 


3.l]ii8 




119.1 


321.7 


12.6 


24,6 


33.6 


119.2 


192.7 


3.96 


23.28 


49.42 


17.9 


13(>.9 


9.99 


9. or 




■ 37.9 


111.3 


111.9 


329.9 


32.4 


49.1 


39.9 


119.1 


91.4 


B.29 


£3.32 


49.52 


23.9 


137.9 


9.09 


"^.M 


5.8^8 
3.UM 
9.9(i9 
S.OQD 
3.r <r 


'49.2 


III. 9 


112.4 


329.7 


39.9 


23.5 


41,9 


119.3 «*•«• 


IB. 23 


23.76 


49.49 


27.2 


13.*. 4 


0.04 


" "8 


■ 43.Z 


199.4 


111.9 


313.6 


4S.5 


43.9 


44.7 


UB.l 


93.9 


12.01 


2i.2Q 


49.49 


31.2 


137.9 


0.08 


w.OB 


'46.4 


119.3 


139.9 


3J9.2 


65. 4 


199.4 


79.3 


1:0.2 


111.1 


19.63 


23.26 


49.49 


37.9 


137.1 


9.99 


9.M 


• 49.9 

(92.9 


194.7 

m,9 


196.7 
117.7 


2.9 


99.9 

?2.9 


73.2 

?.? 


92.9 
9.6 


lll.l 
IIB.2 


191.9 

13.0 


19.67 


23.21 

2' 1^ 


49,39 

4^* 2^ 


4?,2 
91,3 


137.9 

n?.n 


9.98 

fl.rfl 


9.30 


79 
79 
99 


»13.1 


IIj ? 


1K.6 


zo.r 


3?.)S 


23.? 


111.^ 


J1.6 


19,52 


2:;. IS 


'ttj.ra 


s:!.5 


ij^.t 


O.Iij 




S.L u 


■Sy.B 
1 2.2 


'M.t 
It*. 7 


Mi. 7 
119.2 


14.9 
16.7 


43.1 

:4.3 


39. S 
3.6 


J6.2 
9 i 


111.5 
111 'J 


-.'..5 
3'. 3 


19. w; 

19.16 


23.19 

23.19 


<1.26 
49.26 


5S.J 
ns,3 


1-7.2 
137.9 


O.ld 
U.90 


oiio 


S.IIJD 


99 


■ 5.4 


113.5 


111.5 


19.9 


53.4 


17.1 


31.9 


UI.S 


SS.3 


«wmw 


mmjui 


4t*.22 


37.9 


IS/.O 


9. CO 




3 \i.' 


99 
90 
C3 
99 


t 9.2 


114.7 


(19.7 


22.9 


19.1 


3.? 


7.4 


111.*) 


34.3 


2C.8; 


23.10 


49.19 


59.3 


i3<'.n 


8.00 


o!nr 


III. 4 


iii.r 


.IJ.3 


23.9 


2-2 


2,1 


2.0 


III.9 


1.0 


19.62 


23.06 


49.119 


M. 


i:;?,2 


-B.C6 


-0.95 


5 fO 


'14.6 


117. D 


116.9 


2i.3 


1,4 


1 9 


1.9 


111.4 


1.9 


19,92 


23.08 


43.1)9 


60.6 


137.0 


0.01 


-('.J2 


5.t-;o 


■ 17.9 


II?.? 


M?.I 


24.3 


1.3 


r..4 


2.4 


111.3 


I.I 


K,S« 


2?..M 


mftf^m 


69.7 


137.3 


O.C-ft 


-0 ■•:■ 


On 


■ 29.0 


117.1 


117.5 


24.6 


9.6 


2.3 


2.4 


MI.C 


I.I 


0.21 


2i.0& 


4D.e6 


c.e 


j'.U 


r..iii 


-p. li 


S.IJJO 



6-41 



-p— -p- 






Table 6.2.10. 



900-850 



Samples of Data Printout for Test No. 
with Regen Br) 



21 (C Cycle, 



W.T VOLT Mm 





12 t4:.» 


It^.I 


i:i!.r 


!5 :«■: S 


12ti.«- 




U !4?.J 


'■*.; 


::?.* 


IS tSl t 


.2* ? 


i.r. » 


i: .5** 


:."j "^ 


;.>..: 



11.45 2B.S3 

It. 3b 2«.C0 

II. 9S SA.C2 

II. s» 26. CT ■«.-» m:. 

u.M 2t.i4 1U.S %: 

11.34 ».C4 •40.9 341. 

II. u as.sa 34.2 Ml. 

11.47 2«.S( icr.a .^^.i 



•.« •.« 

-l.U -I.4> 

-I. II -2.14 

-l.tt -I.W 

-i.n -t.M 

-!.•> ->.W 

-»-•> -J.J4 

-I.l» -1.14 

-».»• -a.?i 

•I.M -£.3S 

->.lt -l.ri 

-2.1> -I.M 

•••r •.•■ 

».m :m 

9,m a.M 

• .H • M 

•.n • zi 

:m •.« 

•.M t.n 

•.M ■.to 

•.M a-M 

•.« ».m 

■.at a.aii 

-».« -».f» 

-i.aa -j.c» 

-».» -1.3. 

-a.as -».« 

-».w -».•( 

-2.U "J.«( 

-2.71 -2.93 

-l.« -».91 

-».» -J.f 

-J.» /.^' 

-2 -"^ -J.tl 

«.cu a.c. 

a.BD a.o 

a.aa a.c< 

a.co a.c 

a.c^ a.t.> 

a.co a.c 

a.a a s.' 

a.M a.u. 

9.1 a f 



I.M 

t.*ia 
s.aaa 
s.au 
a.n 
>.at< 
s.aH 



3!na 
>.aa< 



3.aua 

3..>.i 

3.*'3 
S.t I 
S.BbC 
3.1^ 

3.ai:t 

3..-; 



C V H T F KSan : 



JJ^. 


» 


«TT 


•WT 


IhN 


roT 


■NTT 


99TT 


IMI 


r«T 


Firm 


HE.C 


wetx 


W-«t 


U-M 


■OB* 


maa. 


FPO 


tuc 


i«LT 


^ 


•MTT 


WLT 


tt9 


«V 


99TT 


19 


IKD. 






ra 


fmm 


mp 


mw 


€■.!- 






-R 




tncH 


m. 


«VIL 


rn. 


■CDC 


fXL 


WW 


•••T 


rsm 


ITO 


r«iat 


FIL 


M^IL 


■niM 


nw 


fC, 


1 


2 


s 


4 


9 


c 


7 


9 


9 


19 


11 


U 


11 


14 


IS 


IC 


n 


- 


iiri 


117.7 


au.i 


9.3 


2.9 


1.9 


94.2 


1.9 


9.27 


13.?4 


99.7» 


311.1 


99. 3 


-•.«« 


-•.•• 


s.ns 


n 


> f .2 


I17.1 


117.9 


2Ct.9 


9.3 


1.9 


1.9 


94.9 


1.9 


9.23 


23.32 


39.97 


311.1 


».2 


•«.M 


-•.71 




n 


•12.4 < 




117.9 


2W.7 


9.3 


1.9 


1.9 


94.9 


1.9 


9.23 


23.J2 


31.11 


ltl.3 


99.2 


-%,Sf 


•«.cc 


9*.«99 


rt 


■ 13.4 


Iiy.9 


1(7.9 


ac9.» 


9.3 


2.9 


1.9 


II9.I 


1.9 


9.23 


2^.29 


31.21 


311.4 


49.1 


"•.72 


-•.71 


5.»^ 


n 


:tS.( 


II9.« 


t 


279.3 


9.C 


1.9 


2.1 


119.1 


1.1 


9.22 


23.99 


SI.C9 


111.9 


».• 


-t.37 


•«.U 


3.«W 


n 


tZi.l 


lil.t 


its.a 


ITt.l 


9.3 


1.9 


1.9 


119.2 


1.0 


9.23 


23.32 


31.32 


114.7 


19.2 


9.99 


9.99 


s.Kir 


n 


m.o < 






27!.7 


29.9 


Si.C 


34.3 


119. • 


122.3 


3. II 


73.29 


31.32 


119.1 


93.4 


9.99 


•.99 


s.oo* 


re 


:77.| 


1 14.1 


112.3 


273.« 


33.9 


(9.4 


«.' 


119.3 


1*4.9 


9.59 


23.39 


51.77 


121.9 


93.3 


9.99 


9.m 


s.*^ 


rr 


IS..I 


ItO.? 


m.4 


3«C.« 


46.9 


S3.9 


39.9 


11B.2 


n.\ 


11.92 


23.41 


51.99 


12S.9 


95.4 


9.99 


• -•x 


S.9M 


n 


iJ< > 


IM.9 


iie.7 


293.. 


33.7 


94.9 


53.7 


119.1 


ft. 4 


14.32 


23.19 


31. n 


3J2.4 


93.3 


9.99 


9.L'9 


3.M9 


79 




irs.? 


199.1 




73.3 


97.9 


91.4 


110.2 


19£.9 


17.11 


23.^ 


31.97 


1^.9 


94.7 


9 99 


9.JO 


5.9CC 


rt 


:« 4 


194. r 


irt.i 


S99.9 


99.1 


92.4 


»7.4 


119.2 


73.7 


29.17 


23.41 


31.32 


2.9 


93 3 


9.99 


• .99 


S.Ori 


n 


143. S 


113.3 


11). 3 


3CM 1 


27.4 


7.9 


19.1 


119.1 


24.3 


If. 97 


21. M 


Si.?* 


1.2 


»».S 


9.99 


*.m 


%.U^ 


n 


)4S.9 


115. S 


lis. 7 


»3.2 


27.2 


IS.4 


ie.3 


lid. 2 


2i.2 


19. (2 


23.M 


51.14 


4.1 


93.1 


9.99 


9.J9 


s.a&> 


n 


'».• 


II2.2 


114 9 


99C.7 < 




17.5 


29.3 


119.2 


34.7 


19.39 


23.34 


3*.«7 


9.1 


93.1 


9.99 


9.99 


3. CO* 


7» 


iSJ.t 


nj.4 


iif.; 


•9.7 


C3.9 


33.1 


44.9 


119.1 


91 7 


29.23 


23. S9 


S9.J9 


11.9 


95.3 


9.9- 


• .99 


£.•99 


r§ 


■SC.2 


ii4.i 


114.3 


«i3 k 


49.3 


17.1 


1S.9 


|t» I 


V 


I9.:k9 


23, » 


39.43 


ll.S 


»*.« 


9.99 


9.99 


ti.BU 


7J 


«3».4 


1I4.S 


1(4.2 


317.3 


44.1 


14.4 


22.3 


119.1 


42. • 


19.12 


23.Si 


99. K 


13.9 


93.1 


9.51 


"•.V 


3.9M 


7» 


: *.« 


11K.9 


n€.9 


317. S 


1.7 




1.9 


119.2 


1.9 


19.99 


23.39 


49.99 


13.2 


95.3 


-«.72 


-* 44 


s.rM 


n 


I 9.C 


iir.2 


Il7.t 


iir.9 


1.3 


2.3 


2.4 


119.1 


1.9 


9.42 


23.43 


«.72 


15.9 


93. 


9.99 


-•.13 


S.9M 


n 


: ■.! 


11/. 1 


ii7.j 


119. J 


9.3 


2.t 


2.3 


119.1 


1.9 


9.2c 


21.41 


49.39 


IS.9 


93. 


9.99 


••.22 


S.99« 


Z-i 


II2.I 


117.1 


1!7.4 


319.9 


9.3 


2.1 


2.4 


l'«.2 


t.9 


9.2- 


23.19 


49.41 


19.9 


95.1 


9.99 


-9.13 


^.••9 


.-» 


■ 15.2 


ur.fi 


tl7.3 


319.9 


9.3 






llC.4 


I.I 


9.29 


23.41 


m < 


13.3 


94.9 


9.99 


• .09 


s.ow 


7» 


■ ll.t 


117.; 


117. C 


I4.J.2 


9.5 


2.4 


1.9 


119.1 


t.O 


9.29 


21.35 


49 .-9 


14.9 


99.1 


-t.37 


-•.71 


!..99« 


r« 


iai.2 


117. J 


1 17.1 


329.1 


9.3 


1.9 


1.9 


110. 1 


3.9 


9.23 


2J.29 


49.52 


1(.« 


93.3 


-9.»1 


-•.S3 


5.99« 


W 


1:4.4 


lll.fl 


117.9 


329.2 


9.3 


1.9 


X.f 


1191 


1.9 


9.23 


13. *T 


49.42 


19.3 


95.4 


-9 


-•.71 


s.oao 


*» 


J27.i 


117.? 


117.* 


339-2 


9.3 


2.2 


2.2 




t.» 


9.23 


r- 12 


44 42 


1S.3 


«.3 


9.99 


-•.37 


5.<r:9 


•» 


tia.i 


110.3 


K7 9 


321.C 


1.5 


2.2 


2.3 


119.1 


1.9 


fc.2J 


23.^2 


f.4.'> 


K.l 


93.3 


9.90 


-0.37 


S.K39 


r» 


tH t 


ti*.-) 


IIC.I 


321.7 


I2.< 


24.fi 


33. C 


119.2 


123. 7 


3.M 


23. 2r 


«» t2 


17.9 


iK.9 


9.99 


9.M 




79 


iJ7.i 


III.} 


tu.c 


333. C 


32.4 


49.1 


21 9 


119.1 


34.4 


9.29 


23.32 


49.i2 


23.9 


i37.e 


9.M 


o.n 


S.90f 


rs 


«4I.2 


111.4 


112. 4 


329.7 


35.9 


23.3 


41.9 


119.3 ' 




19.23 


23.2C 


m 43 


77.2 


137.4 


9.9* 


•.m 


9 rr 


n 


>43.; 


19*. 4 


111.9 


3i3.« 


4(.3 


41.9 


44.7 


119.1 


91 9 


12.91 


23.29 


49.»9 


31 2 


117.9 


9.90 


:\m 


.WL 


79 


t4t.4 


..S.J 


193 9 


3J9.2 


C3.4 


199.4 


79.3 


119.2 


tll.l 


t9.S3 


23.» 


49.49 


37.9 


117 1 


9.99 


9.09 


3.«0C 


Ti 


149. C 


194 r 


19k. 7 


2.9 


99.9 


71.2 


92.9 


111.1 


192.9 


10. C7 


23.21 


49.39 


47.2 


137.9 


9.99 


• .» 


3.(»C 


n 


(«.• 


I*w.» 


M'».7 


19.4 


■*i.n 


7.7 


3.C 


119.2 


n.9 




23.1* 


<*.?* 


91.3 


137.0 


o,m 


- t* 


3."TC 


7i 


f«.1 


IW./ 


« 


ra.c 


W.7 


37. < 


23.7 


III. 4 


.ij.fi 


i».:2 


23.19 


«.M 


M.4 


117. C 


N.tHl 


^ 1 


S.bii, 


?? 


IS ■* 


■.4.* 


tli.t 


14.9 


4'*.l 


i*.s 


».2 


111.3 


<i.3 


19. M 


23.19 


47. 7C 


45.3 


"7.2 


o.u 


0. >• 


S.U^r 


H 




lU 7 


IIS 2 


IB. 7 


:4.3 


S.fi 


•.9 


iii.:i 


27.1 


19. IC 


23.19 


49.2( 


33.3 


t.,7.9 


9.99 


9.4) 


5.M» 


u 


) * .. 


112 5 


11.1.5 


If 3 


S2.4 


17. 1 


1 .9 


111 3 


3M 




m.rum 


49 22 


S7.9 


1:7.0 


9.1:1 


0. « 


s.trib 


n 




lU..- 


US 7 


Z..9 


I?.t 


3.7 


7.4 


IM.3 


34.3 


2C.9I 


2.. 10 


43.19 


S9.1 


13/. C 


o.co 


9.0.3 


S.9C1 


CO 


1 


.11.9 


114.1 


23.11 


2.? 


M 


2.0 


llt.S 


l.B 


1».U 


23. U 


49.99 


cB.r 


II7.2 


-a.sfi 


-0.93 


'.•M 


cu 


I'-t.R 


117. r 


llo.S 


22.3 


'.4 


t.9 


t.K 


111.4 


1.9 


13.92 


23.99 


43.99 


CO.'' 


I37.B 


9.03 


-9..T 


!.IW 


P3 


M?.C 


117.2 


!I,'.l 


24.3 




2.4 


2.4 


lit. 3 


I.I 


«.3C 


23. 3S 




C9.7 


13r.3 


0.C4 


-•.V 


3.'-:« 


3'i 


•».• 


ii7.: 


.:7.5 


24. ( 


9!C 


2.3 


;.4 


iii.r. 


l.l 


e.:t 


23.M 


49.M 


ca.fi 


I37.B 


n.nc 


-o.r. 


i 8- . 



6-42 



'^' '-- ^'- ik- ^ 



900-S50 



Table b.J.ll. 



Samples />f Data Printout for Tost No. 
and L, no Regon Br) 



22 (Cycles B 



•tM tatf •/% 



■K . ^ 



lt« 1 


tm 4 


i«i 




■ >«) 


i»r 




M.m 


n :^ 


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w* a 


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1 M* 


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114 1 


It- 




a V 


j» 


f- 


St M 


ni » 


■•■ai^ 


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l41 




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ft 


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n^ « 


1*4 J 


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ltd ■ 


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>I« t 


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f» JS 


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114 1 


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114 » 


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1*4. 1 




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m 




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41 


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tI4 1 


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77 •s 


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179 9 


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111 • 


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a. 19 


7t at 


9G 44 


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175 7 


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179 a 


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iftft a 






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54 




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144 1 


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149 ft 




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■4 ^ 


I« .' 


1*.' I 


:!3 




K « 


13* « 


IM i 


Ift3 9 




i:rs 


71 04 


was 


i73.a 


ll/.t 


1 aj 


a aa 


S.aM 


M 


■ r ' -1 


:M 4 


mr 1 


I.'t 




79 T 


15 




ft* a 


IftS 1 




r* -M 


71 1.* 


ll IS 


31- 4 


iw< a 


1 mfi 


a M 


9 a^^ 


,' 




111 . 


ii'".» 


IJl 




W ] 


n 




la* 1 


l>9 9 




.^ M 


73,1/ 


5» 4.- 


«4| 4 


l»7 7 


a M 


a M 


s.aji 


A> 


'1» A 


ir4 • 


•« 4 


I4tl 




« 1 


*s 




fti I 


1*9 9 




M.22 


7J.I9 


• ■•«• 


5 C 


II.- 7 


U H 


a ai 


9.aH 


;• 




in 9 


112. ( 


^^4 « 


U.f 


11 




44 a 


!*} a 




M ^•> 


71 41 


99. "a 


9 2 


117. a 


t.oa 


t.n 


S.Cdl 


•^ 




ii^ 1 


M^ ' 


iki 




? 5 


] 




] r 


l^9 5 




74 SI 


71 74 


*f 91 


* 4 


11* 1 


a aa 


a aa 


9 a*9 


Al 


- .' 1 .' 


1 1* 1 


il.' 1 


1 ^ 




1.3 


J 




) 9 


Uft.l 




to 9a 


7i ^ 


»).49 


* 9 


117.7 


1 M 


1 ai 


9.a.a 




Jl -t 


.■■• 1 




i«i 




t 4 


I 




1 4 


149 4 


1 1 


J* a4 


7i.74 


99 17 




117.9 


1 CS 


a »i 


9 a«i 


J 


J4 4 


xir i 


i|.* 9 


14 1 




1 4 


J 




1.4 


lft9.J 




» ai 


73 19 


M 19 


9 9 


taf 1 


-?a 7i 


-77. «• 


9.«a« 


M 


J' « 


\?9 » 


\?A 1 


Iftt 




C^ C 


• 




l.l 


irt 4 


a •< 


M>.a4 


73.11 


« 1} 


4 a 


7M t 


-51 7' 


-91 47 


9 a^ 


•M 


•14 • 


1.1 1 


l.''J 1 


)».' 




41 4 


t.i 


I a 


1,V.I 


a i> 


I4.M 


71 Ift 


».4i 


4.4 


rai 9 


-14 97 


-17. »7 


s.aai 


• 


44 § 


i.-i 1 


i:: 1 


IW 




Jl 4 


i 


• 


a.i 


til. 2 


a 1' 


a M 


27, »* 


la.rr 






-71 40 


-'5 19 


9, EM 


* 


.■at « 


1^1 T 


IW 5 


l'7 




■ 1 f 


a t 


I.a 


l» 1 




4 14 


77 ** 


9a.a2 


74. J 


7i7.a 


I.M 


a.M 


9 aiM 


M 


\A |i 


iitt 4 


l|4 1 


IT* 




A 7 


1 




4 i 


ii: 1 




a ^ 


7? 4' 


M 4» 


71 1 


.■'17 1 


f «■» 


P 14 


9.*"? 






ll 1 


f- 1 








J 




1 1 


Xi^J 9 




n .'t 




Ml '. ! 


74 3 


717.0 


Ll 1 ' 


** 


3. (»•'.' 






II 1 4 


lit- f 








2 




1 1 


ir^ ft 




..' 


Jl (U. 


;■•' 41 


73 B 


71. .9 




a n 


5 ■ J 


(1 


%'' 4 


lid 


III 4 


\'* 




1 * 


i 




1 a 


ll,' 3 




a.. 'J 


." M 


5" 44 


74 3 


217.1 


n« 


a M 


9.'"« 


'I 




III N 


111 I 


l-'4 




C J 


1 




) 1 


II2.I 




a 74 


7.- ftJ 


SV 'jt 


71 1 


717 a 


c ,-.1 


d ea 


9.r 3 


i| 


"i I' 


119 .' 


III 


xn 




• 3 


1 




3 1 


I J' .' 




;7 


7.' 'M 


ft.' r.. 


7* J 


717 


ti i>i 


u M 


9 t' . 




4 ^ 


•14 I 


111.^ 


\r^ 




1.? 


] 




1.4 


tw.s 




D 74 


7;. 41 


ftii 39 


74 ] 


}I7 1 


I.OJ 


«4**«4 


9 1' iJ 






:■«.; 


'14. •> 


t.'i 




-Ii 


ttJ 5 


M I 


ia^.2 




k.W 


23 SI 


W.hi 


74.7 


774. a 


|1 M 


I.M 


J.awc 


•1 




U..I 1 


.Pa rt 


IN 




M.l 


lU 


1 


m 2 


ICI 1 




11 36 


77. «! 


CI PI 


3« 1 


27] i 


il (.d 


d.CD 


3 *.•« 


• . 


l." • 


lij f 


l«,5 


m 




».» 


14? t 


l*4.fc 


t»t.7 


111 t' 


7a. 41 


27. W 


«l 14 


9i C 


771 4 


1 N 


B.aa 


9.»CP 






6-43 



900-850 

6.3 MEASURED DATA - ACCELERATION TESTS 

The tesC schedule at Dynaalc Science did noc provide 
sufficient time for the execution of acceleration tests as per section 
5.4. Data, however, was obtained from a total of eight Schedule D cycles 
wherein maximinn accelerations were used in an attempt to meet the 
schedule profile requirements. 

Acceleration data with EV-106 batteries and RCA 2N6251 
transistors is listed in Table 6.3.1; runs 1 and 3 are downhill on the 
north stretch of the track 'end runs 2 and 4 are uphill on the south 
stretch of the track. TV'^ , data was extracted from the first four 
cycles of Test No. 24. 

Acceleration data with LEV-115 batteries and Soi < tron 
SDT-12302 transistors is listed in Table 6.3.2; runs 1 and 3 are 
downhill and runs 2 and 4 are uphill. This data was extracted from the 
first four cycles of Test No. 31. 

All data listed in Section 5.4.3 was recorded with the 
exception of battery amp-hours. 

6.3.1 Test Weight 

Gross vehicle weight for Test No. 24 was 3288 lb. 
Gross vehicle weight for Test No. 31 was 3363 lb. 

6.3.2 Measured Wind Speeds 

Wind speeds fv^r Test No. 24 did not exceed 10 mph. 
Wind speeds for Test No. 31 did not exceed 3 mph. 

6.3.3 Ambient Temperatures 

Data Logger recorded ambient temperatures ranged as follows ; 
83. 3"^ (28.5°C) to 84. 2"? (29.0''C) for Test No. 24 
72.3°F (22.38''C) to 73. ST (23. CC) for Test No. 31 



6-44 



-^ jfi - 



Table 6.3.1. 



900-850 

Uncorrected Acceleration Data from Data 
Logger System CTost No. 24) 





Elapsed 


1 






Batt. 






Motor 


Computer 


Time 


Speed 


Batt. 


Batt. 


Energy 


Motor 


Motor 


Energy 


Time 


(sec.) 


(mph) 


Volts 


Amps 


(w-hr) 


Volts 


Amps 


tw-hr) 








Run No. 1 






1:31.0 


0.31 


1.25 


129.0 


10.8 


0.0 


0.0 


131.7 




1:34.2 


3.51 


12.05 


124.5 


211.9 


6.7 


91.0 


165.3 




1:37.4 


6.71 


18.70 


122.6 


193.1 


70.0 


113.4 


208.4 




1:40.6 


9.91 


24.06 


117.4 


132.2 


37.3 


116.2 


125.2 




1:43.6 


12.91 


28.04 


114.7 


215.7 


50.7 


108.1 


202.9 




1:46.8 


16.11 


32.31 


115.5 


163.7 


70.7 


113. 9 


156.5 




1:50.0 


19.31 


35.65 


115.8 


181.5 


83.9 


92.0 


195.6 




1:53.2 


22.51 


39.23 


112.9 


213.6 


104.2 


110.2 


205.7 




1:56.0 


25.31 


42.59 


114.7 


181.8 


125.7 


112.6 


176.1 





Run No. 2 


3:30.4 


2.79 


7.02 


125.0 


99.3 


1.0 


44.9 


183.5 




3:33.6 


5.99 


15.07 


118.1 


119.9 


16.0 


117.3 


109.5 




3:36.8 


9.19 


20.57 


— 


181.8 


— 


112.0 


166.8 




3:39.6 


11.99 


24.20 


124.4 


112.8 


42.7 


2.0 


172.1 




3:42.8 


15.19 


28.61 


112.9 


207.9 


58.8 


110.6 


197.1 




3:46.0 


18.39 


32.97 


115.7 


163.2 


77.6 


113.9 


89.3 




3:49.2 


21.59 


34.83 


116.9 


162.3 


92.5 


— 


187.5 




3:52.2 


24.59 


37.79 


114.4 


210.8 


110.9 


106.3 


217.4 




3:55.4 


27.79 


40.42 


113.8 


196.6 


131.1 


111.6 


190.2 




3:58.6 


30.99 


43.24 


115.1 


177.1 


151.1 


112.9 


171.1 









Run No. 3 






5:26.4 


1.87 


5.24 


126.9 


70.9 


1.4 


28.3 


179.1 




5:29.6 


5.07 


14.21 


115.7 


136.0 


13./ 


115.6 


121.8 




5:32.6 


8.07 


20.73 


113.2 


173.9 


27.6 


112.4 


160.1 




5:35.8 


11.27 


25.28 


118.3 


119.8 


42.1 


117.1 


0.8 




5:39.0 


14.47 


30.50 


113.7 


J.89.0 


57.4 


111.7 


179.9 




5:42.2 


17.67 


33.18 


116.4 


151.3 


76.2 


114.8 


143.8 




5:45.2 


20.67 


37.03 


114.8 


204.8 


89.8 


98.0 


206.4 




5:48.4 


23.87 


40.75 


113.5 


199.3 


111.1 


111.3 


191.4 




5:51.6 


27.07 


42.98 


115.1 


173.4 


129.6 


113.2 


168.5 





/^' 



6-45 



Table 6.3.1. 



900-850 



Uncorrected Acceleratioa Data from Data Logger 
System (Test No. 24) (Continuation 1) 





Elapsed 








Batt. 






Motor 


Computer 


TiEC 


Speed 


Batt. 


Batt. 


Energy 


Motor 


Motor 


Energy 


Time 


(sec.) 


(mph) 


Volts 


Amps 


(w-hr) 


Volts 


Amps 


Cw-hr) 








RUD 


I No. 4 








7:22.6 


0.00 


O.Ol 


128.7 


1.8 


1.4 


0.0 


0.7 




7:25.8 


3.20 


8.88 


122.7 


129.5 


4.1 


61.2 


172.5 




7:28.8 


6.20 


15.05 


118.8 


31.8 


18.1 


117.9 


18.7 




7:32.0 


9.40 


22.01 


115.7 


151.4 


32.9 


114.3 


141.0 




7:35.2 


12.60 


24.68 


118.6 


16.3 


46.0 


117.3 


74.8 




7:38.4 


15.80 


29.53 


113.9 


— 


62.3 


112.1 


175.1 




7:41.4 


18.80 


33.04 


116.3 


152.8 


81.1 


114.7 


147.2 




7:44.6 


22.00 


35.75 


114.0 


174.1 


94.4 


97.4 


193.8 




7:47.3 


25.20 


38.68 


112.9 


210.9 


114.5 


110.4 


204.2 




7:51.0 


28.40 


41.38 


114.2 


— 


134.4 


112.2 


180.7 




7:53.8 


31.20 


43. -.8 


115.5 


169.5 


153.4 


113.5 


164.8 





6-46 



i! U. - J ...I tL, ' , ^ 



900-850 



Table 6.3.2. Uncorrected Acceleration Data from Data Logger 
System (Test No. 31) 





Elapsed 








Batt. 






Motor 


Computer 


Time 


Speed 


Batt. 


Batt. 


Energy 


Motor 


Motor 


EneLgy 


Time 


(sec.) 


Cmph) 


Volts 


Amps 


(w-hr) 


Volts 


Amps 


(w-hr) 








Run 


No. 1 










1:30.8 


.06 


.17 


126.3 


1.8 


1.5 


._ 


66.4 


0.0 


1:34.0 


3.14 


8.95 


120.0 


102.9 


2.3 


43.5 


207.3 


9.3 


1:37.2 


6.34 


17.64 


113.3 


199.4 


17.5 


91.3 


216.7 


26.8 


1:40.4 


9.54 


21.91 


114.0 


12.5 


36.4 


107.9 


13.7 


37.4 


1:43.4 


12.54 


26.43 


111.0 


217.2 


48.3 


104.1 


208.5 


55.8 


1:46.6 


15.74 


31.36 


112.2 


163.7 


66.8 


110.8 


158.3 


73.3 


1:49.8 


18.94 


33.23 


123.5 


169.8 


80.2 


80.4 


207.3 


86.2 


1:53.0 


22.14 


36.82 


110.1 


216.2 


98.8 


106.1 


211.6 


— 


1:55.8 


24.94 


40.41 


111.2 


184.9 


118.8 


109.4 


181.0 


124.8 


1:59.0 


28.14 


42.94 


112.4 


165.9 


136.0 


110.7 


163.7 


140.7 


2:02.2 


31.34 


44.20 


113.3 


96.0 


153.3 


111.6 


53.6 


152.8 









Run 


No. 2 










3:30.2 


1.56 


4.32 


125.7 


59.3 


0.0 


11.7 


212.3 


4.1 


3:33.4 


4.76 


13.16 


ii:.8 


132.0 


13.4 


112.4 


23.7 


16.1 


3:36.6 


7.96 


18.75 


]11.4 


:06.2 


— 


.._ 


186.4 


32.2 


3:39.4 


iO.76 


21.89 


114.1 


12.5 


40.3 


112.9 


21.3 


42.5 


3:42.6 


13.96 


26.46 


110.9 


214.6 


53.2 


102.2 


213.3 


63.1 


3:45.8 


17.16 


29.86 


111.9 


172.7 


73.8 


110.0 


168.7 


80.4 


3:49.0 


20.36 


32.08 


112.5 


178.1 


87.1 


90.4 


208.2 


95.2 


3:52.0 


23.36 


35.25 


110.8 


199.9 


105.8 


99.2 


213.9 


113.6 


3:55.2 


26.56 


37.56 


109.6 


209.4 


127.1 


107.4 


204.7 


135.0 


3:58.4 


29.76 


39.95 


111.0 


187.8 


147.3 


109.1 


182.9 


153.3 


4:01.6 


32.96 


41.10 


112.0 


— 


164.1 


110.1 


172.3 


170.8 


4:04.6 


35.96 


42.10 


112.5 


164.9 


181.6 


110.7 


163.0 


186.4 



Run No, 3 


5:26.2 


2.46 


5.80 


125.0 


83.0 


0.1 


23.4 


207.3 


6.3 


5:29.4 


5.66 


13.34 


114.4 


18.9 


13.3 


113.9 


25.1 


16.9 


5:32.4 


S.66 


20.64 


111.5 


161.5 


26.9 


110.3 


152.5 


36.1 


5:35.6 


11.86 


25.64 


113.0 


195.2 


40.2 


94.2 


215.7 


49.9 


5:38.8 


15.06 


29.75 


111.5 


172.6 


60.2 


109.8 


168.1 


69.9 


5:42.0 


18.26 


33.44 


117.1 


182.9 


73.8 


91.7 


211.0 


84.5 


5:45.0 


21.26 


37.35 


109.8 


217.7 


93.6 


105.6 


212.7 


104.4 


5:48.2 


24.46 


40.08 


111.0 


184.3 


113.8 


109.1 


131.7 


122.9 


5:51.4 


27.66 


42.92 


112.2 


165.1 


131.1 


110.5 


163.1 


139.0 









6-47 



Table 6.3.2. 



900-850 



Uncorrected Acceleration Data from Data Logger 
System CTest No. 31) (Continuation 1) 





Elapsed 








Batt. 






Motor 


Computer 


Time 


Speed 


Batt. 


Batt. 


Energy 


Motor 


Motor 


Energy 


Time 


(sec.) 


(mph) 


Volts 


Amps 


Cw-hr) 


Volts 


Amps 


Crf-hr) 








Run 


No. 4 










7:22.4 


0.00 


0.03 


125.7 


1.1 


0.0 


.._ 


3.0 


0.0 


7:25.6 


3.20 


10.93 


116.6 


— 


4.5 


78.6 


202.9 


13.0 


7:28.6 


6.20 


14.84 


124.1 


83.9 


17.5 


50.3 


199.0 


24.2 


7:31.8 


9.40 


21.29 


112.: 


152.6 


32.2 


111.0 


146.2 


39.4 


7:35.0 


12.60 


24.15 


112.4 


190.0 


44.2 


91.7 


214.6 


54.4 


7:38.2 


15.80 


28.53 


110.4 


185.2 


64.1 


108.8 


180.7 


72.9 


7:41.2 


18.80 


30.96 


112.6 


155.1 


81.1 


111.0 


19.8 


87.9 


7:44.4 


22.00 


33.92 


111.1 


194.1 


95.9 


95.9 


213.4 


106.1 


7:47.6 


25.20 


36.47 


109.4 


216.9 


116.4 


105.8 


212.5 


126.9 


7:50.8 


28.40 


39.10 


110.5 


190.0 


137.9 


108.5 


— 


145.6 


7:53.6 


31.20 


40.85 


111.5 


174.7 


155.2 


109.6 


173.6 


165.9 


7:56.8 


34.40 


42.49 


112.1 


163.9 


172.5 


110.5 


163.5 


183.2 


8:00.0 


37.60 


43.14 


112.7 


157.8 


189.9 


110.9 


156.7 


199.3 



6-48 



900-850 



6.4 MEASURED DATA - COAST-DOWN TESTS 

Tests w«re conducted in accordance with Section 5.5 of the 
report and Section 2.8.6 of ERDA document EHV-TEP (May, 1977). On 
March 15, 1977, a tr^'al of ten coast-down tests were run on the North 
Stretch of Dynamic Science's Oval Track; six tests were run east to 
west and four tests were run west to east. Each of the east to west 
tests was started at a green marker reading 0.8 mi., and each of the 
treat "o east tests was 8tai.!.<>d at a green marker .reading 1.4 mi. (From 
crude measurentents made by Rlppel, it was determined that the 0.8 mi 
marker * corresponds to the 3234 foot mark on the track survey, while the 
1.4 mi marker corresponds to the 66 foot mark on the track survey.) 
Peak wind speeds, as recorded at the vehicle shed did not exceed 5 mph 
durl.-ig the tests. Ambient temperature were approximately 65°?. 

Speed-t.^jne data was recorded both on the Data Logger System 
and on a Strip Chart. See Table 6.4.1 for data recorded on the Data 
Logger S/stem, and see Table 6.4.2 for Strip Chart data. See Table 6.4.3 
for track survey generated by Dynamic Science. 



6-49 



teJ 



900-850 



Table 6.4.1. Uncorrected Coast-Dovm Data from 
Data Logger System 



it 



Run No. 1 


Run No. 


2 


Run No. 


3 1 


(East to West) 


(Weot to East) 


(East to West) 


Elapsed Time 


Speed 


Elapsed Time 


Speed 


Elapsed Time 


Speed 


(sec.) 


(mph) 


(sec.) 


(mph) 


(S3C.) 


(mph) 


0.0 


48.32 


0.0 


44.07 


0.0 


47.85 


2.8 


47.17 


3.0 


41.14 


3.0 


46.48 


6.0 


45.19 


6.2 


38.10 


6.2 


45.42 


9.2 


44.57 


9.4 


36.33 


9.4 


44.37 


12.4 


42.78 


12.8 


34.04 


12.6 


42.49 


14.8 


41.33 


15.3 


32.42 


15.6 


41.18 


17.8 


39.85 


18.8 


29.99 


18.8 


40.03 


21.0 


38.37 


22.0 


27.64 


22.0 


39.50 


24.2 


37.02 


25.2 


25.58 


25.2 


38.28 


27.0 


35.58 


28.4 


23.95 


28.2 


37.10 


30.0 


35.31 


31.2 


21.69 


31.4 


36.31 


33.2 


34.03 


34.4 


19.64 


34.6 


35.55 


36.4 


32.79 


37.6 


18.00 


37.8 


34.88 


39.6 


32.13 


40.8 


16.06 


40.6 


33.44 


42.4 


31.09 


43.8 


14.80 


43.8 


33.14 


45.6 


30.32 


47.0 


13.07 


47.0 


32.19 


48.8 


28.43 


50.2 


11.46 


50.2 


30.84 


52.0 


27.84 


53.4 


10.33 


53.2 


30.41 


54.8 


27. C6 


56.4 


8.63 


56.4 


28.77 


58.0 


26.16 


59.6 


7.51 


59.6 


28.72 


61.2 


24.63 


62.8 


5.65 


62.8 


27.47 


64.4 


23.70 


66.0 


4.48 


65.8 


25.99 


67.4 


22.11 


69.0 


3.12 


69.0 


24.52 


70.6 


21 i5 


72.2 


1.39 


72.2 


23.04 


73.8 


19.59 


75.4 


.43 


78.4 


21.06 


77,0 


18.34 






81.6 


20.04 


79.8 


16.86 






84.8 


18.14 


83.0 


15.38 






90.8 


14.78 


86.2 


13.53 






94.0 


13.83 


89.4 


12.08 






100.4 
106.6 
113.0 
119.2 
125.6 
131.8 


11.06 
9.08 
6.74 
5.10 
3.10 
.57 



If '■ 



6-50 



-.^ 



400-850 



i. 



t 

i 



■/MrT. 



Ml. 



Table 6.4.1. 


Uncorrected Coast-Down 


1 Data from 








Data Logger Systea (Continuation 1) 




Run No. i 


1 


Run No. 5 


Run No. 


s 1 


(West to East) 1 


(£act to West) 


(West to East) 1 


Elapsed Time 


Speed 


Elapsed lime 


Spead 


Elapsed Time 


Speed 


Csec.) 


(mph) 


Csec.) 


(nph) 


Csec.) 


Cmph) 


0.0 


45.18 


0.0 


39.07 


0.0 


43.12 


2.8 


42.36 


3.2 


37.76 


3.2 


40.31 


6.0 


40.12 


6.4 


36.70 


6.4 


38.78 


9.2 


37.79 


9.4 


35.52 


9.6 


36.95 


12.4 


36.79 


12.6 


34.82 


12.8 


34.37 


15.4 


33.46 


15.8 


33.61 


15.8 


32.49 


18.6 


31.34 


19.0 


32.,<»4 


19.0 


30.42 


21.8 


29.23 


22.2 


30.fc0 


22.2 


28.67 


25.0 


27.32 


25.2 


29.75 


25.4 


26.83 


28.0 


24.56 


28.4 


29.03 


28.2 


24.72 


31.2 


22.88 


31.6 


28.86 


31.4 


23.06 


34.4 


21.23 


34.8 


28.18 


34.6 


22.32 


37.6 


19.74 


37.6 


26.64 


37.8 


20.00 


40.6 


18.06 


40.8 


25.90 


40.8 


18.16 


43.8 


16.89 


44.0 


25.96 


44.0 


16.58 


47.0 


14.74 


47.2 


25.86 


47.2 


15.64 


50.2 


13.04 


50.2 


25.37 


50.4 


14.39 


53.0 


11.76 


53.4 


24.06 


53.4 


12.60 


56.2 


9.42 


56.6 


23.46 


56.6 


11.78 


59.4 


7.69 


59.8 


22.95 


59.8 


9.94 


62.6 


6.15 


62.8 


21.98 


63.0 


8.73 


65.6 


5.20 


66.0 


21.30 


66.0 


7.57 


68.8 


4.07 


69.2 


20.66 


69.2 


6.16 


72.0 


2.77 


72.4 


20.01 


72.4 


4.61 


75.2 


1.34 


75.4 


19.56 


75.6 


3.17 


34.4 


.14 


78.6 


18.44 


78.4 


1.75 






81.8 


17.71 


81.6 


.27 






85.0 


16.95 










87.8 


16.07 










91.0 


15.21 










94.2 


13.88 










97.4 


12.53 










100.4 


11.09 








Run No. 


? 


Run No. 8 


Run No. 


9 


(East to W( 


JSt) 


(East to West) 


(West to E. 


ast) 


Elapsed Time 


Speed 


Elapsed Time 


Speed 


Elaplsed Time 


Speed 


(sec . ) 


(mph) 


(sec.) 


(mph) 


(sec.) 


(mph) 


0.0 


41.17 


0.0 


24.43 


0.0 


46.71 


3.0 


40.74 


3.2 


23.67 


3.2 


44.30 


6.2 


39.19 


6.2 


22.85 


6.4 


41.44 


9.4 


38.11 


9.4 


23.13 


9.6 


34.53 


12.6 


36.99 


12.6 


22.61 


12.8 


36.70 


15.6 


35.95 


15.8 


22.16 


15.8 


34.56 






6-51 



900-850 



Table 6.4.1. Uncorrected Coast-Down Data from 

Data Logger System (Continuation 2) 



Run No. 7 (cont) 


Run No. 8 (cont) 


Run No. 9 (cont) 


(East to West) 


(East to West) 


(West to East) 


Elapsed Time 


Speed 


Elapsed Time 


Speed 


Elapsed Time 


Speed 


(sec.) 


(mph) 


(SfeC.) 


(mph) 


(sec.) 


(mph) 


18.8 


35.42 


18.6 


21.25 


19.0 


32.92 


22.0 


34.29 


21.8 


21.13 


22.2 


30.58 


25.2 


33.50 


25.0 


20.34 


25.4 


28.40 


28 


32.03 


28.2 


19.85 


28.2 


27.22 


31.2 


31.26 


31.2 


18.88 


31.4 


25.22 


34.4 


30.86 


34.4 


18.83 


34.6 


23.59 


37.6 


29.82 


37.6 


18.27 


37.6 


21.91 


40.6 


29,56 


40.8 


17.44 


40.8 


20.24 


43.8 


28.37 


43.8 


17.64 


44.0 


18.88 


47.0 


28.33 


47.0 


16.92 


47.2 


17.60 


50.2 


27.03 


50.2 


16.15 


50.4 


16.46 


53.2 


26.36 


56.4 


15.36 


53.4 


14.88 


56.4 


25.67 


59.6 


15.14 


56.6 


13.88 


59.6 


24,26 


62.8 


14.68 


59.8 


11.91 


65.8 


22.91 


68.8 


14.22 


63.0 


10.44 


69.0 


23.54 


72.0 


13.69 


66.0 


9.09 


72.2 


21.78 


75.2 


13.22 


69.2 


7.60 


78.2 


20.15 


78.4 


12.40 


72.4 


6.08 


81.4 


17.60 


81.4 


12.04 


75.6 


4.61 






84.6 


12.02 


78.4 


3.26 






87.8 


11.5? 


81.6 


1.88 






91.0 


11.39 


84.8 


.57 






94.0 


11.33 


88.0 


.04 






97.2 


10.67 










100.4 


10.16 










103.6 


9.77 










106.6 


10.10 










109.8 


9.57 










113.0 


9.01 







Run No. 10 


Run ilo. 10 (cont) 


Run No. 10 (cont) 


(East to West) 


(East to West) 


(East to West) 


Elapsed Time 


Speed 


Elapsed Time 


Speed 


Elapsed Time 


Speed 


(sec . ) 


(mph) 


(sec.) 


(mph) 


(sec . ) 


(mph) 


0.0 


14.59 


37.6 


10.31 


75.2 


6.26 


3.2 


14.12 


40.3 


10.00 


78.4 


6.05 


6.4 


14.31 


44.0 


9.50 


81.6 


5.67 


9.6 


13.26 


47.2 


9.15 


84.3 


5.40 


12.6 


13.52 


50.2 


8.98 


87.8 


5.36 


15.8 


13.11 


53.4 


8.78 


91,0 


4.8^ 


19.0 


12.90 


56.6 


8.49 


94.2 


4 J 


22.2 


12.20 


59.8 


8.37 


97.4 


t.n 


25.0 


11.84 


62.8 


7.51 


100.4 


4.30 


28.2 


11.49 


66.0 


7.27 


125.4 


2.83 


31.4 


11.42 


69.2 


6.67 


166.4 


1.01 


34.6 


11.15 


72.4 


5.56 







6-52 



900-850 



Table 6.4.2. Coast-Down Data from Strip Chart 



Run No. 1 


Run No. 2 




Run No. 3 


(East to West) 


(West to East) 


(East to West) 


Elapsed Time 


Speed 


Elapsed Time 


Speed 


Elapsed Time 


Speed 


(sec.) 


(mph) 


(sec.) 


(mph) 


(sec.) 


(mph) 





50.2 





44.9 





51.5 


5 


48.1 


5 


40.9 


5 


49.1 


10 


45.8 


10 


37.0 


10 


46.9 


15 


43.2 


15 


33.6 


15 


44.8 


20 


40.7 


20 


30.0 


20 


42.5 


25 


38.7 


25 


26.8 


25 


40.5 


30 


36.8 


30 


23.6 


30 


38.4 


35 


35.0 


35 


20.5 


35 


37.5 


40 


33.4 


40 


17.6 


40 


36.0 


45 


31.3 


45 


15.1 


45 


34.8 


50 


30.2 


50 


12.5 


50 


33.4 


55 


28.5 


55 
60 
65 
70 
75 


10.2 
8.0 
5.8 
3.6 

1.4 . 


55 


31.9 






79 


0.0 







Run No. 4 


Run No. 5 


Run No. 6 


(West to East) 


(East to West) 


(West to East) 


Elapsed Time 


Speed 


Elapsed Time 


Speed 


Elapsed Time 


Speed 


(sec.) 


(mph) 


(sec.) 


(mph) 


(sec.) 


(mph) 





44.3 





39.2 





44.9 


5 


40.4 


5 


37.6 


5 


41,3 


10 


36.7 


10 


35.7 


10 


38.1 


15 


33. 1 


15 


34,1 


15 


?4.7 


20 


29.9 


20 


32.5 


20 5 


25 


26.7 


25 


31.1 


25 2 


30 


23.6 


30 


29.7 


30 2 


35 


20.8 


35 


28.' 


3i ^.5 


40 


18.1 


40 


?./.:> 


40 :"^..'/ 


45 


15.6 


45 


26.'+ 


45 


50 


13.0 


50 


25.5 


50 




55 


10.7 


55 


24.4 


55 




60 


8.6 


60 


23.2 


60 


Ix.U 


55 


6.4 


65 


22.1 


u5 


8.9 


70 


4.6 


70 


21.0 


70 


6.8 


75 


2.6 






75 


4.7 


30 


0.4 






00 


2.2 










85 


0.0 



6-53 



d 



900-850 



Table 6.4.2. Coast-Down Data from Strip Chart CContlnuatlon 1) 



Run No. 7 


Run No. A 


Run No. 8 Ccont) 


(East to West) 


(East to West) 


(East to West) 


Elapsed Time 


Speed 


Elapsed Time 


Speed 


Elapsed Time 


Speed 


(sec.) 


(mph) 


(sec . ) 


Cmph) 


(sec.) 


(mph) 





42.7 





24.7 


70 


14.3 


5 


41.0 


5 


24.1 


75 


13.6 


10 


39.5 


10 


23.3 


80 


13.^ 


15 37.6 


15 


22.5 


8i 


12.5 


20 


35.8 


20 


21.7 


90 


11.9 


25 


24.3 


25 


20.:) 


95 


11.4 


30 


33.0 


^ 


20.0 


100 


10.9 


35 


31.8 


35 ' 19.2 


110 


9.9 


40 


30.6 


40 


18.3 


3 20 


8.9 


45 


29.4 


45 


17.6 


130 


7.8 


50 


28.2 


50 


£6.8 


140 


7.0 


55 


27.0 


55 


16.2 


150 


6.0 


60 


26.2 


60 ' 15.5 






65 


24.8 


65 , 14.9 







Run No. 9 


Run No. 


LO 


Run No. 10 (cont) I 


(West to East) 








1 


Elapsed Time 


Speed 


Elapsed Time 


Speed 


Elapsed Time 


Speed 


Csec.) 


(mph) 


(sec.) 


(mph) 


C.sec . ) 


(mph) 





49.6 





14.9 


95 


3.2 


5 


1.3 


5 


14.5 


100 


4.9 


10 


til.2 


10 


14.1 


105 


^.5 


15 


37.5 


15 


13.7 


110 


4.1 


20 


34.1 


20 


13.3 


115 


3.9 


25 


30.9 


25 


12.9 


120 


3.5 


30 


27.9 


30 


12.3 


125 


3.1 


35 


25.2 


35 


11. h 


130 


3.0 


40 


22,4 


40 


11,0 


135 


2.9 


45 


20.0 


45 


10.4 


140 


2.5 


50 


i7.7 


50 


9.7 


145 


2.1 


55 


15.4 


55 


9.0 


15. 


1.8 


60 


13.2 


60 


8.6 


155 


1.4 


65 


11.0 


65 


8.1 


160 


1.2 


70 


8.5 


70 


7.5 


165 


1.2 


75 


6.3 


75 


6.8 


170 


1.1 


80 


4.0 


80 


6.3 


175 


0.9 


85 


1.8 


85 


6.0 


180 


0.6 


89.5 


0.0 


90 


5.6 


185 


0.3 



6-54 




900-850 



Table S.^.i. frar.k Survey Data 



Survey 




Distance from 


Distap'^e from 




1 


Location 


Elevation 


0.8 mi Marker 


1.4 mx Marker 


Average Grade 


, 


(ft) 


(ft) 


(ft) 


Cft) 


bet*'een furveys 







2.35 


3234 


-66 






50 




3184 


-Ifa 


.563 




100 


2.92 


3134 


34 






150 




3084 


84 


.667 




200 


3.58 


3034 


134 






250 




2964 


184 


.875 




300 


4.58 


2934 


234 






350 




2884 


284 


.729 




400 


5.19 


2834 


334 






450 




2784 


384 


.563 




500 


5.75 


2734 


434 






550 




2684 


484 


.625 




600 


6.38 


2634 


534 






650 




2534 


584 


.979 




700 


7.35 


2534 


634 




I 


750 




2484 


684 


.875 




800 


8.23 


2434 


734 






850 




2384 


784 


.500 




9C0 


8.73 


2334 


334 






950 




2284 


884 


.563 




lOJO 


9.29 


223/' 


934 






1050 




2184 


984 


.979 




HOC 


10.27 


2134 


1034 






1150 




2084 


1084 


.979 




1200 


11.2^ 


2034 


1134 






1250 




1984 


118^ 


.730 




1300 


12.00 


1934 


1234 






13jO 




1884 


1284 


.625 




1400 


12.63 


1834 


1334 






14^0 




1784 


1384 


.979 




1500 


13.60 


1734 


1434 






1550 




1684 


1484 


.813 




I'xOO 


14.42 


1634 


1534 






1650 




1584 


1584 


.708 




1700 


15.13 


1534 


1634 






1750 




1484 


1684 


.625 




1800 


15.75 


1434 


1734 






1850 




1384 


1784 


.917 




1900 


16.67 


1334 


1334 






1950 




1284 


1884 


.917 




2000 


17.58 


1234 


1934 






2050 




1184 


1984 


.521 




2100 


18.10 


1134 


2034 






2150 




1034 


2084 


.563 




2200 


18.68 


1034 


2134 






2250 




984 


2184 


.708 




2300 


19.38 


934 


2234 






2350 




884 


2284 


.729 








6-55 



900-850 



Table 6.4.3. Track Survey Data (Continuation 1) 



Survey 




Distance from 


Distence from 




Location 


Elevation 


.8 mi Marker 


1.4 mi Marker 


Average Grade 


(ft) 


(ft) 


(ft) 


(ft) 


between Surveys 


2400 


20.10 


834 


2334 




2450 




784 


2384 


.542 


2500 


20.65 


734 


2434 




2550 




684 


2484 


.438 


2600 


21.08 


634 


2534 




2650 




584 


2584 


.875 


2700 


21.96 


534 


2634 




2750 




484 


2684 


.875 


280C 


22.83 


434 


2734 




285 , 




384 


2784 


.792 


29C0 


23.63 


334 


2834 




2950 




284 


2884 


.833 


3000 


24.46 


234 


2934 




3050 




184 


2984 


.750 


3100 


25.21 


134 


3034 




3150 




84 


3084 


.771 


3200 


25.98 


34 


3134 




3250 




-16 


3184 


.500 


3300 


26.48 


-66 


3234 





C'M 



6-56 



900-850 

6.5 MSASUREO DATA - HEIGBT SBMSITIVITT TESTS 

6.5.1 Constant Sp««d Tests 

Tests were conducted as per Section 5.6.2. 

Measured W^ • 3288 lb; aeasured tire pressures were 28 PSI 
for front tires and 37 PSI for rear tires. Aabient teaperatures ranged 
between 57*F and 80*F during the tests; wind velocities were below 10 «ph 
with occasional gusts reaching 15 aph. Data is suaaarized in Table 6.5.1. 



6.5.2 Driving Cycle Tests 

Tests were conducted as per Section 5.6.3. 

Measured Wg - 3288 lb; aeasured tire pressures were 28 PSI 
for front tires and 37 PSI for rear tires. Aabient teaperature ranged 
between 57*F and 8Q*F duriiiig the tests; wind velocities were below 10 aph 
with occasional gusts reaching 15 aph. Data is suanarlzed in Table 6.5.2. 






6-57 



900-850 







Table 6. 


5.1 C 


onstant Speed Weight Sensitivity 




Run 




Speed, 


AW 


Batt. Disch. 


Energy to 


A.H. 


Fifth Wheel 


No. 


Date 


Gear 


(lb) 


Energy (WH) 


Motor (WH)* 


Disch. 


Feet 


1 


3/24 


45,4 


202 


562.5 


506.6 


4.63 


10698 


2 


3/24 


35,3 


202 


477.3 


416.0 


3.86 


10657 


3 


3/24 


25.2 


202 


442.6 


362.7 


3.51 


10662 


4 


3/24 


45.4 





530.6 


484.0 


4.39 


10712 


5 


3/24 


35,3 





448.0 


392.0 


3.31 


10659 


6 


3/24 


25,2 





416.0 


340.0 


3.31 


10677 


7 


3/24 


45,4 


202 


525.3 


478.6 


4.37 


10697 


8 


3/24 


35,3 


202 


448.0 


393.3 


3.64 


10680 


9 


3/24 


25,2 


202 


418.6 


342.6 


3.33 


10675 


10 


3/24 


45,4 





498.6 


453.3 


4.15 


10681 


11 


3/24 


35,3 





432.0 


376.0 


3.50 


10689 


12 


3/24 


25.2 





406.6 


329.3 


3.22 


10671 


13 


4/18 


Top 


400 


571.8 


561.2 


4.86 


10689 


14 


4/18 


Top 


400 


547.9 


439.9 


4.65 


10695 


15 


4/18 


45,4 


400 


466.6 


461.2 


3.97 


10708 


16 


4/18 


35,3 


400 


400.0 


395.9 


3.39 


10686 


17 


4/18 


25,2 


400 


375.9 


370.5 


3.20 


10693 


18 


4/18 


Top : 


533.2 


526.5 


4.57 


10671 


19 


4/18 


45,4 





453.2 


447.9 


3.91 


10673 


20 


4/18 


35,3 





381.2 


375.9 


3.24 


10663 


21 


4/18 


25,2 





350.6 


342.6 


2.98 


10676 


22 


4/18 


Top 





517.2 


510.5 


4.53 


10675 


23 


4/18 


45,4 





435.9 


429.2 


3.82 


10684 


24 


4/18 


35,3 





374.6 


369.2 


3.21 


10676 


25 


4/18 


25,2 





343.9 


335.9 


2.91 


10684 


26 


4/18 


Top 


400 


531.9 


525.2 


4.80 


10707 


27 


4/18 


45,4 


400 


449.2 


442.6 


4.05 


10/14 


28 


4/18 


35,3 


400 


383.9 


378.6 


3.36 


10698 


29 


4/18 


25,2 
1 


400 


355.9 


347.9 


3.06 


10727 


*In tests 


one through tw 


elve, motor energy was meas 


ured at 


armature and 


does not 


include field 


losses. In tests thirteen 


through 


twenty nine, 


total mot 


or energy was i 


Tieasvired (including field c 


-ircuit) . 





6-58 






900-850 



r-. 






«0 

a 



e 
w 



•H 



u 
o 

60 
C 



Wi 
Q 






JS .^ 


*M 


00 


vO 


oo 


00 


fs. 


«n 


Ov 


u « w 


O 


vO 


■* 


»» 


o* 


<n 


00 


vO 


«« « CI 


r>. 


rx. 


M 


CM 


00 


«o 


ov 


m 


It, 5 b. 


O 
•H 


O 


r-l 


•-• 


o 

•-4 




o 


•-• 


• 


















u 






o 


fO 




00 




ro 


« 


! 


1 


vO 


m 


1 


Irt 


1 


lA 


as 






• 


« 




• 




• 


• 


NO 


M 


00 


m 


O 


f^ 


•-4 


O 


u 


-» 


CO 


r^ 


^ 


xO 


irt 


CM 


o 


n 


• 


• 


• 


• 


• 


• 


• 


• 


•rt 


m 


«n 


m 


ir> 


1^^ 


m 


m 


«n 


Q 


















6 *^N 


















U 3 


















»w '^<' 






* 


• 




o 

• 




vO 

• 


>x U 


1 


1 


00 


m 


1 


VO 


1 


CM 


bO O 






»-( 


O 




o 




O 


U 4J 






1-4 


r-l 




t-t 




r-« 


41 O 


















c X 


















td 


















y— V 


















o s: 

4J 3 


















^-' 


















t>\ 


o 


tn 


n 


CO 


CM 


eg 


CM 


o> 


60 h 


• 


• 


• 


• 


• 


• 


• 


• 


H o 


o 


r^ 


r- 


r*. 


r^ 


Oi 


a\ 


r». 


01 U 


S£> 


o\ 


Ch 


>r\ 


r^ 


<M 


00 


vO 


5^ 


lO 


in 


irt 


in 


vO 


VO 


uo 


in 


• ^-N 




































(U v^ 


















Pi 


















>s 






\o 


r^ 




CO 




o 


• 60 


1 


1 


• 


• 


1 


• 


1 


• 


*i u 






\o 


o 




CO 




CO 


u (t 






00 


r~ 




0^ 




00 


(d d 


















CQ M 


















j= ^ 


















S{§ 


















•r4 V-' 


\o 


fO 


o 


m 


in 


tn 


CNj 


OV 


Q 


• 


• 


• 


• 


* 


m 


• 


« 


>. 


o 


r^ 


\o 


n 


00 


r>« 


Ov 


0^ 


• 60 


r^ 


i7» 


o 


tn 


r^ 


vO 


CM 


a\ 


•J M 


vC 


»n 


xn 


so 


vO 


vO 


vO 


m 


U 0) 


















Id c 


















m u 


















^ /^ 


O 


eg 


<M 


O 


O 


O 


O 


o 


» ^ 




o 


o 




o 


O 






< i-i 




«s 


n 




<»■ 


sr 






>— ' 


















c 


• 

e 


• 

a 


• 


• 

a 


• 


c 


• — 

a 




o 


(0 


01 


0) 


0) 


01 


o> 


0) 


0) 


•H 


60 


60 


60 


60 


60 


60 


60 


00 


U *J 


01 


«> 


0) 


0) 


ot 


01 


d) 


0) 


a ta 


U 


M 


,u 


M 


u 


U 


M 


Vj 


•H (U 


















H H 


Q 


O 


• 


• 


o 


» 


O 


• 


U 


a 


C! 


at 


3: 


a 


3 





3 


09 (U 


















4) O 


• 


« 


« 


«» 


« 


m 


m 


M 


Q 


u 


O 


u 


o 


o 


o 


o 


U 


V 


<t 


-a- 


-» 


•* 


00 


00 


00 


00 


O 


<M 


<M 


fM 


tN 


f-i 


tH 


r^ 


H 


r^ 


fn 


{^ 


CO 


-* 


•* 


«» 


»* 


a . 


















S^ 


rM 


M 


<r\ 


-» 


m 


vO 


t>. 


00 



6-59 



v*j>W 



900-«50 

i 
7.1 REDUCED DATA - CONSTANT SPEED TESTS ] 

Data frcm Table 6.1.1, along with Instnnaenc correction 
factors, tfill now be used to compute energy and efficiency paraaeters. 
These computations, nlong with the corrected priaary data, are suaaurized 
in Table 7.1.1. Corrections and Computations are as follows: 

7.1.1 Average Speed Achieved '1) 

With each of Constant Speed Tests (Nos. 2 through 9), com- 
puter computations were performed to provide various derived quantities, 
one of which was "mean velocity". The mean velocity was computer- 
calculated by averaging all recorded speed numbers. Due to finite 
acceleration and deceleration times, the resulting calculation should 
be slightly low. 

All speed data printed by the computer was low by a factor 
of 1.045 due to use of an incorrect scale factor. (See Section 4.4.1.4.) 
Accordingly, the mean velocity print-outs were multiplied by 1,045 to 
give corrected values of "Average Speed Achieved". 

In the case of the "Calibration Tests" (Mos. 22A through 
22E) , average npeed was computed by hand averaging a number of evenly 
spaced printed velocities and correcting by 1.045 factor. 

7.1.2 Distance Traveled (2) 

With each of the tests, distance measurements were obtained 
from the Nucleus Distance Totalizer; no correction factors were employed. 
With Tests 2 through 9, distance includes acceleration and deceleration, 
tfith calibration Tests 22A through 22E, the Totalizer was enabled at a 
specific location - after achieving constant speed. After exactly two 
laps, the distance counter was switched off. Since the Totalizer 
switch was ganged with enable switches for the Current Integrator and 
the Energy* Counter, corresponding Amp-Hour and KHH measures were 
obtained. 

7.1.3 End of Test Battery Voltage (3) 

This value is the last entry recorded Con tape) prior to 
deceleration. 

7.1.4 Discharge Amp-Hours 

This value was taken directly from the Current Integrator; 
no corrections were used. 

7.1.5 Discharge KWH (4) 

This value was taken directly from the Battery Discharge 
portion of the Energy Counter. Values listed are counter Increments 
multiplied by 0.01333. 



7-1 



^•'- 



900-850 



7.1.6 Discharge KUH, corrected (S). 

la accordance with lines 1 and 2 of Table 4.6.2 (Energy 
Counter C«l. Test), a correction factor of 1.316/1.333 - 0.9870 was used 
for each of the 14 entries. 

7.1.7 KWH CO Motor (6) 

This value was taken directly from the "To Motor" portion 
of the Energy Counter. Values listed are counter increaents multiplied 
by 0.01333. 

7.1.8 KWH to Motor, corrected (7) 

In accordance with lines 8 and 9 of Table 4.6.2 (Energy 
Counter Cal. Test), a correction factor of 1.302/1.333 - 0.9765 was used 
for 25 and 35 mph tests, and a correction factor of 1.305/1.333 - 0.9787 
was used for 45 mph and top speed tests. 

7.1.9 Recharge Anp-Uours (8) 

This value was taken directly from the charge portion of the 
current Integrator. 

7.1.10 Recharge Amp-Hours, corrected (9) 

From Section 4.6.2, an off-set associated with the Current 
Integrator was determined as iiA x (0.92-1.00) « -0.4A. (This off-set 
is only approximate due to dri.ft and temperature effects.) Corrections 
were achieved by multiplying otf-set by time and subtracting from 
uncorrected Amp-Hours. 

7.1.11 Recharge KWH (10) 

This value was taken directly frou the Battery Recharge 
portion of the Energy Counter. Values listed are counter Increments 
multiplied by 0.01333. 

7.1.12 Recharge KWH, corrected (11) 

During Tests 2 through 11, an off-set associated with the 
AC Battery Current Sensor resulted in a voltage off-set at the Energy 
Counter of +0.031 volts (see Section 4.6.1.2). Noting that this 
voltage corresponded to 1,86A and that the time-averaged recharge voltage 
was about 150 volts, the following off-set is subtracted: 

_3 
AE = - 1.86 X 150 X Elapsed Recharge Time x 10 KWH 



From line 3 and 4 of Table 4.6.2, (Energy Counter Cal. Test), 
a correction factor of 1.120/1.333 = 0.840 was derived for the Recharge 



7-2 



1 






900-850 

porcloa of che Energy Counter. Both the off-set correction and the 
Energy Counter correction were used to compute corrected Recharge KVM 
values . 

7.1.13 Charger Input 

Line KWH was read directly from the GE AC KWH meter. Recharge 
Time was obtained from either a wall clock or wrist watch. 

7.1.14 Weather Condiuions 

Ambient Temperatures were obtained from magnetic tape data; 
numbers listed are round-off s of low and high readings. 

Wind Speed numbers were derived from a portable weather 
station apparatus JPL set up at Dynamic Science. 

7.1.15 Miles per Line KMH (12) 

For each test, this number is the Distance Traveled (2), 
divided by the Line KWH. 

7.1.16 Miles per Amp-Hour Discharged (13) 

For each test, this number is the Distance Traveled (2) 
divided by the Arep-Hours Discharged. 

7.1.17 Charger Efficiency (14) 

For each test, this number is the ratio of Recharge KWH 
corrected CH) Co the Line KWH. I'fhile values ranged from between 
82.4% to 107.5%, careful measurements made by Rippel indicate this 
number to be 95+1%. 

A careful calculation was cone with test 12 (driving cycle 
test) and computed charger efficiency was found as 96.4%. 

7.1.18 Coulomlic Efficiency (15) 

For each test, this number is the ratio between Amp-Hours 
Discharged and corrected Amp-Hours Recharged (9) . 

7.1.19 Voltaic Efficiency 0-6) 

For each test, this number is the ratio of Mean Discharge 
Voltage to Average Recharge Voltage. The Mean Discharge Voltage was 
provided 5y Computer Averaging all Battery Voltage entries, and the 
Average Recharge Voltage is the ratio between Cycle Efficiency (17) 
and Coulombic Efficiency (15) . 



7-3 



900-830 

7.1.20 Cycle Efficiency (17) 

For each test, this number Is the racio of Discharge KWH, 
corrected (5) to Recharge KWH corrected (11). 

7.1.21 Controller Efficiency (18) 

For each test, this number is the ratio of KWH to Motor, 
corrected (7) to Discharge KWH, corrected (5) . 

7.1.22 Average Motor Amps (19) 

For Tests 2 through 11, this number is the ratio between 
Motor Amp-Hours (a computer "time-integral'* of motor current) 
and Elapsed Time (also provided by the computer) . 

For Tests 22A through 22E, this number was found by averag- 
ing a number of evenly spaced current print-out values, (Typically 1!> 
values of motor Current were hand averaged.) 

7.1.23 Average ^lotor Volts (20) 

For each test, this value was found analogously to the 
corresponding value for Average Motor Amps. 

7.1.24 Average Motor Torque (21 > 

Each of these values was derived as a function of Motor 
Current by using current-torque data from Table 3,6,1, 

7.1.25 Average Motor RPM (22) 

For each test, the Average Motor RPM was found from the 
Average Speed C2) by using tire and gear ratio data. 

Gear ratio data was obtained from Sections 3.9.2 and 3.9.3, 
and the rolling distance per tire revolution. 

7.1.26 Average Motor-Controller Efficiency (23) 

Using Motor Current and Voltage information, data in 
Table 3.6.1 was used to determine system efficiency. Observing the 
data in the table and the plots, it is noted that efficiency is a 
weak function of motor current and depends mainly on motor voltage. 
Observing several operating points of nearly equal current, it was 

found that efficiency is closely proportionate to V* . This rela- 
tion was used for scaling and interpolating Table 3,6.1 efficiency data. 

7.1.27 Average Motor Efficiency (24) 

In each case, this number was found as the ratio between 
the Average Motor-Controller Efficiency (23) and the Controller 
Efficiency (18). Ideally, it is true measure of the efficiency of 



7-4 






900-850 

Che motor icself, operating under Che conditions Imposed by the 
controller. 

7.1.28 DC Motor Efficiency (25) 

Using Motor Current and Voltage information, data in 

Table 3.4.1 was used to predict the motor efficiency operating under 

equivalent pure DC conditions. Analysis of the Table 3.4.1 data 

revealed Chat efficiency is a weak luncclon of mocor currenC and that 

130 
efficiency scales in close proportion to V* . This relation was 

mot 

used for scaling and interpolating Table 3.4.1 efficiency data. 

7.1.29 Chopper Induced Losses (25) 

For each test, this is the difference between DC Motor 
Efficiency (25) and Average Motor Efficiency (24). Ideally, this 
parameter serves to measure increased motor losses due Co the AC compo- 
nents in applied voltages and currents. 

7.1.30 Read Load KMH (27) 

In Section 7.4, an approximate model for Road Load was 
derived. Equation 7.4.9 expresses Road Load Horsepower as a function 
of vehicle speed in miles per hour (GVW * 3288 lb as with Constant 
Speed Tests). Equation 7.4.9 may be integrated to give Road Load 
Energy : 

KWH - 0.0858 R + 5.60 x lO"^ J \^ dt (7.1.1) 



where R Is distance traveled in miles and v is instantaneous speed In 
mph. 

Where v is maintained essentially constant, Eqn. 7.1.1 may 
be written as: 



R [l + 6.53 X 10"^ v''J 



KWH - 0.0858 R I 1 + 6.53 x 10 V I (7.1.2) 



Using Eqn. 7.1.2, Road Load Energies were found as functions 
of Distances Traveled and Average Speeds. 

7.1.31 Average Gear Train Efficiency 

In each case, this number was taken as the ratio between 
Road Load Energy and Motor Energy. The Motor Energy was found as the 
product of Energy to the Motor and Motor Efficiency, 



7-5 



rl 



SOO-850 



TaLie 7.1.1. Constant Speed, Uncorrected. Corrected, and Computed Data 



T«» Us. 


2 


3 


* 


'H 


» 


7 


9 


10 


11 


12A 


221 


22C 


in 


>II 


DU* o( Int 


1/* 


3/7 


3/1 


3/10 


3/U 


3/14 


J/15 


1/16 


3/17 


4/17 


4/17 


4/17 


4117 


4/17 


T«*t O«»crlpcloa 


25 aph 


» aph 


43aph 


•lop" 


35 avh 


•Top" 


2, th 


35 aph 


45 aph 


25 aph 
C*l. 


Cal. 


45 aph 

C.I. 


-Top- 
Cal, 


Top- 
Cal. 




2J.«2 


34.71 


45.11 


49.34 


35.97 


«».87 


25.74 


35.9* 


45.19 


25.27 


35. *• 


45, 11 


45.24 


JJ.57 




101.2 


94.75 


75.31 


52.82 


73.05 


55.70 


101.5 


eo,t7 


66.69 


4.045 


4,049 


4,059 


4,052 


4,090 


lad of T«ac ktt . 
Voltaia' 


»2 


90.3 


U.3 


91.7 


92 


91.5 


91.0 


90, a 


91.5 


- 


- 




- 


- 


Gaar 


2 


3 


4 


4 


3 


4 


2 


3 


4 


2 


3 


4 


4 


4 


UTTEUT D'.SOUUie 






























Dlacharia Ai^>-Kours 


159.23 


154. »9 


145.85 


126.13 


140.94 


127.95 


162.35 


155.36 


137.18 


5,77 


6,19 


7,33 


8,95 


9,07 


Dlachana »«' 


la.io 


18.50 


16 90 


14.22 


16.51 


14,53 


17.68 


18.20 


15,94 


0,715 


0,749 


0,865 


1,011 


1,027 


DlarharfC KUH, 
Corrac^ad' 


17.86 


18.26 


16.68 


14.04 


16.30 


14.34 


17.45 


17.96 


15,73 


0.706 


0,739 


0,854 


0.998 


1,014 


EMBBCT TO WTTOR 






























KIM CO NDtor' 


15.54 


15.98 


15.29 


13.46 


14.90 


13.72 


16.01 


15.73 


14.78 ■ 


0,680 


0,727 


0.845 


1,012 


0,991 


(UH to Nstor. 
Corractcd^ 


14. 9S 


15.60 


14.97 


13.17 


14.55 


13.41 


15.65 


15.36 


14,47 


0,664 


0,710 


0.627 


0.990 


0,970 


UTTERY UOUtGC 






























tacharic ««i>-aour.' 


21!. 43 


170.23 


167.80 


149.28 


151.12 


147.35 


178.48 


- 


162,91 


- 


- 




- 


- 


Racharge dap-Houra, 
Corracted 


221.63 


1/7.75 


175.40 


156.80 


159.9 


153.3° 


185.8 


- 


170,39 




- 




- 




Hacharga KUh'" 


30.3 


19.24 


18.22 


16.55 


- 


19.86 


20.10 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 




KacKarie KUH. 
Corrected^^ 


)2.6 


21.40 


20.61 


19.23 


- 


20.92 


22.00 


- 


- 




- 




- 




CHAKOEB INPirr 






























Llna KUH 


K.i 


25.3 


25.0 


22.0 


22.4 


- 


24.8 


14.6 


23.6 




- 




- 


- 


Racharga Tlae ihr. ] 


25.5 


l8.8 


19.0 


18.8 


- 


15.1 


18.3 


18.0 


18. 7 


^ 


- 


- 


- 




MEATHER CONDITIOHS 






























latitat Te-ip Cc) 


18-20 


25-27 


26-28 


18-19 


12-15 


18-20 


12-2,? 


17-18 


'6-19 


11-32 


31-32 


31-32 


31-32 


29-30 


Wind Speed Inpn) 


■;-io 


3-7 


5-10 


10-20 


10-20 


10-15 


0-5 


10-20 


4-6 


5-10 


5-10 


5-10 


5-10 


5-10 


COMfinEB gUANTITlES 






























Hllaa "**T Lloa 

n(Hi2 


'.34 


3.74 


3.01 


2.40 


3.26 




4.09 


- 


2.82 


- 




- 




- 


Hllaa pai r..H. 
Dlacharged^ * 


f.636 


0.613 


0.516 


0.418 


0.518 


0.415 


0.625 


0.520 


0.486 


0,701 


0,654 


0,554 


0,453 


0,446 


Chargar Eft. (J)" 


lar . 5 


84. » 


82.4 


8^.4 


- 


- 


88.6 




- 


- 


^ 


- 


- 


- 


Couloaolt: Eff. 
(I)" 


71.8 


86 9 


83.2 


80.4 


88.1 


83.4 


87.4 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


VoltaU r.ff. (I)" 


76.3 


91.1 


97.2 


90.7 


- 


82.1 


90.8 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Cycle Eff. m" 


54.8 


85 3 


80.9 


73.0 


- 


68.5 


79.4 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Contioller Eff. 


87.0 


87.5 


91.7 


95.9 


91.4 


95./ 


91,9 


8/. 6 


94,0 


94.1 


96,1 


96.8 


97,6 


97,2 


Av, Hocor Aapa 


56.2 


83.3 


96.2 


111.2 


83.9 


115.9 


52.8 


77 2 


100,1 


55.9 


71,6 


99,9 


116,0 


121,2 


*v. Motor Volta^" 


69.2 


74 1 


86.2 


105.2 


78.8 


103.7 


67.5 


82.7 


86.7 


66.8 


74.6 


87,2 


114,9 


114,0 


Av. Hotor Torqve 
(fi-lb)2' 


9.1 


16.7 


21.2 


26.2 


16.8 


25.9 


8 1 


15.5 


22.8 


8.5 


13.6 


22,5 


28,1 


30,4 


Av. Motor RPH^^ 


3221 


2797 


2596 


2826 


289 3 


2857 


:198 


2892 


2589 


3140 


2854 


2625 


3165 


3069 


Av. Motor - Cont. 
Eff. (:)25 


73.2 


78.5 


82.9 


85.1 


78.6 


85.2 


73.2 


82.0 


81.8 


72.3 


76.3 


80,7 


86,5 


86,5 


Av. ^fecor Eff, 
(I)" 


76.8 


79.4 


33.4 


88.6 


79.4 


88.6 


76.8 


79.4 


83.4 


76.8 


79 4 


83,4 


88,6 


89,0 


DC Motor Eff. {X)" 


78.1 


84.5 


84.7 


86.3 


83.9 


86.9 


77.9 


83.7 


85 


81.2 


82. », 


84,9 


86 8 


86.7 


Chopper Induced 
Loaaca (t)26 


1.3 


5.1 


1.3 


-2.3 


4.5 


-1.7 


1.1 


4.3 


1.6 


4.4 


3.2 


1,5 


-1 8 


-2,1 


Road Load RUH^' 


12.21 


14.57 


15 08 


11.76 


11.57 


12.56 


12.27 


12.50 


13.31 


492 


0.663 


0,826 


0,999 


1 040 


Av. Caar Triln 
Eff. (I)« 


93.4 


101.6 


109.1 


98.4 


90.3 


102.8 


88.2 


84.8 


101.4 


96 4 


112.7 


ll9,8 


115,7 


117,0 



7-6 



-■iU. 



■SlW" 



900-850 

7.2 REDUCEO DATA - DRIVING CYCLE TESTS 

Data from Table 6.2.1, along with Instrument correction 
factors, will now be used to compute energy and efficiency parameters. 
Thef computations, along with the corrected primary data, are sum- 
marized in Table 7.2.1. Corrections and computations are iS follows: 

7.2.1 Corrected Distance (2) 

For each test where regen.^rative braking was not included, 
the ideal speed-time profiles were followed fairly closely. Accordingl> 
for each of these tests, no corrections were made to the original Fifth 
Wheel distance. 

For each test where regenerative braking was included, the 
deceleration times exceeded the profile times by two to five seconds. 
To correct for the extra distances driven, corrected distances were 
found by multiplying the corresponding distance per non-regenerative 
cycle by the number of regenerative cycles. 

7.2.2 End-of-Test Battery Voltage (3) 

This value is the last entry from the cruise portion of the 
last cycle driven; it was derived from the computer printout. 

7.2.3 Discharge KWH (A). See Paragraph 7.1.5 

7. 2. A Discharge KWH, corrected (5). See Paragraph 7.1.6 

7.2.5 KWH to Motor (6). See Paragraph 7.]. 7 

7.2.6 KWH to Motor, corrected (7). See Paragraph 7.1.8 

7.2.7 Recharge Amp-Hours (8). See Paragraph 7.1.9 

7.2.8 Recharge Amp-Hours, corrected (9). See Paragraph 7.1.10 

7.2.9 Recharge KWH (10). See Paragraph 7.1.11 

7.2.10 Recharge KWH, corrected (11). See Paragraph 7.1 i2 

7.2.11 Charger Input. See Paragraph 7.1.13 

7.2.12 Weather Conditions, See Paragraph 7.1.14 

7.2.13 Miles per Line KWH (12). See Paragraph 7.1.15 

7. 2. 14 Miles per Net Amp-Hour Discharged (13). For each driving 
cycle test, this number is equal to the corrected distance divided by 
the difference between amp-hours discharged and amp-hours recharged via 
regenerative braking. 



7-7 



900-850 

7.2.15 Charger Efficiency (14). See Paragraph 7.1.17 

7.2.16 Coulombic Efficiency (15). See Paragraph 7.1.18 

7.2.17 Voltaic Efficiency (16). See Paragraph 7.1.19 

7.2.18 Cycle Efficiency (17). For each driving cycle test, this 
number Is equa". to the ratio of Discharge KWH, corrected (5) to the sum 
of Recharge KWII, corrected (11) and regenerative braking Recharge KIW, 
Corrected (21). 

7.2.19 Forward Controller Efficiency (18a). See Paragraph 7.1.21 

7.2.20 Reverse Controller Efficiency (18b) 

For each driving cycle test, this number is equal to the 
ratio of regenerative bra'cing Recharge KWH, corrected (21) and KWH 
from motor, corrected. 

7.2.21 Regenerative Braking Recharge Amp-Hours (19) 

This number was taken directly from the charge portion of 
the current integrator at the end of each test with regenerative braking. 
No corrections were applied. 

7.2.22 Regenerative Braking Recharge KWH (20) 

For each test with regenerative braking, this number was 
taken directly from '■.he recharge portion of the energy counter. Values 
listed are counter increments multiplied by 0.01333. 

7.2.23 Regenerative Braking Recharge KWH, corrected (21) 

Insufficient data was obtained to enable meaningful 
corrections. Data listed in Ta^le 4.6.2 indicates that corrections will 
likely be small (at 40 anps recharge, the correction factor is 
1.321/1.333 = 0.991) 

7.2.24 Kinetic Energy prior to braking CKWH) (22) 

This number Is the total kinetic at the end of the coasting 
phase; rotating kinetic energy associated with the power train has been 
neglected. In each case, KE " 1/2 1W% where M is the vehicle mass 
corresponding to 3288 lb, V is taken as 18.0 mph for the B cycles and 
25.5 mph for the C cycles, and N is the number of cycles driven. 
Conversion factors used; 1 slug = 32. If) lb, 1 mph = 1.4666 ft/sec, 
1 KWH « 2.654 X 10^ ft-lb. 



7-8 



k..*^. . .•fprr'^,1 



900-850 



7.2.25 Tire KWH (23) 



Using Coast-Down Equation 7.4.9, the tire component of 
power dissipated may be assumed as Pj ' 0.115V, where ?j is in horse- 
power and V is in mph. (It should be noted thac this number is expected 
to be high since it includes such things as bearing friction and trans- 
mission spin losses). 

The above equation is integrated over time to give 
Ex ■ O.llR where Ex is energy in horsepower-hours and R is distance 
traveled in miles. Converting Ex to KWH, Ex = 0,0858R. 

7.2.26 Aerodynamic KWH (24) 

Using Coast-Down Equation 7 4.9, the aerodynamic component 
of road-load is taken as Pa = 7.51 x 1. ^V-^, where P^ is ia horsepower 
and V is in mph. Using V(t) as defined in Fig. 6.2.1 for the B and C 
Cycles, tha aerodynamic energy is found by integration over time. 
Using the conversion constants listed in Section 7.2.25, the energy pe; 
B Cycle is O.J03495 KWH and the energy per C Cycle is 0.013252 KWH. 
The numbers listed in the table are found by multiplying the appropriate 
energy per cycle times the number of cycles driven. 

7.2.27 Road Load KW (25) 

For each test, this number is the sum of Tire KWH (23) and 
Aerodynamic KITH (24). 

7.2.28 Forward Propulsion Efficiency (26) 

This quantity is defined and computed as 



Road Load '.-5) + Kinetic Energy (22) 
Discharge Energy (5^ 



The intent of this number is to ixpress the propulsion 
system ef f icien' v with respect to forward energy flow. Besides the 
errirs whl''!. resuxt ttczi neglecting rotating inertia, an added error 
result:, in that a small portion of the Road Load C25) ip piovided from 
stored Kinetic Energy (22) luring the braking interval (i.e., a small 
amount of energy is counted twice) . 

7.2.29 Reverse Propulsion Efficiency (27) 

This quantity is deflied and computed as 



J* Recharge Energy C21) 

'.^^ Kinetic Energy (22) 



7-9 



■4 



900-850 

The intent of this number is to express the propulsion 
system efficiency with respect to reverse energy flow which occurs 
during regenerative braking. Besides the errors which result from 
neglecting rotating inertia, an added error results in that road 
load absorbs some kinetic energy during regenerative braking. 

7.2.30 Net Propulsion Efficier.cy (28) 

This quantity is Hjfined and computed as 

Poad Load (25) 



Discharge Energy (5) - Recharge Energy (21) 

This number, which accounts for "Round-Robbin" Energy 
Efficiency may be taken as a figure of merit for the entire system. 
As stated, there are no mathematical errors in this eqiation. 



'4^ 



■t 7-10 



. ■ JJU-JI ' JLU.l ,-_ »WH^>»^^^»^^iW 



?n: 



900-850 
Table 7.2.1. Driving Cycle, Uncorrected, Corrected, and Computed Data 



I. 



i 



IW>*>. 


11 


II 


IS 


U 


1» 


19 


1* 


10 


11 


iir 


tM 


IM 


m 


Ul. 


IM* •> KM 


yi> 


VII 


vn 


WW 


W» 


VN 


4/1 


*/* 


in 


»/i> 


«/l» 


• /IF 


wit 


»«f 


IM> •WIIWU*' 


c 


C,lf 


>. Iw. 


u«. 


l.tt 


C 


C.it 


» 


CM 


c 


C,» 


C 


> 


i.n 




us 


w 


MB 


m 


IH 


in 


u» 


ut 


tu 


> 


> 


s 


10 


10 


HMMM 


11. 10 


t*.W9 


Ji.M 


' 


n.»! 


•«.» 


•t.M 


».M 


•I.M 


LIS 


l.«l 


I.Fl 


1.0« 


I.OI 


CMffMIMI HMSM*' 


Sl.TO 


u.n 


>».« 


H.N 


T»,«l 


•0.M 


t).«0 


«S.|I 


f«.«4 


i.ri 


«." 


1,71 


1.04 


>.0< 




••.« 




tu • 


IW.J 


•4.* 


M.I 


•l.t 


01. • 


fl.l 


- 


- 


• 


- 


- 


IfflKLnfiHIii 






























Mwtatas >^ M»n 


1)1.11 


m.« 


lOt M 


144. M 


U*.»> 


Ml » 


»»• 1* 


iro.tr 


»1 w 


«.it 


4.1* 


4.W 


4.ri 


4.U 


MMWr,. tMH* 


•r 


■r 


ir 


■V 


» 


■r 


■r 


■r 


M.»} 


o.jm 


0.111 


O.IM 


O.MM 


O.Wi 


MMtaiv on. 
CMract.4' 








- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


H.ti 


0V5 


O.Ml 


Ml 


0.404 


O.Wl 


»» "IBM 






























% 

m t« M4.V 


1* ji 


!«.«> 


10.44 


14. r4 


If >: 


u.w 


li.iT 


IMt 


21 W 


in 


9 >at 


n «t1 


O.ll* 


0.«1 


m 1* itoi«r. 


i>.j» 


I« i^ 


to 44 


14 U 


i« »J 


U-M 


It 17 


1» U 


:i w 


0.4» 


« »•» 


4f1 


«H 


O.IH 


^1" 






























.K».^ «-»«." 




» «* 




14 It 


10 W 


- 


1T.04 


- 


It %4 




o.» 


- 




11 


k<M',i m" 


• 


J.M 




; i\ 


j.:t 




1 H 


- 


- 


- 


0.0'« 




- 


Ml 




- 


:.M 




: 1% 


:.i^ 


' 


1.1* 


- 




- 


0.0^ 


- 


- 


0.001 


^^.T*^ 






























DM 




« i; 


- 


: «^ 


1 «i 




) ^\ 


- 






Ml 


- 




O.OM 


Ml. C.II t*l 




* i: 




.' ♦^ 


( tl 




1 %\ 






- 


f ot\ 






04t 


IftTTOT Ul1M«» 






























fefiMwaB ««r*«^*«' 


i*t :• 


l'% M 


IW *4 


I'l u 


kt4 X 


1*4 n 


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I'l ]» 








- 


- 


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CM t** 1*4 


tM 4« 


IM a« 


l4^ 4« 


140 «l 


•4: 4* 


itt II 


iioi a' 


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b<ti«fs* mi*" 


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1».*4 


It. 41 




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tt *■ 


71 4* 






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M M 


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i: 41 








■ 




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yuauu tiRT 






























LIM KWI 


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;* * 


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M \ 


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k«h«ra* rtw tlir 1 


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A*|M>( T»^ (VI 


t*-:* 




l»-.*l 


l*-»» 


w-;t 


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10-lt 


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:t-.»4 


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M-i; 


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tnmi »f*4 i«»l>) 


:-\ 


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u-:* 


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:-% 


;i»-n 


d-'s 


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T-i: 


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T-i: 


aMrvrn ipuutTiT-.a 






























Sin '" ^- 


:.M 


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144 


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411 


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441 


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■0 : 


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(i\ \ 


to 4 


tl 1 












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t« 4 


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owu iri in*" 




















- 








- 












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t! 1 


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«; 1 


41 1 






•J • 




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S4 1 




tt C 








•1 * 






41 1 




4 U 


\ #4 


; 4a 


I r« 


4 Ml 


4 $! 


^.(U 


4 17 


ft ;.' 


o.in 


in 


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114 


114 


Tir, ».'' 


4 Tl 


ft » 


t w 


4 «' 


ft J* 


\ :i 


\ *1 


* ftl 


* rr 


(* u* 


UN 


u« 


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3 in 


teradwMBl. iim'* 


i JI 


: *4 


J *•* 


tl 4M 


1 ."' 


2 «: 


J 11 


1 14 


1 1 1 


0.<te- 


Pf> 


iHr4 


oiw 


n oiv) 


■M4 IM4 IMl'^ 


» *• 


« 10 


* a* 


^ W 


• %, 


r fti 


« J4 


ft :\ 


• *<i 


;ift 


.i.;i» 


;i4 


0.110 


J 10 


HI. ll>" 


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- 






- 




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- 


»• % 


»■ ; 


*r 1 


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U 1 






4« t 




\4 f 


Aft ft 




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y* 1 


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41.0 


Iff (I)'" 




















tl.l 


4« r 


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14.1 


MviMi ar - teriM 

llM- - T«*t Ml 


1 run !« 


cMf t«(t 


tm 

























0!= 



• L IS 
7-11 



^^ m^PtMfii^'* 



900-850 

7.3 REDUCED DATA - ACCELERATION TESTS 

In this section, data from Tables 6.3.1 and 6.3.2 is 
corrected and plotted. 

7.3.1 Fifth Wheel Errors, Corrected Speeds 

Based on calibration tests run at JPL and Dynamic Science, 
corrections for thece tests were determined to be: 

V = 1.045 v' (7.3.1) 



Additional details are contained in Paragraph 7.4.1. Unlike the coast- 
down tests, no offset error v -. observed; accordingly. Equation 7.3.1 
differs from 7.4.1. 

Corrected speed data corresponding to Tables 6.3.1 and 
6.3.2 is tabulated in Table 7.3.1. 

7.3.2 Time Corrections 

7.3.2.1 Elapsed Time . The elapsed-time numbers listed in Tables 
6.3.1 and 6.3.2 are found by subtracting a constant time, Tg, from the 
computer time. This constant time, which corresponds to the test 
start, is found by assuming linear acceleration during the interval 
between the test start and the second speed-time data point. 
Accordingly, 



V. (T - T.) 
T„ = T, - -^ ^ ^ 



1 V. - V, 



where, 

T^ = time of first data point 
T- = time of second data point 
V^ = speed at first data point 
V^ = speed at second data point 

7.3.2.2 Time Differences between Data Channels . The Data Logger 
System does not simultaneously record all 16 channels, instead channel 
n is recorded .2 n seconds after the computer time. Accordingly, the 
elapsed times listed in Tables 6.3.1, -.3.2, and 7.3.1 are correct for 



7-12 



900-850 



Table 7.3.1. Corrected Speeds for Acceleration Data 



Test No. 24 
Run No. 1 


Test No. 24 
Run No. 3 


Test No. 31 
Run No. 1 


Test No. 31 
Run No. 3 


Time 
Csec.) 


Speed 
(mph) 


Time 
Csec . ) 


Speed 
Cmph) 


Time 
Csec . ) 


Speed 
Cmph) 


Time 
Csec . ) 


Speed 
Cmph) 


0.31 

3.51 

6.71 

9.91 

12.91 

16.11 

19.31 

22.51 

25.31 


1.31 
12.59 
19.54 
25.14 
29.30 
33.76 
37.25 
41.00 
44.51 


1.87 
5.07 
8.07 
11.27 
14.47 
17.67 
20.67 
23.87 
27.07 


5.48 
14.85 
21.66 
26.42 
31.87 
34.67 
38.70 
42.58 
44.91 


0.06 

3.14 

6.34 

9.54 

12.54 

15.74 

18.94 

22.14 

24.94 

28.14 

31.34 


0.18 
9.35 
18.43 
22.90 
27.62 
32.77 
34,73 
38.48 
42.23 
44.87 
46.19 


2.46 
5.66 
8.66 
11.86 
15.06 
18.26 
21.26 
24.46 
27.66 


6.06 
13.94 
21.56 
26.79 
31.09 
34.94 
39.03 
41.88 
44.85 



Test No. 24 
Run No. 2 


Test No. 24 
Run No. 4 


Test No. 31 
Run No. 2 


Test No. 31 
Run No. 4 


Time 
Csec.) 


Speed 
Cmph) 


Time 
Csec . ) 


Speed 
Cmph) 


Time 
Csec.) 


Speed 
Cmph) 


Time 
Csec.) 


Speed 
Cmph) 


2.79 
5.99 
9.19 
11.99 
15.19 
18.39 
21.59 
24.59 
27.79 
30.99 


7.34 
15.75 
21.50 
25.29 
29.90 
34.45 
36.40 
39.49 
42.24 
45.19 


0.00 

3.20 

6.20 

9.40 

12.60 

15.80 

18.80 

22.00 

25.20 

28.40 

31.20 


0.01 
9.28 
15.73 
23.00 
25.79 
30.86 
34.53 
37.36 
40.42 
43.24 
45.54 


1.56 
4.76 
7.96 
10.76 
13.96 
17.16 
20.36 
23.36 
26.56 
29.76 
32.96 
35.96 


4.51 
13,75 
19.59 
22.88 
27.. 65 
31.20 
33.52 
36.84 
39.25 
41.75 
42.95 
43.99 


0.00 

3.20 

6.20 

9.40 

12.60 

15.80 

18.80 

22.00 

25.20 

28.40 

31.20 

34.20 

37.60 


0.03 
11.42 
15.51 
22.25 
25.24 
29.81 
32.35 
35.44 
38.11 
40.81 
42.69 
44.40 
45.08 



only the vehicle speeds. The following time corrections are required 
for the other data channels: 



Battery Voltage 
Battery Energy 
Motor Voltage 
Battery Current 
Motor Current 
Motor Energy 



subtract 1.4 sec. 
subtract 1.2 sec. 
subtract 1.0 sec. 
subtract 0.6 sec. 
subtract 0.2 sec. 
add 0.6 sec. for 



for correct time 

for correct time 

for correct time 

for correct time 

for correct time 
correct time 



These corrections were used throughout in the plotting of 
data shown in Figures 7.3.1 through 7.3.10. 



t 



7-13 



900-850 



7.3.3 Data Plots 



Figure 7.3.1 Is a plot of Speed vs Time for Test No. 24 
data (EV-106 Batteries and RCA 2N6251 Transistors). 

Figure 7.3.2 is a plot of Speed vs Tine for Test No. 31 
data (LEV-115 Batteries and Solitron SDT-12302 Transistors). 

Figure 7.3.3 is a plot of Acceleration vs Speed for Test 
io. 24 data. Acceleration values were obtained by "differentiating" 
,jraph of Figure 7.3.1. 

Figure 7.3.4 is a plot of Acceleration vs Speed for Test 
No. 31 data. Acceleration were values obtained as above. 

Figure 7.3.3 is a plot of Battery Voltage and Battery 
Current vs Time for Test No. 24 data. 

Figure 7.3.6 is a plot of Battery Voltage and Rattery 
Current vs Time for Test No. 31 data. 

Figure 7.3.7 ^s a plot of Motor Voltage and Motoi: Current 
vs Time for Test No. 24 data. 

Figure 7.3.8 is a plot of Motor Voltage and Motor Current 
vs Time for Test No. 31 data. 

Figure 7.3.9 is a plot of Battery Discharge Energy vs Time 
for Test No. 24 data. 

Figure 7.3.10 is a plot of Battery Discharge Energy and 
lilnergy to Motor vs Time for Test No. 31 data. 

7.3.4 Acceleration Times 

7 3,4.1 Test No. 24 Data (EV-1Q6 Batteries, 2N6251 Transistors) . 
Fiovx Figure 7.3.1, the following acceleration times are determined: 

0-10 mph 3.4 sec. 

0-20 mph 8.2 sec. 

0-30 mph 14.5 sec. 

0-40 Myh 22.6 sec. 

t'^O mph 28.3 sec. 

7,3.4.2 Test No. 31 Data (LEV-115 Batteriuo. aUT-x23Q2 Transistors) , 
From Fi^,vfe 7.3.2, the following acceleration times are determined: 

0-10 mph 3.3 sec. 

0-20 mph 8.4 sec. 

0-30 mph 15.2 sec. 

0-40 .ftph 24.8 sec. 

45 mph 31.4 sec. 



7-14 



In I — 



r 



900-850 




Figure 7.3.1. Plot of Speed vs Time for Test No. 24 Data 
(EV-106 Batteries, 2N6251 Transistors) 




Figure 7.3.2. Plot of Speed vs Time for Test No, 31 Data 
(LEV-115 Batteries, SDT012302 Transistors) 



I 



7-15 



900-850 



3.6 
3.3 

3.0 
2.7 



I" 



2 l.B 



-I 1.5 

UJ 

o 

^ 1.2 



0.9 
0.6 
0.3 



r — 1 


- - r ■ T ' T- -1 1 


1 1 r T ■■ 


r ■- 


., ., ., . 


1 ■ 




- 












" 


■N. 












- 


>^ 












- 


- 












- 


- 














- 












- 


- 




. 








- 


- 




^^^'-„.,.»^ 










- 




^""^ 


""•-""i^ 








- 








• ""*»* 


\ 


- 


- 










• 


- 


i 1 


1 1 1 1 1 


till 


1 


1 


a,. 





10 



15 



20 



25 
SPEED (mphJ 



30 



35 



40 



45 



t^ 



Figure 7.3.3. PJot of Acceleration vs Speed for Test No. 24 Data 

—I — 1 1 — r- 




J L 



' I ' 1 I L 



_l I I I I —J L 



10 



15 



20 25 
SPEED (mpW 



30 



35 



40 



45 



Figure 7.3.4. Plot of Acceleration vs Speed for Test No. 31 Data 



7-16 



900-850 



o 

•t. 

(- 
_J 
o 
> 
>- 



220 
200 
180 


— r — 1 1 V 1— r I 1 1 

FIRST GEAR SECOND GEAR THIRD GEAR 

A A Ft-, 


T 1" I - r-—\ I - T" I 

FOURTH GEAR 
/ ♦ \ ^ 


- 


160 




-o- 




\4 


-o- 


- 


140 
120 


^-4 




-o 


t^-6<K>--4a»- 


A 


O^-k _ivtt m/ti try 


- 


100 


- -o 


a u" 




BATTERY VOLTAGE 
















LEGEND 




80 


A- 












BATT. VOLTAGE BATT. CURRENT 
• RUN NO. 1 ♦RUNNO. 1 




60 














O RUN NO. 2 -O RUN NO. 2 
£kRUNNO. 3 ^ RUN NO. 3 




40 




-p- 










DRUM NO. 4 -O-RUNNO. 4 


" 


20 


1 , 


. 1 1 .1 


1 1 1 






1 1 1 1 1 1 > 1 





10 12 14 



16 18 20 
TIME (sec) 



22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 



Figure 7.3.5. Plot of Battery Voltage and Current vs 
Time for Test No, 24 Data 



u 

OS 



220 

200 
180 
160 
140 - 



2120 

< 



o 

> 



ion 



80 r 



2 60 



40 
20 



I 1 - ? - r T 

FIRST GEAR SECOND GEAR 


I — r -I ■ "1— 

THIRD GEAR 


1 1 I ■' I ■' -T -1 — 1 1 

FOURTH GEAR 


- 


Y 


"\ 


/ \ BATTERY 
-L \ CURRENT 

1 M -A- 


y^ N?" 


- 


1 


■a 




\ 7 


■^ ^\^ O- -C> 


' r\. 










/ 


- 


^4 \ 




3 




A 






u~^^ 


^« 


Nl 


>^i» ^—• 


^n_o_Art— ^r' o r--A. 


£\ n ■'V' ^\ n tf O O 


- 


•- \ 










^^ r 


BATTERY VOLTAGE 




A 


i 


h 










LEGEND 
BATT. VOLTAGE BATT. CURRENT 


_ 


y 














• RUNNO. 1 ♦RUNNO. 1 




















ORUNNO. 2 -O-RUNNO. 2 


_ 


















ARUNNO. 3 'ARUNN0.3 


















DRUNNO. 4 -D-RUNNO. 4 


- 


■d 














_ 


/ , , 


\ 1 


,, 1 


< 
J. 


■ , , ,1 


1 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 



10 12 14 



16 13 20 
TIME (sec) 



22 



24 26 28 30 32 34 36 



Figure 7.3.6. 



Plot of Battery Voltage and Current vs 
Time for T_st No. 31 Data 



7-17 



1 J.- 



-HH! 



!S^i» 



900-850 



— I 1 1 1 r- 

FIRST GEAR seCONO GtAH 




1 1 — 

THIRD GEAR 

-O- 



^ ♦ 



^^P^° 



l-fr I 



FOURTH GEAR 
-O- 

-O 

^ O- 



■O- 
-C3- 



•A-O 



AoG 







_^__Q> <D 



LENGEND 

MOTOR VOLTAGE MOTOR CURRENT 
• RUN No. 1 -V-RUNNo. 1 

ORUNNo. 2 -O- RUN No. 2 

ARUN No. 3 -A-RUN No. 3 

DRUN No.4 -O-RUN No. 4 



J_ 



X 



_L 



J_ 



_L 



_1_ 



_1_ 



8 lU 12 14 



16 18 20 
TIME (sec) 



2? 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 



Figure 7.3.7. Plot of Motor Voltage and Current vs Time 
for Test No. 24 Data 



~T — I — I — I — I — I — I 1 — r 

FIRST GEAR SECOND GEAR THIRD GEAR 



220 
200 
180 



^160 

" 140 

a 



g 120 

< 
t- 

o 100 

> 



t- 

o 
Si 



80 
60 
40 
20 



-I — I — I — I — I — r 

FOURTH GEAR 



^ 



^. 



■^ -o- 



-o 



^K*- 



o o 



■A- 

■O 




.^!b- 



LEGEND 



MOTOR VOLTAGE 
• RUN NO. 1 
O RUN NO. 2 
A RUN NO. 3 
□ RUN NO. 4 



MOTOR CURRENT 
♦ RUN NO. 1 
•ORUNNO. 2 
■A- RUN NO. 3 
■D- RUN NO. 4 



_L 



J_ 



8 10 12 14 



J_ 



16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 
TIME (sec) 

Figure 7.3.8. Plot of Motor Voltage and Current vs Time 
for Test No. 31 Data 



7-18 






.U. ML 



■r-f 






900-850 



f>- 



220 


1 1 1 


200 


- 


180 


- 


160 


- 


S 140 

s 


- 


1 120 


- 


1 100 

UJ 


- 


^ 80 


^- 


60 


- 


40 


- 


20 


^^ncf^i 1 



^ 


^ 


(^ 


LEGEND 




• RUN NO. 1 




ORUNNO. 2 




ARUN NO. 3 




DRUNNO. 4 


1 I 


1 1 1 1 1 1 



i 

! 



8 10 



14 



16 18 20 
TIME (sec) 



22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 



f.*-" 



Figure 7.3.9. Plot of Battery Discharge Energy vs Time 
for Test No. 24 Data 



220 


- 


-r — 1 1 1 --T- 1 T 1 r ■ 1 

LEGEND 
BATT. ENERGY MOTOR ENERGY 


-1 — T r- 1 ■ 1 - 1 


1 


200 




• RUNNO. 1 


-•-RUNNO. 1 




«. 






ORUNNO. 2 


O-RUNNO. 2 




c 


180 


- 


ARUN NO. 3 
DRUNNO. 4 


■A- RUN NO. 3 
-O-RUNNO. 4 


^ 


^- 


160 


- 






^ 


~ 


^ 140 


- 






y^ 


- 


5 100 

at 

5 80 


- 




^ 


%**-' 


- 


60 


- 




^ 




- 


40 


- 




J>^ 




- 


20 


- 


-^-^^r^] 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


1 1 1 1 L 1 


L . 



8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 
TIME (sec) 

Figure 7- "^.10. Plot of Battery Discharge and Motor Energy vs Time 
for Test No. 31 Data 



7-19 



900-850 

7.4 REDUCED DATA - COAST-DOWN TESTS 

In this paragraph, speed-time data listed in Tables 6.4.1 
and 6.4.2 will be converted into road load-speed information. In order 
to accomplish this, corrections need be made for Fifth Wheel errors and 
local track slope. 

7.4.1 Fifth Wheel Errors 

Calibration tests run at JPL (Dec. 16, 1976) on the NC-5 
Fifth Wheel provided a calibration constant of (.0823 + .0003) V/mph 
(eight data points ranging from 6.5 through 40 mph). (See Figure 4.6.1 
for Calibration Plot.) 

Calibration tests run at Dynamic Science (March 14, 1977) 
provided a calibration constant of .0813 V/mph (only one calibration 
point corresponding^ to 4.3u5 volt<» at 52.95 mph). 

The computer program which generated the data in Table 6.4.1 
used an effective constant of .0850 V/mph. 

Calibration on the data system indicates a throughput error 
corresponding to ^n offset of .22 mph and an error at 50 mph of less 
than .4 mph. 

The calibration constant obtained at Dynamic Science will be 
used in place of the JPL consl:ant for three reasons: 

(1) The same calibration means were used for testing other 
electric vehicles at Dynamic Science. 

(2) The DS calibration method simulates road operation 
better than the JPL procedure, 

(3) Calibration was performed closer to the time of use. 
Using the .0813 V/mph alibration constant and 
accounting for the .2 . mph offset, the following 
speed correction formula is obtained: 



V - 1.045 (V -.22) (7.4.1) 

where 

V is the corrected velocity, and 

V is the uncorrected velocity 

In the case of Strip Chart data, systematic errors 
were calibrated out and no corrections are required. 



7-20 



900-850 

7.4.2 Generalized Road Load 

If at cime t^j, the corrected vehicle velocity is V^ and the 
vehicle elevation is h^^, and if at time t^^+i the corrected vehicle 
velocity is Vxi+l and the vehicle elevation is h^+i, then the average road 
load occurring between times tn and tn+1 (based on energy conservation) 
is given by: 



1/2 M (v,' - V„^i') ^ Mg (h^ - h^^^) 



av t ,1 - t 

n+1 n 

or (7.4.2) 

^^'^ {\' - Vl') ^ '' {\ - Vl) 



where 



velocity is 



p 

av t , 1 - t 

n+1 n 



M is the gross vehicle mass, 

W is the corresponding weight, and 

g is the gravitational acceleration. 

During the time interval between t and t - , the average 



V = -2 2ii (7 4 3) 

V 2 u.^.j; 



In the case where the decelerations at times t^ and tn+1 are 
nearly th'e same, Pav may be correlated with Vay without 'Significant error. 
However^ in those cases where high speeds are Involved, caution should be 
exercised to avoid errors due to aerodynamically caused nonlinear 
decelerations. 

Before Equation 7.4.2 can be used, track location at times 
tn must be determined. Once track location is known, survey data from 
Table 6.4.3 may be applied. 

If ti is defined as the time at which distance from the 
marker is zero, then the distance from the marker at time tn is given 
by: 



j=n-l 

E 

j=l 



'n ■ '" E {'i * V) (Vl - 'j) "•"•*' 



7-21 



tf 

r* 



900-850 I 

Knowing the track location from Equation 7.4.4, linear interpolation may ■ 

be applied to Table 6.4.3 to give corresponding elevations, hn. hji is • 
found by: 



^ ^ ku-^h)\i^k-^hi)\u 



nu nl 



(7.4.5) 



where 



S . is the closest distance in Table 6.4.3 below S , 
nl n' 

h , is the elevation that corresponds to S . , 

S is the closest tabular distance above S , and 
nu n' 

h is the elevation that corresponds to S 

nu ' nu 



In addition to the systematic errors associated with the 
tape recorded data - previously mentioned, two other types of errors 
are to be noted. Since the Data Logger was not synchronized with tne 
track marker, there exists a timing uncertainty of up to 3.2 seconds. 
Secondly, small fluctuations due to either Fifth Wheel bounce or track 
uneveness added "noise" to the tape data. Because of these two problems, 
it was found that Strip Chart data yielded somewhat better results than 
the Data Logger data. Accordingly, Strip Chart data will be used for 
the following calculations. 

Ic was also noted that the down-hill (East to West) data 
produced relatively poor results (i.e., the data appears very "noisy"). 
Accordingly, calculations are tabulated for only one East to West rtn 
(Run No. 1) all other data is from the West to East tests. 

Applying Equations 7.4.2 through 7.4.5 to the data in 
Table 6.4.2, Distance, Elevation, Kinetic Energy, Potential Energy, and 
Total Energy is computed. This data is listed in Table 7.4.1 and a 
plot of road load vs speed is shown in Figure 7.i.l. 

In Table 7,4.2., summaries are made of average speed and the 
corresponding road load; also listed are corresponding values of V^ 
and P/V, which are used graphically to reduce road load into rolling 
resistance and aerodynamic components (see Section 7.4.3). 



7-22 



'"'^■''^''^., 






A--- 



900-850 



pi • 7.4.3 Road Load Resolved Into Rolling Resistance and Aerodynamic 

^y Components 



It Is assumed that the road load may be expressed as 



P « Cj V + C3 V^ (7.4.6) 



where the first term is due to tire rolling resistance and th : second 
term is due to aerodynamic friction. In general, a viscaup term 
(C2V ) should be included, but experience has shown that this term is 
small compared with th^ other two terms and its inclusion complicates 
the analysis. 

Values of Ci and C3 are easily derived by plotting P/V vs 
v2. If the P-V data conforms to Eqn (7.4.6), then such a plot should 
be a straight line with the y interrupt aqual to Ci -^rd the slope 
equal to C3. Data from Table 7.4.2 was thusly plotted in Fig> r es 7.4.2 
through 7.4.6. 

7.4.3.1 Rolling Resistance . From the plots, four values of Ct were 
obtained. Noting that hp/mph has the dimensions of a force, each of 
the values of C^ may be converted into pounds to give respective values 
of 47.3, 45.0, 42.4, and 37.5 lbs. The mean value Is 43.1 lbs and the 
standard deviation is 1.4 lb. With a vehicle weigh, of 3288 lb and a 
rotating inertia assumed equivalent to 3% of the vehicle mass, the 
rolling resistance is: 



43. i X '' .03 
RC - ' — -inoQ ~ 1.350/O 



and 

RC standard deviation = 0.044% 



7.4.3.2 Aerodynamic Resistance, CpA . At 25°C and at a standard 
atmospheric pressure of 760 man mercury, the aerodynamic force is given 
by: 



F = 0.00246 CjjAV^ (7.4.7) 



where F is force in pounds, CqA is in square feet, anc" V is in miles per 
hour. Multiplying Equation 7.4.7 by V and then converting FxV into 
horsepower, the .jllowing is obtained: 



7-23 



900-850 



P = 6.56 X lO'^ CpA V"^ (7.4.8) 



Equating (7.4.8) with the graphical slope data yields CdA 
values of 11.8, 11.3, 10.2, and 12.4 ft2. 

C A expected and standard deviation values are: 

CjjA =11.4 ft^ 

and 

2 
C A standard deviation = 0.3 ft 

7.4.3.3 Road Load Model . Averaging intercept and slope numbers 
derived frop Figures 7.4.3 through 7.4.6, the following equation is 
obtained: 



P = 0.115V + 7.51 X 10"^ V-^ (7.4.9) 



where P is power in horsepower and V is speed m mph. 
Expressed in metric units, 

P' = 192V' + 0.627 V'^ (7.4.10) 

wher - P' is power in watts, and V is speed in meters per second. 



7-24 



i^\h|^-?M \ 



i^f 



■B^W 



900-850 





Table 


7.4.1 


Intermediate Coast- 


Down Calc 


ulations 










Run No. 1 


(East to West) 
















Kinetic 


Potential 


Total 


Elapsed 










Energy 


Energy 


Energy 


Time 


Speed 


Speed 


Distance 


Elevation 


(ft-lb 


(ft-lb 


(ft-lb 


(sec.) 


(mph) 


Cfps) 


(ft) 


(ft) 


X 10^) 


X 103) 


X 103) 





50.2 


73.6 





26.15 


278.3 


86.0 


364.3 


5 


48.1 


70.5 


360 


23.42 


255.3 


77.0 


332.4 


10 


45.8 


67.2 


705 


20.78 


232.0 


68.3 


300.3 


15 


43.2 


63.4 


1031 


18.70 


206.5 


61.5 


268.0 


20 


40.7 


59.7 


1339 


16.69 


183.1 


54.9 


238.0 


25 


38.7 


56.8 


1630 


14.45 


165.7 


47.5 


213.3 


30 


36.8 


54.0 


1907 


12.17 


149.8 


40.0 


189.8 


35 


35.0 


51.3 


2170 


9.92 


135.2 


32.6 


167.8 


40 


33.4 


49.0 


2421 


8.30 


123.4 


27.3 


150.5 


45 


31.8 


46.7 


2660 


6.22 


112.0 


20.4 


132.5 


50 


30.2 


44.3 


2888 


4.87 


100.8 


16.0 


116.8 


55 


28.5 


41.8 


3103 


3.12 


89.8 


10.3 


100.0 









Run No. 2 


(West to Last) 
















Kinetic 


Potential 


Total 


Elapsed 










Energy 


Energy 


Energy 


Time 


'ipeed 


Speed 


Distance 


Elevation 


(ft-lb 


(ft-lb 


(ft-lb 


(sec) 


(mph) 


(fps) 


(ft) 


Cft) 


X 10^) 


X 103) 


X 103) 





44.9 


t)5.9 





2.72 


223.1 


8.9 


232.0 


5 


40.9 


60.0 


315 


5.07 


185.0 


16.7 


201.6 


10 


37.0 


54.3 


601 


7.03 


151.5 


23.1 


174.6 


15 


33.6 


44.3 


860 


8.87 


124.9 


29.1 


154.0 


20 


30.0 


44.0 


1093 


10.95 


994.6 


36.0 


135.5 


25 


26.8 


39.3 


1301 


12.42 


79.3 


40.8 


120.2 


30 


23.6 


34.6 


1486 


14.03 


61.5 


46.1 


107.6 


35 


20.5 


30.1 


1648 


15.22 


46.5 


50.0 


96.6 


40 


17.6 


25.8 


1787 


16.26 


34.2 


53.5 


87.7 


45 


15.1 


22.1 


1907 


17.33 


25.1 


57.0 


82.1 


50 


12.5 


18.3 


2008 


17.96 


17.2 


59.1 


76.3 


55 


10.2 


15.0 


2091 


18.43 


11.6 


60.6 


72.2 


60 


S.O 


11.7 


2158 


18.84 


7.0 


61.9 


69.0 


65 


5.8 


8.5 


2209 


19,21 


3.7 


63.2 


66.9 


70 


3.6 


5.3 


2243 


19.44 


1.4 


63.9 


65.4 


75 


1.4 


2.1 


2262 


19.58 


0.2 


64.4 


64.6 


79 


0.0 


0.0 


2267 


19.62 


0.0 


64.5 


64.5 



7-25 



900-850 



Table ' 


L4.1. 


Intermediate Coast-Down Calculations 


(Continuation 1) 








Run No. 4 


(West to East) 
















Kinetic 


Potential 


Total 


Elapsed 










Energy 


Energy 


Energy 


Time 


Speed 


Speed 


Distance 


Eleva'-.'.on 


(ft-lb 


(ft-lb 


(ft-lb 


(sec.) 


(mph) 


(fps) 


(ft) 


(ft) 


X 103) 


X 103) 


X 103) 





44.3 


65.0 





2.72 


216.9 


9.0 


225.8 


5 


40.4 


59.3 


311 


5.11 


180.4 


16.8 


197.2 


10 


36.7 


53.8 


593 


6.95 


148.9 


22.9 


171.7 


15 


33.1 


48.6 


849 


8.81 


121.1 


29.0 


150.1 


20 


29.9 


43.9 


1080 


10.62 


98.8 


3 .9 


133.7 


25 


26.7 


39.2 


1289 


12.34 


78.8 


40.6 


119.4 


30 


35.6 


34.6 


1472 


13.91 


61.5 


45.7 


107.3 


35 


20.8 


30.5 


1635 


15.14 


47.8 


49.8 


97.6 


40 


18.1 


26.6 


1778 


16.15 


36.2 


53.1 


89.3 


45 


15.6 


22.9 


1901 


17.28 


26.9 


56.8 


83.7 


50 


13.0 


19,1 


2006 


17.95 


18.7 


59.0 


77.7 


55 


10.7 


IS. 7 


2093 


18.44 


12.6 


60.6 


73.3 


60 


8.6 


12.6 


2164 


18.89 


8.2 


62. i 


70.3 


65 


6.4 


9.4 


2219 


19.27 


4.5 


63.3 


67.9 


70 


4.6 


6.8 


2259 


19.49 


2.3 


64.1 


66.4 


75 


2.6 


3.8 


2286 


19.75 


0.7 


64.9 


65.7 


80 


0.4 


0.6 


2297 


19.83 


0.2 


65.2 


65.2 









Run No. 6 


(West to East) 
















Kinetic 


Potential 


Total 


Elapsed 










Energy 


Energy 


Energy 


Time 


Speed 


Speed 


Distance 


Elevation 


(ft-lb 


(ft-lb 


(ft-lb 


(sec.) 


(mph) 


(fps) 


(ft) 


(-"t) 


X 103) 


X 103) 


X 103) 





44.9 


65.9 





2.72 


223,1 


8.9 


232.1 


5 


41.3 


60.6 


316 


5.08 


188.7 


16.7 


205.3 


10 


38.1 


55.9 


609 


7.16 


160.6 


23.3 


183.9 


15 


34.7 


50.9 


876 


8.96 


133.1 


29.5 


162.6 


20 


31.3 


45.9 


1118 


11.07 


108.2 


36.4 


144.6 


25 


28.2 


41.4 


1336 


12.65 


88.1 


41.6 


129.6 


30 


25.2 


36.9 


1532 


14.40 


69.9 


47.3 


117.3 


35 


22.5 


33.0 


.1707 


15.58 


55.9 


51.2 


107.2 


40 


70.0 


29.3 


1862 


16.92 


44.1 


55.6 


99.7 


45 


17.9 


26.3 


2002 


17.93 


35.5 


58.9 


94.5 


50 


15.5 


22.7 


2125 


18.62 


26.5 


61.2 


87.7 


55 


13.3 


19.5 


2230 


19.35 


19.5 


63.6 


83.2 


60 


o 


16.1 


2319 


19.99 


13.3 


65.7 


79.0 


65 


S.9 


13.1 


2342 


20.42 


8.8 


67.1 


76.0 


70 


6.8 


10.0 


2450 


20.72 


5.1 


68.1 


73.2 


75 


4.7 


6.9 


2492 


20.90 


2.5 


68.7 


71.2 


80 


2.2 


3.2 


2517 


21.00 


0.5 


69.0 


69.6 


85 


0.0 


0.0 


2525 


21.04 


0.0 


69.2 


69.2 



7-26 



*-<»»l— ^„„,,^_ __ 






900-850 



t, ■ 



■5* 



f #, 



Table ; 


'.4.1. 


Intermediate Coast-Down Calculations 


CContinuati 


on 2) 








Run No. 9 


CWest to East) 










I 






Kinetic 


Potenti. 1 


Total 


Elapsed 










Energy 


Energy 


Energy 


Time 


Speed 


Speed 


Distance 


Elevation 


Cft-lb 


Cft-lb 


(ft-lb 


(sec.) 


(mph) 


(fps) 


(ft) 


(ft) 


X 103) 


X 103) 


X i03) 





49.6 


72.7 





2.72 


270.2 


8.9 


279.1 


5 


45.3 


66.4 


348 


5.27 


225.4 


17.3 


242.7 


10 • 


41.2 


60.4 


665 


7.60 


186.5 


25.0 


211.5 


15 


37.5 


55.0 


830 


8.71 


154.6 


28.6 


183.2 


20 


34.1 


50.0 


1042 


10.83 


127.8 


35.6 


163.4 


25 


30.9 


45.3 


1330 


12.60 


104.9 


41.4 


146.3 


30 


27.9 


40.9 


1546 


14.51 


85.5 


47.7 


133.2 


35 


25.2 


37.0 


1741 


15.81 


70.0 


52.0 


122.0 


40 


22.4 


32.9 


1916 


17.42 


55.3 


57.3 


112.6 


45 


20.0 


29.3 


2071 


18.30 


43.9 


60.2 


104.1 


50 


17.7 


26.0 


2209 


19.21 


34.6 


63.2 


97.7 


55 


15.4 


22.6 


2331 


20.08 


26.1 


66.0 


92.1 


60 


13.2 


19.4 


2536 


21.10 


19.2 


69.4 


88.6 


65 


11.0 


16.1 


2625 


21.88 


13.3 


71.9 


85.2 


70 


8.5 


12.5 


2696 


22.50 


8.0 


74.0 


82.0 


75 


6.3 


9.2 


2750 


22.96 


4.3 


75.5 


79.8 


80 


4.0 


5.9 


2788 


23. 2o 


1.8 


76.5 


78.3 


85 


1.8 


2.6 


2810 


23.43 


0.3 


77.0 


77.4 


89.5 


0.0 


0.0 


2816 


23.49 


0.0 


77.2 


77.2 






7-27 



900-8r0 





Table 7.4.2. Coast-Do 


. n Calculations 








Run No. 1 (East 


to West) 






Time 


Average 


Energy Lost 






V2 
Cmph^) 


Interval 


Speed 


During Interval 


Road-Loai 


P/V 


Csec.) 


(mph) 


Cft-lb X 103) 


Horsepower 


(hp/mph) 


5 


49.2 


31.9 


11.6 


.235 


2421 


5 


47.0 


32.0 


11.6 


.247 


2209 


5 


44.5 


32.3 


11.8 


.265 


1480 


5 


42.0 


37.4 


13.6 


.324 


1764 


5 


39.7 


17.4 


6.31 


.159 


1576 


5 


37.8 


23.4 


8.52 


.225 


1429 


5 


35.9 


22.0 


8.00 


.223 


1289 


5 


34.2 


17.2 


6.25 


.J83 


117" 


5 


32.6 


18.1 


6.60 


.202 


1063 


b 


31.0 


15.7 


5.69 


184 


961 


5 


29.4 


16.8 


6.11 


.207 


864 







Run No. 2 (West 


to East) 






Time 


Average 


Energy Lost 






v2 

(mph ) 


Interval 


Speed 


During Interval 


Road-Load 


P/V 


Csec.) 


(mph) 


(ft-lb X 103) 


Horsepower 


(hp/mph) 


5 


42.9 


30.4 


11.1 


.258 


1840 


5 


39.0 


27.0 


9.83 


.252 


1521 


5 


35.3 


20.6 


7.48 


.212 


1?46 


5 


31.8 


18.6 


6.75 


.212 


1011 


5 


28.4 


15.3 


5.56 


.196 


807 


5 


25.2 


12.6 


4.56 


.181 


635 


5 


22.1 


11.0 


4.02 


.182 


488 


5 


19.1 


8.93 


3.25 


.170 


365 


5 


16.4 


5.59 


2.03 


.124 


269 


5 


13.8 


5.82 


2.11 


.153 


190 


5 


11.4 


4.10 


1.49 


.131 


130 


5 


9.1 


3.18 


1.16 


.127 


83 


5 


6.9 


2.11 


0.77 


.111 


48 


5 


4.7 


1.51 


0.55 


.117 


22 


5 


2.5 


0.75 


0.28 


.110 


6 


4 


0.7 


0.10 


0.04 


— 


— 



tit 



7-28 



m^ 



900-850 



Tabl 


e 7.4.2. 


Coast"Down Calculations (Uontinuaciun 1^ 








Run No. 4 CWest 


to East) 






Time 


Average 


Energy Lost 






V2 
Cmph ) 


Interval 


Speed 


During Interval 


Road-Load 


P/V 


Csec.) 


(mph) 


Cft-lb X 103) 


Horsepower 


Chp/mph) 


5 


42.4 


28.7 


10.4 


.246 


1794 


5 


38.6 


25.4 


9.25 


.240 


1486 


5 


34.9 


21.7 


6.03 


.173 


1156 


5 


31.5 


16.4 


5.95 


.189 


992 


5 


28.3 


14.3 


5.22 


.184 


801 


5 


25.2 


12.1 


4.39 


.175 


633 


5 


22.2 


9.67 


3.52 


.158 


493 


5 


19.5 


8.29 


3.01 


.154 


378 


5 


16.9 


5.60 


2.04 


.121 


284 


5 


14.3 


6.01 


2.19 


.153 


204 


5 


11.9 


4.43 


1.61 


.136 


140 


5 


9.7 


3.00 


1.09 


.113 


93 


5 


7.5 


2.39 


0.87 


.115 


56 


5 


5.5 


1.47 


0.53 


.096 


30 


5 


3.6 


.74 


0.27 


075 


13 


5 


1.5 


.47 


0.17 


.112 


2 







Run No. 6 CWest 


to East) 






Time 


Average 


Energy Lost 






v2 
Cmph^) 


Interval 


Speed 


During Interval 


Road-Load 


P/V 


Csec.) 


Cmph) 


Cft-lb X 10^) 


Horsepower 


Chp/mph) 


5 


43.1 


26.7 


9.70 


.225 


1857 


5 


39.7 


21.5 


7.31 


.197 


1576 


5 


36.4 


21.3 


7.75 


.206 


1325 


5 


33.0 


17.9 


6.52 


.198 


1089 


3 


29.8 


15.0 


5.45 


.183 


885 


5 


26.7 


12.3 


4.49 


.168 


713 


5 


23.9 


10.1 


3.68 


.154 


569 


5 


21.3 


7.44 


2.70 


.127 


452 


5 


19.0 


5.25 


' 1.91 


.101 


359 


5 


16.7 


6.79 


2.47 


.148 


279 


5 


14, 


4.54 


1.65 


.115 


207 


5 


12.2 


4.12 


1.50 


.123 


146 


5 


10.0 


3.09 


1.12 


.112 


99 


5 


7.9 


2.72 


0.99 


.126 


62 


5 


5,8 


2.01 


0.73 


.127 


33 


5 


3.5 


1.64 


0.60 


.172 


12 


5 


1.1 


0.41 


0.15 


.134 


1 






7-29 



ff-W- 



■-"-*■■ '- -^'■^— ^**iat 



^iain 



Mg^* 



900-850 



Table 7.4.2. 


Coast-Down Calculations CContinuation 2) 








Run No. 9 CWest 


to East) 






Time 


Average 


Energy Lost 






v2 


Interval 


Speed 


During Interval 


Road-Load 


P/V 


Cmph ) 


Csec.) 


(mph) 


Cft-lb X 103) 


Horsepower 


Chp/mph) 


5 


47.4 


36.4 


13.2 


.279 


2247 


5 


43.3 


31.2 


11.4 


.262 


1875 


5 


39.4 


28.3 


10.3 


.261 


1552 


5 


35.8 


19.8 


7.20 


.201 


1282 


5 


32.5 


17.1 


6.22 


.191 


1056 


5 


29.4 


13.1 


4.76 


.162 


864 


5 


26.6 


11.2 


4.07 


.153 


708 


5 


23.8 


9.35 


3.40 


.143 


566 


5 


21.2 


8.55 


3.11 


.147 


44 :> 


5 


18.9 


6.34 


2.31 


.122 


357 


5 


16.6 


5.58 


2.03 


.122 


276 


5 


14.3 


3.52 


1.28 


.090 


204 


5 


12.1 


3.43 


1.25 


.103 


146 


5 


9.8 


3.22 


1.17 


.119 


96 


5 


7.4 


2.15 


0.78 


.106 


55 


5 


5.2 


1.57 


0.57 


.109 


27 


5 


2.9 


0.86 


0.31 


.108 


8 


4.5 


0.9 


0.15 


0.05 


— 


— — 






7-30 






900-850 



-^ , 



r 

i 



22 


1 


I- 1 ■ r— 


■ r n 


■ t ■ 1 


— r 


I - ■ 


T , ■ ,- -J- - 1 


20 


- 












/ - 
/ 


18 


■~ 












/ 

/ 
/ 


16 




LEGeND 










/ 
/ 
/ 


14 


"" 












/ 


a 




• RUN No. 2 










/ 


^ 














/ 


o 12 


- 


O RUN No. 4 










A 


S 




A RUN No. 9 








i 


/ 


-1 












£> >5 




Q 10 


■~ 










•/ 


~ 


S 












r 




8 


- 






V 


/■^ 


/ 


- 


6 


" 




A 


X^ 


o 




■ 


4 


~" 




'CJ^ 


'a 






"■ 


2 


Krsrr 


-^^ 


1 1 


1 1 


1 


1 


1 1.1 1 1 



12 14 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 56 60 
SPEED (mph) 



Figure 7.4.1. Plot of \oad Load vs Speed; Data from Table 7.4.2 



0.34 


1 -■ 1 


1 1 1 1 i 1 


1 


1 ■ 


I 


1 1 


r r 


0.32 


- 




• 








- 


0.30 


- 












- 


0.28 


- 












- 


0.26 


_ 






• 






_ 




- 








• 


• 




< 0.22 
a. 


- 












- 


0.20 


- 


• 

• 










- 


0.18 


- 


• • 










- 


0.16 


- 


• 










- 


0.14 


. 1 1 


1 1 1 1 1 1 


1 


1 


1 . 


1 1 


1.. 1 



200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 2400 2600 2800 30C0 

V^ (mph^) 

Figure 7.4.2. Plot of P/V vs V^ for Run No. 1 Data 



7-31 



<j.ri£^^.-..fai. y. ■■ »-*i'-i'j 



?!!" TTffF**!* W '.» 11 •' »-■ 



900-850 



0.28 
0.26 
0.24 

0.22 
0.20 



f 0.18 



0.16 
0.14 
0.12 
0.10 
0.08 



. ' ' 


1— 


1 


1 


- I -r 1 111 1 1 


— 1 r 


- 










- 


- 








y^ 


- 


- 






V 


/ % 


- 


- 




V 


/ 




- 


• 


•/ 


/ 






- 


• 


/ 






INTERCEPT = 0.126 hp/mph 


. 


• y^ 








SLOPE = 7,76 X 10-5 hp/(mph)^ 




• 










- 


1 1 


1 


1 


1 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


1 1.. 



200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 2400 2600 2800 3000 

V^(mph^) 



Figure 7.4.3. Plot of P/V vs V for Run No. 2 Data 



0.28 
0.26 
0.24 
0.22 
0.20 
I 0.18 

a. 

.c 

> 0.16 
0.14 
0.12 
0.10 
0.08 



- 


-I 


T— 


— n 


■T 


I -1 1 -r — 1 — T- ■^ 


T T 












y^* 














• >/^ 




- 


•/ 


•y 


/• 


• 




- 


•y 


/ 








INTERCEPT = 0.120 hp/mph 


- 


• •y^ 










SLOPE = 7.42x10-5 hp/ttnph)' 




• J' 












~ 














- 


• 

1 1 


1 , 


1 


1 


_L 


_ 1- 1 1 1 1 1 1 


1 1 



200 400 600 800 1000 1200 14001600 1800 2000 2200 2400 2600 2800 3000 



Figure 7.4.4. Plot of P/V vs V for Run No. 4 Data 



7-32 



I I IMl IIIM'll 



_liri-f II ^liii n I II 



900-850 



1 1 1 1 1 I r 




INTERCEPT = 0.113 hp/Tiph 

SLOPE --- 6.68 X 10'^ hp/(mph)^ 



J L 



200 400 600 800 lOOO 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 2400 2600 2800 3000 



V^ Imph^) 



Figure 7.4.5. Plot of P/V vs V for Run No. 6 Data 




INTERCEPT = 0.100 hp/raph 

SLOPE = 8.18 X lO'^hp/Cmph)^ 



I I I I I I L 



J I I i L 



200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 2400 2600 2800 30C0 



V^ (mph^) 



Figure 7.4.6. Plot of P/V vs V for Run No. 9 Data 



7-33 



'' aui 



•igti^'iM 



ridh 



.j^..»^'«S,^^t:mmu^ ^I'^fm^^j.i'iiHli^"^ 



■aMiH 









4 



900-850 

7.5 REDUCED DATA - WEIGHT SENSITIVITY TESTS 

7.5.1 Instrument Errors 

Systematic errors associated with both the Energy Counter 
'^ and Charge Counter need not be considered here, since, to first order, 

thetie errors will cancel. However, corrections to the Energy and 
{j- Charge data of Sections 6.1 and 6.2 are required If such data Is used 

^ for other purposes (e.g., control system efficiency). 

7.5.2.1 Corrections for Distance Variations 

To account for the minor variations In distance over which 
i energy and charge parameters ware m&'^sured, these parameters will be 

dealt with on a "per-foot" basis. Accordingly, new variables Y will be 
used, where: 

^ Y-| (7.5.1) 

f where 

X is the energy or charge associated with a given test 

and 

D is the distance over which X is measured 

7.5.2.2 Corrections for Road Load Variations 

Observing the data in Table 6.5.1, it is noted in each case 
that energy and charge consumptions were reduced when given tests were 
repeated. Comparing, for example, Run 7 with Run 1, Battery Discharge 
Energy is down 6.6%, Energy to Motor is down 5.5%, and Amp-IIours 
Discharged Is down 5.6%. The apparent explanation of this effect lit 
that tire and gear losses diminish as temperatures rise. 

Since no details are known concerning road load variations 
with time, a linear trend will be assumed. 

In Runs 1 through 12, tests were performed in the sequence: 
LOAD, NO LOAl), LOAD, NO LOAD. Corresponding to this sequence, energy 
and charge parameters are defined as Yj^, Y2, Y3, and Y4. Base on the 
linear trend hypothesis, two values of Ay may be found - namely: 



■j-- 






7-34 



^OfUi^thm iiiiiiiiin ■■ '■ '^mttt 






900-850 



AY^- .5(Y^+Y3) -Y2 



AY3 =. Y3 - .5(Y2 + Y^) 



(7.5.2) 



AY and AY may be averaged to give 



AY = .75(Y3 - Y2) + .25 (Y^^ - Y^) (7.5.3) 

In Rurs 13 through 29, tests were performed in the sequence: 
LOAD, NO LOAD, NO LOAD, LOAD. In this case, the linear trend hypothesis 
gives the following two values for AY 



AY^ » 1/3 (2Y^ + Y^) - Y2 



AYg = 1/3 (Y^ + 2Y^) - Y3 



(7.5.4) 



Averaging AY. and AY„, 



AY = .5(Y^ + Y^) - .5 (Y^ + Y^) (7.5.5) 

7.5.2.3 Constant Speed Weight Sensitivity Formulae 

Equations (5.6.1) and (7.5.1) may be combined to give: 

AY/Y 
o 



where 



and 



AY is given by Equation 7.5.3 for Runs 1 through 12, and by 
Equation 7.5.5 for Runs 13 through 29, 



Y is the average of Y , Y , Y , and Y^ in all cases. 



7-35 



, W.rt iMI & : 



Ml. *^..v gi^, 



900-850 

7.5.2.3.1 Formulas for Runs 1 through 12 

Equat-'on 7.5.6 may be expanded to give: 



■3 (X3/D3 - X2/D2) + (X^/Dj^ - X^/D^)' 
X^/T)^ + X2/D2 + X3/D3 + X^/D^ 



W 
o 

AW 



(7.5.7) 



7.5.2.3.2 Formula for Runs 13 through 24 

Equation 7.5.6 may similarly be expanded to give 



'2 (X^/U^ - X^/D^) + 2 (X^/D^ - X^/D^ 



Xj^/D^ + X2/D2 + X3/D3 



\^\ 



W 
o 

AW 



7TT (7.5.8) 



7.5.2.4 



Computed Weight Sensitivity Parameters 



Applying Equation 7.5.7 to Data in Table 6.5.1, Panp 1 
through 12, values for the parameters listed in Table 5,6.1 ard 
determined (see Table 7.5.1). Similarly, Table 7.5.2 is generated from 
the Run 13 through 29 data. 

Table 7.5.1. Constant Speed Weight Sensitivity Measurements 



(Runs 1 through 12) 





25 mph 


35 mph 


45 mph 


Top Speed 


Batt. Energy 


^BE 25 = '''' 


^BE 35 = '''' 


^BE 45 = -^^-^ 


- 


Motor Energy 


'm 25 = •''' 


'm 35 = '^^' 


^ME 45 = -569 


- 


A.H. Disch. 


^AH 25 = -^^^ 


^\a 35 = '^^^ 


^AH 45 = -^12 


" 



Table 7.5.2. Constant Speed Weight Sensitivity Measurements 

(Runs 13 through 29) 



y^ 





25 mph 


35 mph 


45 mph 


Top Speed 


Batt. Energy 


^BE 25 = -^07 


^BE 35 = '''' 


hE 45 = -218 


^BE top = -205 


Motor Energy 


^ME 25 = '''' 


^m 35 = '''^ 


^ME 45 = -222 


^ME top = '''' 


A.H, Disch. 


^AH 25 = ■''' 


^AH 35 = '''' 


^AH 45 = -2^^ 


^AH top " -288 



7-36 



*»» -,•*. 



900-850 



7.5.3 



Driving Cycle Tests 



In these tests, no corrections for Road Load variations will 
be used. For Runs 1 through 4 (see Table 6.2.1 for Data). 



h = 



2 (X2/D2 - X^/Dj^) W^ 



(X2/D^ + X^/D^) 



AW 



7.5.9 



For Runs 5 through 8 (see Table 6.5.2 for Data), 

2 (X^/D, - X^/D2) W^ 



h- 



(Xj^/D^ + X2/D2) AW 



7.5.10 



7.5.3.1 



Computed Weight Sensitivity Parametirs 



Applying Equations 7.5.9 and 7.5.19 to Data in Table 6.5.2, 
values for the parameters listed in Table 5.6.2 are determined (&;'.e 
Tables 7.5.3 and 7.5.4). 

Table 7.5.3. Driving Cycle Weight Sensitivity Measurements 
(Runs 1 through 4: AW = 202 lb) 





Sch. C, No Reger. 


Sch C, W. Ragen. 


Batt. Disch. Energy 


^BE cnr =^ '''' 


^BEcr=-^^'^ 


Batt. Rech, Energy 


^RBE cnr 


^RBE cr = -'' 


Energy to Motor 


S„^ = -737 

ME cnr 


'm cr = '•''' 


Energy from motor 


^RHE cnr "^ 


^RME cr = '■'' 


A.H. Disch 


S.u = -995 
AH cnr 


S.x. = -837 
AH cr 


A.H. Rech. 


^RAH cnr " 


S^M. =1.90 
RAh cr 



Table 7.5.4. Driving 
(Runs 5 



Cycle Weight Sensitivity 
through 8: AW = 400 lb) 



MeasuremF.ats 





Sch. C, No Regen. 


Sch. C, W. Regen. 


Rare. Disch. Energy 


S^T. = .683 
BE cnr 


V cr = -'"' 


Batt. Rech. Energy 




RBE cr 


Energy to Motor 


S«c = -707 
ME cnr 


SMEcr= ■^-' 


Knergy from Motor 




W cr = •''' 


A.H. Disch. 


S^u = .745 
AH cnr 


^AH cr = '''' 


A.H. Rech. 




SraH cr = '''' 



■:a 



\ 



7-j7 






900-850 

Section 8 
ENERGY FLOW MODELING 



In this section, data presented In 7.1 (Reduced Data-Constant 
Speed Tests) and 7.2 (Reduced Data-Driving Cycle Tests) will be reassem- 
bled into energy flow models whereby the flow of energy is traced 
through each of the propulsion components. At the outset, it had been 
hoped that energy efficiencies, for each component c<- Jld be deterained 
for all points of operation (e.g., motor and controller efficiencies vs 
all Dossible speed-acceleration points). For a variety of reasons, 
including instrumentation deficiencies and time limitations, a less 
comprehensive set of data was acquired and analyzed. Instead, energy 
flow analyses have been carried out for constant speed and driving 
cycle modes of operation. 

In the analyses to follow, the KWH has been used as the 

standard energy unit (1 KWH = 2.652 x 10 ft-lb = 4.825 x 10 hp-sec 
= 1.340 hp-hr) . For each case to be analyzed, the energy values listed 
are associated with a known distance of vehicle travel. Accordingly, 
all of the energy numbers listed (KWH) may be converted into KWH/mi 
values. It should be noted that energy per distance is equal to force 
and that 1 KWH per mile is equal to a force of 502.3 lb. Converting 
KWH per mile figures to forces makes direct physical sense in the ease 
of tire and air drag. In the case of "upstream" components, such as 
the charger, the physical meaning is virtually lost. None the less, 
such 1 measure, in terms of comparative pystem evaluations m^y be quite 
meaningful. 

8.1 CONSTANT SPEED ANALYSES 

All energy number were derived from Table 7.1.1. In most 
cases, the numbers used were averages from repeat tests. In those cases 
where "out-liers" were identified, the averages do not include these 
numbers 

8.1.1 Charger Input 

For 25 mph, Test 9 data only was used since Test 2 involved 
considerable amounts of over-charge. All other numbers were averages 
from corresponding tests. 

8.1.2 Charger Efficiency, Battery Input 

Averages of Battery Input Energy were separately computed 
for 25, 35, 45 mph and max speed. Each of the"'' numbers was compared 
with the corresponding average Charger Input to determine a charger 
efficiency (numbers ranged between 84.4% and 100%). Based on the 
belief that charger efficiency should be fairly constant, an average 
charger efficiency was determined - 91.3%. This number was then used 
for all subsequent analyses. (Note that lab tests on charger indicated 
efficiency to be about 95%). Using the 91.3% figure, "corrected" KWH 
values for the Battery Input were then obtained. 

8-1 



.^-^r 



900-850 

8.1.3 Control System Efficl«ncy, Motor Input 

All efficiency numbers were derived from calibration Tests 
22A through 22E - where the Instrumentation was connected to measure 
the total energy applied to the laotor. For each speed. Motor Input 
Energy was found by multiplying the average Battery Discharge Energy 
times the above efficiency numbers. 

8.1.4 Motor Efficiency, Motor Output 

The motor speed was determined from the vehicle speed, gear 
selection, and data from Section 3.9. The average battery current was 
found from vehicle speed and battery discharge per mile. Using motor 
speed and battery current, data from Table 3.6.2 was used to find the 
efficiency of the motor-control combination; this number divided by the 
controller efficiency was used to obtain motor efficiency. Motor 
Output was taken as Motor Input times the Motor Efficiency. 

8.1.5 Road-Load Energy, Gear Train Efficiency 

Tire and Aerodynamic Energy losses were computed for each 
tests on the basis of Road-Load Equation 7.4,9. Using these results, 
it was noted that gear train efficiencies in th2 "high nineties" were 
observed. As a result, road-load numbers were lowered by 5Z to lOZ co 
yield /'hat are believed more credible gear train efficiencies. 

8.1.1 Summary of Constant Speed Energy Flow Analyses 

Figures 8.1.1 through 8.1.4 summarize results for constant 
speed operations at 25, 35, 45 mph and max. speed, respectively. 

3.2 DRIVING CYCLE ANALYSES (NO REGENERATIVE BRAKING) 

All energy numbers were derived from Table 7.2.1. In most 
cases the numbers used were averages from repeat tests. In those cases 
where "out-liers" identified, the averages did not include these 
numbers. 

8.2.1 Charger Input 

Same methods used as in Section ii.1.1. 

8.2.2 Charger Efficiency, Hattery Input 
Same methods used as in Section 8.1.2. 

3.2.3 Control System Efficiency, Motor Input 

Same methods used as in Section 8.1.3, except Calibration 
Tests 22F through 22L were used to determine controller efficiency. 



8-2 



■tmtmmmmmnmam 



900-850 

8.2.4 Motor Efficiency, Motor Output 

For constant speed portions the driving cycles, the 
methods of Section 8.1.4 were used to ob. n efficiency. Estimates of 
discrete, point efficiencies during acceleration corresponding to 
5-mph increments were obtained as above. 

The net efficiency was then found as a time-weighted average 
of both the constant speed and acceleration portions of B and C Driving 
Cycles. 

8.2.5 Road-Load Energy 

Road-Load Equation 7.4.9 was integrated over time for 
Cycles B and C to find tire and aerodynamic losses during acceleration 
and constant speed segments (upper arrows in Figs. 8.2.1 through 
8.2.4). 

During the coast and brake intervals, road load energy was 
derived entirely from stored kinetic energy. The integral of Equation 
7.4.9 was again used to compute tire and aerodynamic losses. These 
losses are displayed separately since they derive from kinetic energy, 
and not directly from propulsion. Road load nimibers were reduced from 
zero to 5% for the reasons mentioned in Section 8.1.5. 

8.2.6 Kinetic Energy 

2 
Kinetic is 1/2 MV N where M is the gross vehicle mass, V is 

the cruise speed, and N is the number of cycles driven. 

8.2.7 Gear Train Efficiency 

The gear train efficiency was found as the ratio between 
the sum of Kinetic Energy and the Road Load Energy (during acceleration 
and cruise onl>) and the Motor Output. 

8.2.8 Energy Dissipated on Brakes 

This energy was found as the difference between road load 
energy from coast and brake intervals and the Kinetic Energy. 

8.2.9 Summary of Driving Cycle Energy Flow Analyses 

Figs. 8.2.1 and 8.2.2 summarize results for non-regenerative 
tests C and B respectively. 

8.3 DRIVING CYCLE ANALYSES (REGENERATIVE BRAKING) 

All energy numbers were derived from Table 7.2.1. In most 
cases, the numbers used were averages from repeat tests. In those 
cases where "out-liers" were identified, the averages did not include 
these numbers. 



8-3 



iM'\- 



< 



i 900-850 

8.3.1 Charger Input 

Same methods used as in Section 8.1.1. 

8.3.2 Charger Efficiency, Battery Input 

Same methods used as in Section 8.1.1 except that Battery 
Input includes recharge energy obtained during regenerative braking. 
'.* 
f 8.3.3 Control System Efficiency, Motor Input (forward flow) 



5 



The forward flow of energy was treated as in Section 8.2.3. 

3.' 

i, 

I 8.3.4 Control System Efficiency, Motor Return (reverse flow) 

»• 

Data from Tests 22F through 22L was used to obtain con- 
' troller efficiency. No data was available for motor efficiency so the, 

assumption that reverse direction gear efficiency approximates the 
l forward efficiency was initially used to solve for the regenerative 

I motor efficiency. Since lower than expected motor efficiencies were 

f founds, gear efficiencies were then lowered by about 5%. This approach 

I indicates that a good deal of uncertainty exists here. 

8.3.5 Road-Load Energy 

: Same methods used as in Section 8.2.5, No consideration 

was given to increased Road Load Energy due to brake intervals longer 
than the specified time. 

8.3.6 Kinetic Energy 

Same methods used as in Section 8.2.6. 

8.3.7 Energy Returned to Wheels 

This energy was found as the difference between road load 
during coast and brake intervals and the Kinetic Energy. 

8.3.8 Energy Dissipated on Brakes 

During the tests, the hydraulic brakes were applied when 
the vehicle speed dropped to about 2 mph. The numbers computed are 

2 
equal to 1/2 MV N where V is 2 mph. 

8.3.9 Summary of Driving Cycle Energy Flow Analyses 

Figs. 8.2.3 and 8.2.4 summarize results for regenerative 
;, tests C and B, respectively. 



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v. 900-850 



Section 9 
OBSERVATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS 



9.1 TEST PROCEDURES 

For a variety of technical reasons, the recommended ERDA and 
JPL tes*- methods appear lacking in effectiveness. For both the constant 
spee'' the driving cycle tests, repeats of certain tests produced 
rang electrical measurements which varied by more than 20%. While 
some these variations may have been due to fluctuations within the 
vehic-i«, such as the front disc brakes, it is believed that most of the 
variations resulted from changing weather conditions (ambient tempera- 
ture and wind) . The conclusion is that improved repeatability could 
be obtained by either running tests in a region of more stable climate 
or by running tests on an indoor dynamometer. 

Converting coast-down raw data into road-load parameters 
proved parti -alarly troublesome. A large part of the problem was due 
to both the slope cf the track and the unevenness of the slope. 
Electrical noise generated by the fifth v/heel (and possi'-ly elsewhere) 
also played a part in degrading this data. While brakes were periodi- 
cally checked for drag, it is possible that small amounts of fluctua- 
ting brake ai.ag added to the problems. 

The following recommendations for improved road-load data 
are provided, based on the experience of this report: 

(1) Improved road surface . Coast-down tests should be 
performed on surfaces having less than a 0.1% grade 
(measured between any two points 25 m apart) . 

(2) Improved data co3 lection method . Ideally, distance- 
time data, rather than speed-time data should be 
acquired. This technique which has been used 
successfully by JPL and Detroit programs has the 
advantage of inherent accuracy since the 

location and elevation of crack-mounted pressure 
switches (or photo sensors) may be surveyed to within 
fractions of a centimeter while signal time placements 

may be easily determined to within one part in 10 . 
Furthermore, with this type of "track-based" data 
system, wind sensing at various track locations may 
be added to enable further refinement of the 
processed data. 

(3) Improved "In-Vehicle Instrumentation" . In the case 
whers vehicle instrumentation is used to provide speed- 
time data, a major improvement could be achieved by 
replacing the NC-5 electro-mechanical dpeed sensor 
with an electronic tachometer system. This would 



9-1 



1 900-850 

enable a large reduction in noise, enable improved 
linearity, and provide an easy, electronic means of 
calibration. 

(n) Winff Tunnel Tests . Wind tunnel testing would enable 
'. the most comprehensive and accurate results. Besides 

y surmounting the prcblua of environmental effects, 

'■<■ wind tunnel testing could provide data which cannot be 

obtained from track tests - such as the determination 
of drag vs yaw angle and aerodynamic lift. 

9.1.1 Chassis Dynometer Testing 

At 'ndicated, varying environmental conditions lead to 
varying test results. For this reason, it is strongly recommend'jd that 
the bulk of future "long duration" tests, such as range tests be 
performed on a precision chassis dynamometer, but where careful calibra- 
tions be first run on a "high grade" test track under "good" weather 
conditions. Once the above calibration data is obtained, accurate 
dynamometer testing may be carried out, "rain or shine". While this 
approach promises optimal accuracy, it has the added advantages of 
reduced cos"., direct interface with data processing; nardwar»=>, and 
improved driver safety. 

9.1.2 Application of Battery Models 

Through the application of an "accepted" battery model, it 
low appears that extensive test data could be derived without having to 
actually run the required tests over entire charge-disclic^rge cycles. In 
particular, a few track tests could be run to determine electrical loads 
under various conditions of operation. This data could then be applied 
to a computer contained battery model whereby extensive range and energy 
parameters could be obtained. In a few minutes of computer time, results 
could be obtained which presently require months of track tests and tens 
of thousands of dollars. 

9.1.3 Bench Tests for Sub-Components 

Prior to the Phoenix Tests, it was hoped that track data 
could be reduced to provide mode] s for each of the power-train 
sub-components. Data analysis, after running the tests, produced 
results which pointed up the extreme difficulty in obtaining component 
data this way. 

An example of this situation was in determining gear-train 
efficiencies. Here, the option was tn determine efficiencies by 
noting energy to motor, motor efficiency, and the corresponding road 
load. Inaccuracies in determining any of the above parameters, in turn 
% resulted in a "multiplied" inaccuracy for the gear train efficiency. 

*■ Because of thii situation, it appears that -he best method for 

.■*" determining sub-component efficiencies is through "isolated measurement". 

In the case of tie charger, the battery, and the controller, isolated 
data can be obta.ned in situ. In the case of the motor, isolated 



9-2 



c- ^,- 



900-S50 

data cannot be obtained in situ since shaft torque measurements cannot 
be effected with the motor in the vehicle. However, even a partial 
bench test characterisation of the motor (such as torque vs current for 
a series machine) would permit electrical and RFM (cr speed) data to 
provide a full characterization of the mowor, while operating in the 
vehicle. 

In the case of the transmission and differential, in situ 
input and output torques cannot be measured. For that reason, the best 
approach in dealing with these items is to obtain all characterizing 
data from bench tests. Besides achieving good accuracy, this approach 
^'"fords the control of boundary conditions, such as temperature control, 
lubricant selection, and of course, the selection of torque-speed 
operating points. 

9.2 INSTRUMENTATION 

The instrumentation used at Dynamic Science, while likely 
"a stride in the right direction" suffered accuracy and flexibility 
limitations plus some reliability problems. 

In the area of accuracy limitations, the most severe problems 
were thermally induced off-set drifts encountered with the Hall Effect 
Current Sensors (in addition to current errors, this problem resulted 
in significant recharge Amp-Hour and Watt-Hour errors) . The Hall 
Sensors possessed the further disadvantages of poor frequency response 
and high cost. All three of these problems could potentially be solved 
with a "frequency compensated" meter shunt followed by a low drift 
op-amp. ^^ile this approach suffers from an inherent lack of isolation, 
various schemes have been considered where digital isolation is achieved 
after analog processing. 

The NC-5 Fifth \Jheel used in the Phoenix Tests suffered 
three proMems - no means of electrical calibration, commutator-brush 
noise, and slight nonlinearities. All three problems could be solved 
through the use of an electronic encoder type system. 

Other areas of needed improvement include the capability of 
running complete "sensor-to-tape" fiild calibrations an'-l complete field 
tests of all instrumentation functions. To this end, future instru- 
mentation should include read capabilities plus a means of Injecting 
calibration test signals into the various sensor inputs. 

In the future, added focus should be given to "Integrated 
parameters" ouch as charge, energy, and distance measuiements, as 
opposed to instantaneous measures such as voltage, current, and speed. 
This follows in that "noise" factors are very effectively suppressed by 
Integration. At the same time, the required data acquisition ij 
tremendously reduced Cwhich saves computer time and money) . 

Increased flexibility is extremely important. Accordingly, 
future systems should feature selection of which signal channels are 
scanned, control of scan rate priorities so that temperature data, for 



9-3 



UJUlLi'i 



900-850 

tixample Is not scanned as frequently as speed and electrical data, 
control of scale factors, and control of modes of "pre-processing". 

Most Important of all Is the element of s tandardlzatlon . A 
standardized system should be developed which will be used for all 
future EV testing. With this accomplishment, future test procedures 
could be written in closed form, systematic errors could more easily 
be handled, tests could be run by less specialized personnel, and 
set-up and execution times could be reduced. 

9.2 OBSERVATIONS ON THE RIPP-ELECTRIC 

9.2.1 Chopper Induced Losses 

Efficiency and Thermal Data indicates that significant 
chopper-induced losses exist under conditions of low speed and dri/ing- 
cycle operation. This situation points up the need for improvement, 
such as might be achieved with a laminated field yoke, a filter, or by 
an altogether different propulsion scheme, such as the separately 
excited approach. 

9.2.2 Regenerative Braking 

Results of driving cycle tests indicate that regenerative 
braking leads to a ran^ e increase of more than 20% and an energy 
consumption that is reduced by about 15% for Schedules B, C, and D. 
Furthermore, recorded data indicates that, for even the Schedule D 
tests, the battery voltage is well below the gassing point during 
regenerative braking. With future, more efficient sy:3tems, the impact 
of regenerative braking is expected to be even greater. 

9.2.3 Transformerless Charger 

Complete recharge efficiencies of between 90% and 95% are 
achieved with the transformerless charger. Improved recharge algoritlims 
will be desired in the future so that operator adjustments are not 
required. 



9 -A 



».-j;..>. 



900-850 



APPENDIX I 
Data Tables 3.6.1 and 3.6.2 
Figures 3.6.1 through 3.6.5 



\ 



900-850 



Table 3.6.1. Data on Combination of Motor and Control System 





(August 1974 - 


■ Trojan 


217 Batteries, 2N6251 Transistors) 




Control 
Voltage (1) 


Battery 
Voltage 


Battery 
Current 


Battery 
Power (-) 


Motor 
Voltage 


Motor 
Current 


Torque 
(ft-lb) 


RPM 


HP(3) 


Eff. 
(%)(4) 


3.00 


121.9 


4.1 


499.8 


6.6 


31.3 


2.0 


391 


0.149 


22.1 


3.00 


122.0 


3.5 


427.0 


8.1 


26.4 


1.3 


581 


0.143 


24.9 


3.50 


121.4 


7.6 


922.6 


9.0 


67.0 


11.1 


233 


0.493 


39.8 


3.50 


121.0 


9.4 


1137 


15.1 


51.6 


b.7 


614 


0.783 


51.4 


3.50 


120.7 


10.0 


1207 


22.0 


36.3 


3.0 


1330 


0.760 


47.0 


3.50 


120.7 


9.4 


1135 


23.5 


32.0 


2.2 


1563 


0.655 


43.0 


3.50 


120.7 


9.4 


1135 


24.9 


29.0 


1 5 


1754 


0.501 


32.9 


4.00 


120.9 


13.0 


1572 


13.8 


82.3 


15.7 


344 


1.03 


48.8 


4.00 


120.3 


14.7 


1768 


17.4 


73.8 


12.9 


517 


1.27 


53. h 


4.00 


120.0 


17.1 


2052 


23.9 


61.4 


9.0 


869 


1.49 


54.1 


4.00 


119.7 


17.7 


2119 


31.7 


48.6 


5.3 


1437 


1.45 


51 .1 


4.00 


119.7 


17.7 


2118 


35.6 


42.4 


3.8 


1848 


1.34 


47.1 


4.00 


119.8 


17.1 


2049 


40.4 


34.4 


2.9 


2436 


1.34 


49.0 


4.00 


120.0 


15.3 


1836 


40.2 


30.7 


1.8 


2693 


0.923 


37.5 



Motes: 

1. Control Voltage appears at output of accelerator potentiometer. 

2. Battery Power (apparent power) is product of Battery Voltage and Battery 
Current. 

3. HP, motor shaft power, is product Torque and RPM divided by 5252. 

4. Eff, motor-control eLliciency, is ratio of HP to Battery Power times 746. 

5. Motor and Battery voltages measured with Fluke 8100A DVM. 

6. Motor and Battery Currents measured with Fluke 8100A DVM and calibrated 
300A, 50 MV shunts. 

7. Torque measured with Rippel - >^uilt in-line torque sensor and Fluke 8i00A DVM. 

8. RPM measured with optical tachometer and Monsanto lOlA frequency counter. 



I-l 



900-850 



Table 


3.6.1. 


Data on 


Combination of Motor and 


Control 


System (contd) 


Control 
Voltage 


Battery 
Voltage 


Battery 
Current 


Battery 
Power 


Motor 
Voltage 


Motor 
Current 


Torque 
(ft-lb) 


RPM 


HP-> 


Eff. 
(%) 


4.50 


120.8 


14.7 


1776 


11.3 


111 


26.0 


189 


0.936 


39.3 


4.50 


120.2 


17.1 


2055 


15.3 


102 


22.8 


319 


1.38 


50.3 


4.50 


119.8 


20.6 


2468 


?0.2 


90.4 


19.2 


522 


1.91 


57.7 


4.50 


il9.2 


24.7 


2944 


26.9 


78.7 


15.2 


821 


2.38 


60.2 


4.50 


119.0 


25.9 


3082 


35.5 


67.0 


11.3 


1266 


2.72 


65.9 


4.50 


118.8 


28.2 


3350 


43.9 


55.9 


8.5 


1793 


2.90 


64.6 


4.50 


118.6 


27.6 


3273 


50.3 


47.9 


6.4 


2295 


2.80 


63.7 


4.50 


118.7 


27.0 


3205 


54.2 


44.2 


5.4 


2640 


2.72 


63.2 


4.50 


118.9 


25.8 


3068 


60.3 


37.4 


2.7 


3312 


1.70 


41.4 


5.00 


121.2 


18.6 


2254 


14.8 


121 


29.8 


243 


1.38 


45.6 


5.00 


120.0 


24.0 


2880 


20.1 


107 


25.2 


445 


2.13 


55.3 


5.00 


119.3 


28.2 


3364 


26.7 


96.5 


21.2 


678 


2.74 


60.7 


5.00 


118.6 


32.4 


3843 


35.0 


84.2 


17.0 


1031 


3.34 


64.8 


5.00 


118.3 


36.0 


4259 


44.2 


75.6 


13.8 


1447 


3.80 


66.6 


5.00 


118.0 


37.8 


4460 


52.0 


64.5 


11.6 


1920 


4.24 


70.9 


5.00 


117.8 


39.0 


4594 


58.2 


61.4 


10.2 


2218 


4.31 


70.0 


5.00 


117.7 


39.0 


4590 


64.1 


56-5 


9.1 


2545 


4.41 


71.7 


5.00 


117.7 


38.4 


4520 


71.2 


52.2 


8.0 


2975 


4.53 


74.8 


5.50 


121.2 


19.7 


2388 


13.6 


142 


37.4 


168 


1.20 


37.4 


5.50 


120.0 


26.4 


3168 


19.7 


126 


31.4 


374 


2.24 


52.7 


5.50 


119.1 


31.8 


3787 


25.6 


114 


27.6 


575 


3.02 


59.5 


5.50 


118.2 


37.8 


4468 


34.6 


102 


23.2 


871 


3.85 


64.3 


5.50 


117.7 


44.4 


5226 


44.8 


90.4 


19.2 


1285 


4.70 


67.1 



1-2 



900-850 



Table 3.6.1. Data on Combination of Motor and Control System (contd) 



I 



Control 
Voltage 


Battery 
Voltage 


Battery 
Current 


Battery 
Power 


Motor 
Voltage 


Motor 
Current 


Torque 
(ft-lb) 


RPM 


HP-»- 


Eff. 
(X) 


5.50 


117.0 


50,4 


5897 


60.3 


78.7 


15.8 


1904 


5.73 


72.5 


5.50 


116.5 


53.4 


6221 


72.9 


71.9 


13.7 


2452 


6.40 


76.7 


5.50 


116.4 


53.4 


6216 


82.8 


65.8 


12.3 


2828 


6.62 


79.5 


5.50 


116.5 


53.4 


6221 


87.1 


63.9 


11.4 


3073 


6.67 


80.0 


6.00 


120.7 


25.8 


3114 


16.7 


143 


38.6 


273 


2.01 


48.1 


6.00 


119.2 


33.9 


4041 


24.6 


128 


33.2 


509 


3.22 


59.4 


6.00 


118.4 


38.7 


4582 


30.6 


120 


30.2 


694 


3.99 


65.0 


6.00 


117.6 


48.6 


5715 


41.2 


107 


26.0 


1046 


5.18 


67.6 


6.00 


116.5 


59.3 


6908 


58.8 


95.3 


21.8 


1649 


6.85 


73.9 


6.00 


115.2 


69.2 


7972 


85.0 


85.4 


18.4 


2544 


8.92 


83.4 


6.00 


114.6 


74.3 


8515 


101.8 


79.9 


17.2 


3057 


10.01 


87.7 


6.50 


114.5 


33.6 


3847 


22.2 


147 


37.8 


408 


2.93 


56.9 


6.50 


117.8 


47.1 


5543 


35.8 


129 


31.2 


814 


4.84 


65.0 


6.50 


116.9 


56.0 


6546 


45.6 


117 


28.2 


1109 


5.95 


67.9 


6.50 


115.9 


66.6 


7719 


59.2 


108 


25.4 


1532 


7.41 


71.6 


6.50 


113.5 


89.0 


10,102 


113.0 


87.3 


19.4 


3215 


11.88 


87.7 


7.00 


118.7 


37.1 


4404 


22.6 


156 


42.4 


400 


3.23 


54.7 


7.00 


118.1 


46.6 


5503 


30.3 


144 


38.4 


616 


4.50 


61.1 


7.00 


116.7 


58.9 


6874 


43.0 


132 


34.0 


974 


6.30 


68.4 


7.00 


115.6 


71.9 


8312 


56.5 


123 


31.2 


1351 


8.03 


72.0 


7.00 


113.7 


86.6 


9846 


83.0 


123 


30.0 


1853 


10.59 


80.2 


7.00 


112.3 


104 


11,679 


111.7 


103 


25.2 


2893 


13.89 


88.7 



1-3 



900-850 



Table 3.6.1. Data on Combination of Motor and Control System (contd) 



Control 
Voltage 


Battery 
Voltage 


Battery 
Current 


Battery 
Power 


Motor 
Voltage 


Motor 
Current 


Torque 
(ft-lb) 


RPM 


HP> 


rff. 
(%) 


7.50 


119.6 


35.9 


4294 


19.7 


172 


49.2 


299 


2.80 


48.7 


7,50 


118.7 


43.6 


5175 


25.5 


162 


45.2 


459 


3.95 


56.9 


7.50 


117.9 


50.1 


5907 


30.7 


154 


42.2 


602 


4.83 


61.1 


7.50 


116.1 


69.5 


8069 


49.0 


138 


36.4 


1094 


7.58 


70.1 


7.50 


113.7 


99.6 


11,324 


74.4 


131 


34.2 


1784 


11.62 


76.5 


8.00 


120.0 


38.3 


4596 


20.6 


181 


53.2 


307 


3.11 


50.5 


8.00 


119.0 


49.5 


5891 


27.3 


168 


48.4 


496 


4.57 


57.9 


8.00 


116.4 


66.6 


7752 


41.4 


154 


43.0 


852 


6.98 


67.1 


8.00 


114.0 


80,7 


9200 


56.0 


145 


40.0 


1166 


8.88 


72.0 


8.00 


109.8 


144 


15,811 


109.1 


143 


39.6 


2470 


18.63 


87.9 


8.00 


112.0 


113 


12,656 


111.6 


111 


28.4 


2804 


15.16 


89,4 


8.00 


114.0 


94.8 


10,807 


113.6 


93.4 


21.0 


3149 


12.60 


86.9 


3.00 


123.0 


3.0 


369 


2.70 


47.9 


5.4 





0.0 


0.0 


3.50 


122.2 


5.4 


660 


4.20 


82.3 


15.3 





0.0 


0.0 


4.00 


121.6 


7.8 


948 


5.17 


107 


24.2 





0.0 


0.0 


4.50 


121.2 


9.6 


1164 


5.80 


129 


32.2 





0.0 


0.0 


5.00 


120.6 


11.4 


1374 


6.30 


144 


39.0 





0.0 


0.0 


5.50 


120.3 


13.8 


1660 


6.70 


158 


44.6 





0.0 


0.0 


6.00 


120.0 


15.0 


1800 


7.16 


171 


49.2 





0.0 


0.0 


6.50 


119.8 


16.8 


2013 


7.56 


181 


53.4 





0.0 


0.0 


7.00 


120.5 


18.6 


2241 


8.14 


190 


58.2 





0.0 


0.0 


7.50 


119.5 


20.4 


2438 


8.48 


200 


62.0 





0.0 


0.0 


8.00 


119.1 


21.6 


2573 


8.70 


208 


66.0 





0.0 


0.0 



1-4 



-"-■ *- 



900-850 



Table 3.6.2. Data on Combination of Motor and Control System 

(April 1976 - Degraded Trojan 217 Batteries, SDT-12302 
Transistors, Modified 1265 Motor with Laminated Frame) 



Control 
Voltage (1) 


Battery 
Voltage 


1 

Battery 
Current 


Battery 
Power f^) 


Motor 
Voltage 


Motor 
Current 


Torque 
(ft-lb) 


RPM 


HP^^) 


Eff, 
(%) V'*) 


4.50 


123.7 


4.96 


614 


9.0 


41.6 


3.6 


450 


0.308 


37.4 


4.50 


123.4 


4.2A 


523 


6.0 


52.0 


6.1 


226 


0.260 


37.1 


4.50 


123.7 


2.64 


327 


1.6 


64.2 


11.2 











5.00 


121.7 


11.5 


1400 


2.9 


48.2 


5.1 


1031 


1.00 


53.3 


5.00 


122.8 


10.3 


1265 


15.1 


61.6 


8.7 


574 


0.947 


56.1 


5.00 


122.3 


8.00 


978 


9.1 


76.0 


12.8 


257 


0.626 


47.7 


5.50 


120.0 


19.8 


2376 


35.0 


46.7 


4.8 


1945 


1.7? 


55.8 


5.50 


120.2 


19.2 


2308 


30.7 


61.0 


8.5 


1223 


1.97 


64.0 


5.50 


121.2 


11.5 


1394 


10.7 


99.6 


19.8 


255 


0.960 


51.3 


6.00 


119.2 


27.8 


3314 


56.4 


49.4 


5.4 


2545 


2.62 


58.9 


6.00 


118.9 


29.2 


3472 


48.5 


59.8 


8.1 


1937 


2.98 


64.2 


6.00 


119.1 


27.6 


3287 


36.6 


74.2 


12.2 


1290 


2.99 


68.0 


6.00 


119.6 


21.4 


2559 


21.1 


98.9 


19.4 


614 


2.27 


66.1 


6.00 


120.5 


16.5 


1988 


13.5 


113 


24.0 , 


341 


1.56 


58.5 



Notes: 

1. Control Voltage appears at output of accelerator potentiometer. 

2. Battery Power (apparent power) is product of Battery Voltage and Battery 
Current. 

3. HP, motor shaft power, is product of Torque and RPM divided by 5252. 

4. Eff, motor-control Efficiency is ratio of HP to Battery Power times 746. 

5. Motor and Battery Voltages measured with Dana 5400 DVM. 

6. Motor and Battery Currents measured with Dana 5400 DVM and calibrated 
300A, 50 MV shunts. 

7. Torque measured with Rippel-built in-line torque sensor and Dana 5400 DVTI. 

8. RPM measured with optical tachometer and Monsanto lOlA frequency counter. 



1-5 



■MiiliWHililMliMiUili' I'. > 



«a^«A1h£»UC-^ td^-iUUd''-' 



900-850 



Table 3.6.2. Data on Combination of Motor and Control System (contd) 



Control 


Battery 


Battery 


Batter^ 


Motor 


r ' - 
Motor 


Torque 




■' 


Eff. 


Voltage 


Voltage 


Current 


Power 


Voltage 


Current 


(ft-lb) 


RPM 


HP 


(%) 


6.50 


117.5 


39.9 


4688 


66.5 


63.0 


8.9 


2528 


4.27 


68.2 


6.50 


117.6 


39.0 


4586 


51.2 


77.6 


13.2 


1741 


4.38 


71.1 


6.50 


lis. 4 


31.2 


3694 


31.7 


100 


20.1 


934 


3.57 


72.1 


6.50 


119.1 


27.6 


3287 


22.3 


114 


24.6 


611 


2.86 


65.0 


6.50 


119.8 


29.0 


3474 


14.6 


129 


^9.5 


347 


1.95 


41.9 


7.00 


115.9 


52.4 


6073 


75.2 


74.8 


12.2 


2587 


6.01 


73.8 


7.00 


116.0 


50.2 


5823 


62.6 


84.9 


15.4 


2029 


5.95 


76.2 


7.00 


116.4 


45.4 


5285 


45.0 


97.8 


19.6 


1413 


5.28 


74.4 


7.00 


118.1 


31.0 


3661 


22.8 


129 


29.6 


588 


3.32 


67.5 


7.00 


119.3 


20.2 


2410 


11.7 


153 


37.3 


226 


1.61 


49.7 


7.00 


120.0 


16.2 


1944 


7.6 


161 


40.6 


117 


0.905 


34.8 


7.00 


119.2 


18.7 


.229 


9.9 


157 


38.4 


92 


0.673 


22.4 


7.00 


118.3 


25.8 


3052 


16.4 


141 


33.5 


383 


2.45 


59.8 


7.00 


117.1 


34.6 


4052 


27.3 


122 


27.3 


735 


3.82 


70.3 


7.00 


116.5 


39.8 


4637 


35.0 


111 


23.9 


998 


4.54 


73.0 


7.00 


115.9 


43.4 


5030 


42.0 


102 


21.3 


1249 


5.07 


75.1 


7.00 


115.2 


48.6 


5599 


53.7 


90.4 


17.7 


1685 


5.68 


75.7 


7.00 


114.7 


52.0 


5964 


67.0 


79.9 


14.4 


2201 


6.03 


75.6 


7.00 


114.4 


52.9 


6052 


78.1 


72.2 


12.0 


2705 


6.18 


76.2 


7.01. 


114.3 


52.2 


5966 


84.4 


67.6 


10.5 


3015 


6.03 


75.4 


7.50 


114.1 


67.0 


7645 


94.3 


77.0 


12.8 


3179 


7.75 


75.6 


7.50 


113.9 


70.6 


8041 


84.6 


84.4 


14.9 


2735 


7.76 


72.0 


7.50 


114.4 


59.6 


6818 


62.9 


98.1 


19.6 


1881 


7.01 


76.7 



■^. 






900-850 



Table 3.6.2. Data on Combination of Motor and Control System (contd) 






I.- 



Control 
Voltage 


Battery 
Voltage 


Battery 
Current 


Battery 
Power 


Motor 
Voltage 


Motor 
Current 


Torque 
(ft-lb) 


RPM 


HP 


Eff. 
(%) 


7.50 


115.3 


40.3 


5800 


43.7 


114 


24.8 


1238 


5.85 


75.2 


7.50 


117.1 


34.8 


4075 


23.0 


143 


34.1 


559 


3.63 


66.5 


7.50 


118.2 


25.2 


2S/79 


13.6 


160 


40.3 


276 


2.11 


53.0 


7.50 


118.8 


21.7 


2578 


10.1 


168 


43.3 


174 


1.44 


41.5 


7.50 


117.6 


25.8 


3034 


14.0 


162 


40.6 


284 


2.20 


54.0 


7.50 


116.8 


31.0 


3621 


19.0 


151 


36.9 


436 


3.07 


63.1 


7.50 


115.9 


36.0 


4172 


24.4 


141 


33.7 


601 


3.85 


69.0 


7.50 


115.2 


41.1 


4735 


29.3 


133 


31.3 


750 


4.47 


70.4 


7.50 


115.7 


43.6 


5045 


32.9 


129 


29.7 


863 


4.88 


72.2 


7.50 


114.0 


48.3 


5506 


39.3 


120 


27.0 


1075 


5.53 


74.9 


7.50 


113.0 


54.2 


6125 


49.2 


110 


23.8 


1395 


6.33 


77.1 


7.50 


112.1 


60.2 


6748 


60.3 


102 


20.9 


1765 


7.03 


77,6 


7.50 


111.6 


62.4 


6963 


65.2 


97.0 


19.7 


1940 


7.29 


78.1 


7.50 


110.9 


65.6 


7275 


74.7 


91.6 


17.8 


2275 


7.71 


79.1 


7.50 


110.3 


68.0 


7500 


83.5 


86.4 


16.4 


2594 


8.10 


80.6 


7.50 


109.9 


69.0 


7583 


83.4 


84.0 


15.9 


2700 


8.17 


80.5 


8.00 


111.6 


80.4 


8973 


88.7 


98.0 


18.5 


2624 


9.24 


76.8 


8.00 


112.8 


67.1 


7569 


58.9 


114 


25.0 


1656 


7.89 


77.7 


8.00 


114.7 


47.1 


5402 


33.2 


141 


33.5 


835 


5.32 


73.6 


8.00 


116.5 


33.6 


3914 


17.9 


163 


41.6 


390 


3.09 


58.8 


8.00 


117.7 


23.6 


2778 


10.0 


180 


47.9 


165 


1.50 


40.3 


8.00 


115.3 


29.1 


3355 


13.9 


172 


44.9 


272 


2.33 


51.8 


8.00 


113.7 


33.3 


4355 


22,0 


157 


39.4 


508 


3.81 


65.2 



1-7 



900-850 



Table 3.6.2. Data on Combination of Motor and Control System (contd) 



Control 


Battery 


Battery 


Battery 


Motor 


Motor 


Torque 






Eff. 


Voltage 


Voltage 


Current 


Power 


Voltage 


Current 


(ft-lb) 


RPM 


HP 


(%) 


8.00 


112.8 


42.0 


4738 


26.0 


150 


37.2 


620 


4.40 


69.1 


8.00 


111.8 


48.2 


5389 


32.1 


143 


34.5 


797 


5.23 


72.5 


8.00 


110.3 


57.6 


6353 


42.6 


130 


30.4 


1121 


6.48 


76.1 


P.. 00 


109.0 


63.4 


6911 


50.1 


122 


28.2 


1350 


7.24 


78.2 


8.00 


107.6 


71.2 


7661 


62.2 


114 


25.2 


1722 


8.27 


80.6 


8.00 


106.0 


78.8 


8353 


73.7 


108 


23.3 


2079 


9.23 


82.4 


8.00 


104.8 


82.6 


8656 


80.0 


104 


22.2 


2264 


9.56 


82.5 


8.00 


103.0 


89.0 


9167 


93,4 


99.3 


20.6 


2637 


10.35 


84.3 


8.00 


102.0 


88.3 


9007 


100.3 


89.0 


17.6 


3038 


10.18 


84.3 


8.50 


116.0 


28.8 


3341 


12.7 


188 


50.2 


217 


2.08 


46.4 


8.50 


113.7 


38.3 


4355 


19.9 


171 


44.7 


424 


3.61 


61.8 


8.50 


112.0 


43.7 


4895 


23.6 


165 


42.4 


535 


4.32 


65.9 


8,50 


1.1.0.8 


49.2 


5451 


28.5 


157 


39.9 


671 


5.10 


69.8 


8.50 


109.0 


57.0 


6213 


34.9 


150 


37.1 


863 


6.11 


73.2 


8.50 


106.7 


69.4 


7405 


46.5 


136 


33.2 


1215 


7.69 


77.5 


8.50 


102.7 


89.8 


9222 


68.0 


122 


28.0 


1893 


10.10 


81.7 


9.00 


119.7 


23.4 


2801 


8.6 


212 


58.8 


98 


1.10 


29.2 


9.00 


118.6 


33.2 


3937 


14.2 


195 


53.0 


257 


2.60 


49.1 


9.00 


1171 


43.0 


5035 


21.3 


180 


47.9 


464 


4.23 


62.7 


9.00 


116.0 


49.2 


5707 


26.8 


174 


52.4 


600 


5.99 


78.3 


9.00 


115.0 


56.9 


6544 


32.8 


165 


42.3 


775 


6.25 


71.3 


9.00 


113.3 


67.8 


7682 


43.2 


154 


38.5 


1061 


7.77 


75.5 


9.00 


111.1 


86.4 


9599 


62.0 


138 


33.6 


1585 


10.15 


78.9 



1-8 



900-850 



Table 3.6.2. Data on Combination of Motor and Control System (contd) 



Control 


Battery 


Battery 


Battery 


Motor 


Motor 


Torque 






Eff. 


Voltage 


Voltage 


Current 


Power 


Voltage 


Current 


(ft-lb) 


RPM 


HP 


(%) 


9.00 


109.0 


94.7 


10,322 


70.8 


136 


32.3 


1840 


11.31 


81.7 


9.00 


105.7 


107.6 


11,373 


80.0 


133 


31.0 


2183 


12.89 


84.5 


9.00 


101.5 


125.6 


12,748 


98.8 


126 


29.2 


2604 


14.48 


84.7 


9.50 


100.0 


126.4 


12,640 


98.0 


126 


28.7 


2601 


14.2 


83.8 


9.50 


119.3 


33.6 


4008 


12.8 


210 


58.2 


210 


2.33 


43.4 


9.50 


118.0 


39.9 


4708 


18.2 


199 


54.1 


350 


3.60 


57.0 


9.50 


117.2 


46.1 


5403 


22.7 


192 


51.4 


470 


4.60 


63.5 


9.50 


116.3 


53.6 


<234 


27.6 


184 


49.0 


605 


5.64 


67.5 


9.50 


115.2 


63.5 


7315 


35.6 


173 


45.1 


850 


7.31 


74.5 


9.50 


114.1 


72.2 


8238 


43.5 


168 


41.6 


1000 


7.92 


71.8 


9.50 


112.0 


92.8 


10,394 


60.9 


152 


38.4 


1500 


10.97 


78.7 


9.50 


109.7 


114.8 


12,594 


79.0 


147 


36.0 


2000 


13.71 


81.2 


9.50 


107.0 


144.0 


IS. 408 


100.1 


146 


35.6 


2500 


16.95 


82.0 


10.00 


117.4 


33.0 


3874 


11.5 


227 


64.4 


160 


1.96 


37.8 


10.00 


116.3 


41.7 


4850 


16.9 


214 


60.5 


290 


3.34 


51.4 


11.00 


117.0 


39.8 


4657 


15.4 


242 


70.5 


180 


2.41 


38.6 


11.00 


111.3 


89.6 


9972 


42.2 


197 


54.7 


1000 


10.42 


78.0 


13.00 


98.0 


212.8 


20,854 


94.0 


212 


58.0 


2065 


22.81 


81.6 


13.00 


98.8 


175.7 


17,359 


95.5 


176 


45.9 


2247 


19.64 


84.4 


13.00 


101.8 


136.6 


13,906 


99.3 


137 


32.1 


2276 


15.74 


84.: 


13.00 


103.4 


116.0 


11,994 


101.3 


116 


25.6 


2785 


13.58 


84.3 


13.00 


105.2 


91.2 


9574 


36.0 


246 


71.4 


666 


9.06 


70.4 



1-9 



900-850 



60 



50 



2 40 



3 

a 



30 



20 



10 



NON -LAMINATED 







NATED 



LEGEND 
NON-LAMINATED 



LAMINATED 



• <V < 45 

mof 

O 45 < V < 75 
.not 

A 75 < V < 95 
mot 

a 95<V < 120 
'-' mot 



-•- 0< V .<45 
mot 

•O 45 < V < 75 
mot 

-A- 75<V .<95 
mot 

-D- 95<V < 120 
mot 



Figure 3.6.1. 



120 140 

CURRENT (amperes) 



180 



200 



20 



240 



Plot of Torque vs Motor Current for Non-Laminated and 
Laminated versions of 1265 Motor operating with Control 
System. Note that Torque is virtually independent of 
Voltage and RPM. (See Tables 3.6.1 and 3.6.2 for data.. 



90 



— 70 

> 
u 

z 

G 

C 60 



50 - 



40 - 





-V ^ 




± 



LEGEND 



V 


18<V„ . <23 
mot 


tt 


40< V . <45 
mot 





60 < V < 70 
mot 


A 


80 < V < 90 

mot 


D 


100<V ,<1 



120 



20 40 60 80 100 120 140 

CURRENT (onperes) 



160 



180 



200 



220 



240 



Figure 3.6.2. 



Ploc of System Efficiency vs Motor Current for Combination 
of Non-Laminated Motor and Control System. Note 
Efficiency degradation compared with Figure 3.4.1:. (See 
Table 3.6.1 for data.) 



I-IO 



.» 



900-850 



90 



80 



^ 70 

> 
u 

Z 

UJ 

E 60 



50 



40 



V 18 <V ,<23 

mo I 

• 40<V .<45 

O 60<V ^, <70 
mot 

A 80<V <90 

D IOO<:V < 120 
mot 




J. 



_L 



20 40 60 80 100 1?0 140 

CURRENT (amperes) 



160 



ISO 



200 



220 



240 



Figure 3.6.3. 



Plot of System Efficiency vs Motor Current for Combi-Tation 
of Laminated Motor and Control System. Note that 
efficiencies are lower than those cl Figure 3.4.2, but 
higher than those of Figure 3.6.2. 



t 40, 



3 

o 



t: 30 



\ UNCONTROLLED 
■. MOTOR CURVE 




1500 2000 



2500 3000 3500 4000 



RPM 



Figure 3.6.4, 



Plot of Non-Laminated Motor-Controller Characteristics 
for various values of CV (Control Voltage from 
Accelerator Potentiometer). Data is from Table 3.6.1, 



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900-850 



-1 p- 1 1 r 




^ r 



3500 



4000 



Figure 3.6.5. Plot of Laminated Motor-Ccntroller Characteristics for 
various values of CV (control voltage from accelerator 
potentiometer). Data is from Table 3.6.2. 



1-12 



r-fv..>.^£a;Saiii)>.<l<iii«f>^«^. '- 



Report #3 



Volkswagen Taxi Hybrid Passenger VehicSe 



Section III 



I»i#*u-, 



900-851 

VOLKSWAGEN TAXI 
HYBRID TEST PRXRAM 

15 December 1977 



D. Griffin 



JET PROPULSION LABORATORY 
CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY 
PASADENA, CALIFORNIA 



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MttaHllMbiMailir "'^' '"'' 



J*' 



ABSTRACT 

The V\i Research and Development Center of Wolfsburg, West Germany, built a 
parallel heat engine-electric hybrid vehicle. Although primarily intended to 
operate in the normal hybrid mode where power from both the motor and engine 
were available at all vehicle speeds, it can also operate in an on/off mode 
where only the motor propells the vehicle at speeds below about 25 mph. The 
vehicle includes regenerative braking. It has been driven over 8000 miles, 
mostly on public roads in West Germany. 

Tests to determine its energy performance were conducted according to the 
Federal Test Procedure. Electrical power into and out of the batteries was 
measured to determine the net power used during a test. This was converted to 
an equivalent quantity of gasoline, then added to the gasoline consumed to 
determine an equivalent miles per gallon for the test. Allowances for typical 
efficiencies were included in the conversion. 

The energy economy oi the normal hybrid mode was 15,2 mpg for a baseline config- 
uration of 3500 lb inertia weight. This decreased to 14.6 mpg (-4%) and 14.3 
mpg (-b"J for inertia weights of 4000 lb and 4500 lb. A slight improvement in 
energv economy was obtained when tlie engine throttle, which was electrically 
controlled, was opened and closed more slowly than in the baseline condition. 
The affect of a 10".. change in tlie maximum motor current on energy could not be 
detected. 

The most noticeable energy improvement was obtained in the on/off moue. The 
engine cut-in and cut-out speeds were variable anu tests were conducted at 
several points. With tijo baseline 3500 lb inertia weight, cut-in and cut-out 
speeds of 22/19 mph i,ave 17.4 mpg wliile 26/21 gave 19.4 mpg. The relatively 
small effect o( increased inertia weight in the hybrid mode was also shown in 
the ow/oii mode. Tlie 22/19 mph speeds and 4500 lb reduced tlie energy economy 
to 17.2 mpg (.-W) . 

Tliis vehicle had a very limited amount of emissions development work, particu- 
larlv in the on/ot f mode, so its omissions performance cannot be considered to 
be representative oi any benefits that may reside in such a hybrid. 

i 



, ». .•**.*< 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 



The cooperative efforts of Bob Burleson, Don Greeley, Lou Johnson, 
James Allison, and James Bryant of the Jet Propulsion Laboratories 
and Reiner Miersch of Volkswagen made it possible to accomplish this 
work in the contrained time period of two months. The time constraint 
can be appreciated better in the knowledge that during the same time 
period, the JPL dynometer facility required upgrading and test proce- 
dures had to be established for a new and sophisticated hybrid vehicle. 



PREFACE 

This report presents data of the energy and emissions perfoiuiance of a heat 
engine-electric hybrid vehicle. The report presents only test data and does not 
include any interpretation or analysis of this data. Originally, the final 
report was planned to include analytical work adequate to explain the Interesting 
energy performance of this vehicle but funding limitations precluded this effort. 

The testing program consisted of two parts. Originally, the tests were intended 
only to support a state-of-the-art assessment of electric and hybrid vehicles 
by defining the energy and emissions performance of the most sophisticated hybrid 
available at the time. During these tests, some unexpected energy economy 
results indicated that a continuation of the tests would be necessary to under- 
stand the vehicle's energy performance. The second part of the tests were then 
conducted to acquire the necessary data. Data from both parts are included in 
this report. 

The tests reported here followed the Federal Test Procedure which specifies units 
of miles per gallon (energy), grams per mile (emissions) and miles per hour 
(vehicle speed). These units are widely recognized since the Federal Test 
Procedure is used throughout the world. Accordingly, these English units are 
used in this report. 



m 



900-851 



GLOSSARY 

Federal Test Procedures 

A comprehensive procedure, specified in the Federal Register, used to define 
emission and fuel economy performance. The procedure lists measurement techni- 
ques, vehicle handling processes, reporting methods, etc. Tests are conducted 
on a chassis dynamometer. A speed-time profile covering a test of approximately 
41 min is defined. This profile consists of three phases: 

1) Cold Transient - The vehicle is started after being stored at a 
controlled temperature, so the cold start devices (such as the 
automatic choke) operate during this phase. A distance of 3.6 miles 
is covered in 505 sec. 

2) Stabilized - This phase is conducted immediately after the cold 
transient phase. A distance of 3.9 miles is covered in 864 sec. 

3) Hot Transie nt - After the Stabilized phase is completed, the vehicle 
engine is shut off and the car is inactive for 10 min. The Hot 
Transient phase is then started. This phase follows the same 
speed-time profile as the Cold Transient phase. 

Hot 505 

A series of three tests separated by one minute intervals. Fach test consists 
of the Hot Transient phase of the Federal Test Procedure. The vehicle starts 
1 Hot 505 test in a fully warm condition. 

On /Off Mode 

A power train operating mode where the gasoline engine is turned off below a 
vehicle speed of approximately 25 mph. The electric motor provides the 
propulsive power below this speed. 



iv 



1« 



.-•^ 



900-851 

TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Paragraph Page 

SECTION i - SUMMARY 

1.1 VEHICLE DESCRIPTION 1-1 

1.1.1 Taxi 1-1 

1.1.2 Bus 1-5 

1.2 TEST PROCEDURES 1-5 

1.3 TEST RESULTS 1-5 

SECTION 2 - INTRODUCTION 

2.1 VEHICLE SELECTION 2-2 

2.2 VEHICLE AND REPORT CONSIDERATIONS 2-2 

2.2.1 Test Cycle 2-3 

2.2.2 VW Project Engineer 2-4 

2.3 ORDER OF REPORTING ."-4 

SECTION 3 - TEST DATA 

3.1 APPROACH TO THE TESTING PROGRAM 3-2 

3.2 ENERGY REPORTING 3-7 

3.2.1 Test Measurements 3-7 

3.2.2 Battery Recharging Energy 3-7 

3.3 TEST INFORMATION 3-10 

3.3.1 Federal Test Procedure Tests 3-10 

3.3.2 SAE J227C and J227D Tests 3-11 

3.3.3 Other Considerations 3--11 

3.3.4 Reporting Sequence 3-12 



■^ y'-^_.. ^i^^^g^^ifjg^ 



900-851 

TABLE OF CONTENTS (Contd) 

Paragraph Page 

3.4 FEDERAL TEST PROCEDURE TESTS 3-13 

3.4.1 Hybrid Mode Data 3-14 

3.4.2 On/Off Mode Tests 3-34 

3.4.3 FTP Data Results 3-60 

3.5 SAE J227a 'C AND 'D' CYCLE TESTS 3-63 

3.6 VW BUS TEST DATA 3-65 

3.6.1 Bus Background Information 3-65 

3.6.2 Bus Test Data 3-66 

3.6.3 Bus Oxidizing Converter 3-70 

SECTION 4 - VEHICLE DESCRIPTION 

4.1 TAXI'S BACKGROUND 4-1 

4.2 MECHANICAL MODIFICATIONS 4-3 

4.3 POWER TRAIN 4-5 

4.4 ENGINE 4-6 

4.5 MOTOR 4-8 

4.6 BATTERIES 4-8 

4.7 MODE SELECTION 4-9 

4.8 POWER CONTROLLER 4-9 

4.9 SYSTEM CONTROLLER 4-10 

4.9.1 Maximum Motor Current 4-11 

4.9.2 Time Constant Between the Accelerator Pedal 

and Throttle 4-12 

4.9.3 Operating Mode 4-12 

4.9.4 "BATTERIE" Meter 4-13 



VI 



900-851 
TABLE OF CONTENTS (Contd) 

Paragraph Page 

SECTION 5 - MEASUREMENT PERFORMANCE 

5.1 FACILITY CALIBRATIONS 5-1 

5.1.1 Dynamometer 5-1 

5.1.2 Constant Volume Sampler (CVS) 5-2 

5.1.3 Emission Instruments 5-2 

5.1.4 Power Measurements 5-3 

5.1.5 Gasoline Weight Measurements 5-4 

5.2 SYSTFM CHECKS 5-4 

5.2.1 Reference Vehicle Tests 5-4 

5.2.2 Power Measurement Checks 5-9 

SECTION 6 - TESTING SEQUENCE 

6.1 PHILOSOPHY 6-1 

b.1.1 Prior to Vehicle Arrival 6-1 

6.1.2 After Vehicle Arrival 6-2 

6.1.3 Testing Sequence 6-3 

6.2 TESTING PROGRAM 6-4 

6.2.1 Checkout 6-4 

6.2.2 Primary Data Acquisition 6-5 

6.2.3 Completion of Tests 6-6 

SECTION 7 - FACILITY AND INSTRUMENTATION 

7.1 BATTERY MD MOTOR POWER MEASUREMENTS 7-1 

7.1.1 Description of Power Measurement Circuits 7-1 

7.1.2 Real-Time Data Readout 7-9 

7.1.3 Computer Plots of Power Data 7-12 

7.1.4 Circuit Design Problems 7-12 

7.2 GASOLINE FLOW MEASURF>1ENTS 7-14 

vi i 



-■.».- -J.Mn»g.— ■-%.'i;^i-^rr:igag^:-j»^-ii«st >-—'-' 



900-851 



TABLE OF CONTENTS (Contd) 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



Figure Title Page 

1-1 Volkswagen Taxi 1-2 

1-2 Cutaway View of the VW Taxi 1-3 

1-3 Test Data Summary 1-6 

1-4 Relationship of Electrical/Gasoline Energy Ratio 

to Gasoline-Equivalent MPG 1-7 

3-1 Averaged FTP Test Data 3-14 

3-2 Test Results for Baseline Configuration 3-15 

3-3 Graph of Baseline FTP Test Data 3-16 

3-4 Typical FTP Speed Time Profile Chart for 

Baseline Tests 3-18 

3-5 Test Results for Baseline Configuration Except 

for 2.5 Sec Throttle Time Constant 3-19 

3-6 Graph of 2.5 Sec Throttle Time Constant Tests 3-20 

3-7 Typical FTP Sp.ied-Time Profile Chart for 2.5 

Sec Throttle Time Constant 3-21 

3-8 Test Results for Hybrid Mode 4000 lb Inertia Weight 3-23 

3-9 Graph of Hybrid Mode 4000 lb Inertia Weight Tests 3-24 

3-10 Typical FTP Speed-Time Profile Chart for 

Hybrid Mode 4000 lb Inertia Weight Test 3-25 

3-11 Test Results for Hybrid Mode 4500 lb Inertia Weight 3-26 

3-12 Graph of Hybrid Mode 4500 lb Inertia Weight Tests 3-27 

3-13 Typical FTP Speed-Time Profile Chart for Hybrid 

Mode 4500 lb Inertia Weight Tests 3-28 

3-14 Data Variability Throughout the Test Period 3-30 

3-15 Summary of Hybrid Mode Tests ..... 3-31 

3-16 Hybrid Mode Energy Economy 3-32 

3-17 Hybrid Mode-Electrical Power Use 3-35 

3-18 On/Off Mode-Electrical Power Use 3-36 

3-19 Data From On/Off Mode Hot 505 Tests 3-38 

3-20 On/Off Mode Acceleration Performance With 230 Amp 

Maximum Motor Current 3-39 

3-21 On/Off Mode Acceleration Performance With 260 Amp 

Maximum Motor Current 3-40 

viii 






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Figure 




3-22 




3-23 




3-24 




3-25 




3-26 




3-27 




3-28 




3-29 




3-30 




3-31 





3-33 




3-36 




3-35 




3-36 


- 


3-37 




3-38 




3-39 




3-40 




3-41 




4-1 




4-2 


»■ 


4-3 


^ 


4-4 




4-5 
4-6 



900-851 



TABLE OF CONTENTS (Contd) 

Title Page 

Comparison of Hybrid and On/Off Mode Hot 505 Tests 3-41 

On/Off Engine Cut-in and Cut-Out Operation 3-48 

Test Results for On/Off Mode, 3500 lb Inertia 

Weight FTP Tests 3-49 

Graph of On/Off Mode, 3500 lb Inertia Weight 

FTP Tests 3-50 

Tj'pical FTP Speed-Time Profile for On/Off Mode 

(22/19 mph) 3500 lb Inertia Weight Tests 3-51 

Test Results for On/Off Mode, 4500 lb Inertia Weight .... 3-53 

Graph of On/Off Mode, 4500 lb Inertia Weight FTP Tests . . . 3-54 

Typical FTP Speed-Time Profile Chart for On/Off Mode, 

(22/19 mph) 4500 lb Inertia Weight Tests 3-55 

Engine Cut-in and Cut-Out Speeds for Test 51 3-56 

Test Results for On/Off Mode, 3500 lb Inertia Weight 

26/21 MPH Engine Cut-In/Cut-Out Speeds 3-57 

3-32. FTP Speed-Time Profile Chart for On/Off Mode, 

(26/21 mph) 3500 lb Inertia Weight Tests 3-58 

Summary of On/Off Mode Tests 3-59 

Energy Economy of Hybrid and On/Cff Modes 3-61 

Energy Economy Without Battery Recharge 3-62 

SAE J227a Driving Cycle Tests 3-64 

VW Bus Emission Fuel Economy (Miles per Gallon) 3-67 

VW Bus NOjj Data (Weighted Grams per Mile) 3-67 

VW Bus CO Data (Weighted Grams per Mile) 3-68 

VW Bus HC Data (Weighted Grams per Mile) . 3-68 

Test Data Summary 3-73 

VW Taxi 4-2 

Cutaway View of the VW Taxi 4-4 

VW Electric Motor Correction 4-5 

Throttle Actuation Mechanism 4-7 

Bosch Power 4-10 

VW System Control Logic 4-11 



UKMk 



ix 



^^^ ^. ,., . .,.^.,...^.m^'^.il,».^t^. ^^^ 



900-851 



TABLE OF CONTENTS (Contd) 

Figure Title Page 

5-1 Power Measurement Circuit Calibration ..... 5-5 

5-2 Gasoline Weighing System 5-5 

5-3 Correct Waveforms at Low Power Levels 5-5 

5-4 Reference Chevrolet Gasoline Fuel Economy 5-7 

5-5 Reference Chevrolet NO Data 5-7 

5-6 Reference Chevrolet CO Data 5-7 

5-7 Reference Chevrolet HC Data 5-8 

5-8 Agreement Between Weigh Tank and Emissions Fuel 

Economy — Reference Chevrolet 5-9 

5-9 Agreement Between Weigh Tank and Emissions Fuel 

Economy — VW Taxi 5-11 

5-10 Test Setup for Power Measurement Checks 5-11 

5-il Calibration of Electrical Power Measurements — 

VW Taxi 5-12 

5-12 Isolation Amplifier Response 5-12 

5-13 Current Waveforms of Low Po^^fer Levels 5-14 

5-14 Data Display Showing Typical Power Measurements 

at iOOO rpm 5-ls 

5-15 Data Display Showing Typical Power Measurements 

at 1100 rpm 5-1j 

7-1 VW Taxi Installed on Chassis Dynameter 7-2 

7-2 Rear View of VW Taxi Test Installation 7-2 

7-3 Rear View of VW Tajci Test Installation 7-3 

7-4 Constant Volume Sampler 7-3 

7-5 Central Instrumentation Area 7-4 

7-6 Emission Measuring Instruments 7-5 

7-7 Electrical Power Vn asurement Chassis 7-6 

7-8 Power Measurement Block Diagram 7-7 

7-9 Connector Panel 7-10 

7-10 Kilowatt and Watt-hour Power Readings; t'ingle 

Charnel Format 7-11 

7-11 Four Channel Power Display 7-11 



900-851 



TABLE OF CONTENTS (Contd) 



Figure Title Pa.-^e 

7-12 Plot of Battery and Motor Power From Test 13, 

The Baseline Hybrid Configuration 7-13 

7-13 Plot of Battery and Mo^or Power From Test 22, 

an On/Off Conf If^uraticn. Test v/as Terminated at 

End of The Stabilized Phase Because of Battery 

Discharge ^-13 

7-14 Gasoline Weighing System 7-15 

7-15 Calibration Weights for the Gasoline 

Weighing System 7-15 

y-io Calibration of tae Gasoline Wci^ljing System 7-16 



tit' 



-.if*'- '*^' 



900-851 



TABLE OF CONTENTS (Contd) 
LIST OF TABLES 

Table Title Page 

3-1 Hybrid Test Index 3-3 

3-2 Summary of VW Taxi Test Data 3-5 

3-3 Equivalent MPG Units 3-9 

3-4 Test Repeatability 3-10 

3-5 Federal Test Procedure Tests 3-13 

3-6 Comparison of On/OtJ Mode Hot 505 Tests 3-44 

3-7 C.-'mparison of Data from the Hot Transient Phase 

for FTP and 5o:) Tests 3-45 

3-8 Composite Taxi On/Off Mode FTP 3-46 

3-9 Composite VW Bus FfP Test 3-72 



->•. 
'f*' 



900-851 

SECTION 1 
SUMMARY 

Tests on a Volkswagen (VW) Taxi, a prototype vehicle constructed at the VW 
Research and Development Center in Wolfsburg, West Germany were conducted at 
IPI. to determine the energy and emissions pertom>anoe of a gasoline-electric 
hybrid vehicle. The VW Taxi was selected for these tests because it is the 
wor'd's most advanced operational hybrid vehicle. The Taxi has been driven 
ever 8000 miles, mostly on public roadt> in Europe, and so has a proven record 
as a practical vehicle. Its control strategy is more sophisticated than other 
hybrids and po'-ilts considerable flexibility simnly by changing adjustments or 
circuit cards. Because of these characteristics, the VW Taxi provided the best 
available vehicle for the hybrid tests. 

A standard ls»77 production VM Bus, was alsvi tested in order to provide a compari- 
son hi tween the hybrid Taxi and a similar conventional vehicle. 

l.l • KHICLE DESCRIPTION 

"f.. two vehicles were both based on the familiar W microbus chassis. The Taxi 
was modified to add an electrii- power system to the conventional VW power 
train. Other changes provided characteristics which would make it suitable for 
use as a taxi in a major city. The Bus had no modifications and therefore 
represented current VW production. 

1.1.1 Taxi 

The VW Tax* is shown in Figures I-l and 1-2. The rear engine and transaxle 
configuration of the standard VW bus permitted the electric power system to be 
added in a relatively simple manner. The result is a parallel hybrid veliicle 
with a to»-que converter, automatically operated clutch, and system control hard- 
ware separate from the electric motor power controller. 

This report is not concerned witli the modifications necessary to provide the 
Taxi functions. 



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The Taxi's control hardware permitted simple adjustments of three parameters: 

1) The time constant between the accelerator pedal actuation and the 
throttle response 

2) Maximum current applied to the electric motor 

3) The operational mode of the gasoline engine. 

The latter would permit one operating mode where the gasoline engine ran at all 
times, includini: idlini: when the vehicle was stopped, but wh-^se response to the 
accelerator pedal input was controlled by the time constant Mentioned previously. 
In the other mode, the engine started and stopped at vehicle speeds on the order 
of 25 mph. Below this speed, the vehicle operated in the electric-only mode. 
Above this speed, bi'>th the electric and gasoline engines provided power. 

The Taxi lias a parallel configuration, so both the electric motor and the 
gasv 1 ine engine can provide power to the rear wheels simultaneously. The 
electric power unit can also act as a generator. The control strategy permits 
the gasoline engine to charge the batteries while the vehicle is operating at 
higiier spt-eds. Regenerative braking is also ipciuded. 

A new engine was installed in the Taxi immediately befort it was sliipped to the 
r.S. However, the engine design is that of the W "Bear le" whose production was 
ti'rmin.ited in 1974 so its emission characteristics represent earlv 1960 tech- 
nology. An ECR system was installed bi.t no catalytic converter was included. 
These engine char i teristics must be considered when interpreting the test 
results. 

Kven tlua'g'i the Taxi has had considerable road driving, it does not have an 
optimum ci'iitrol strategy. Discussions with the VW project engineer, who 
.Ui-omp.iiiiod the vehicle for one month, indicated that only limiteu testing liad 
.leen diMie to optimize the Taxi's control strategy. In particular, the throttle 
time lonstant, maximum notcr current, iXJR flow, and detailed throttle i^pening 
characteristics have not been thoroughly investigated and then optimized. 
Therefore, the Taxi's perfoniiance repiTted here should not be considered to 
represent the optimum or even near-optimum perfoniiance ot a parallel hybrid. 



1-4 



■5*^-- .^ 



^. 



900-851 

1.1.2 Bus 

The VW Bus was a production vehicle. Its engine was a two liter, fuel-injected 
engine with a catalytic converter. It is reasonable to assume that this engine 
was optimized since it is a production vehicle with international markets. 

1.2 TEST PROCEDURES 

All tests followed the Federal Test Procedure (FTP). Energy and emissions 
performance were measured and reported according to this internationally known 
cycle. The Taxi's variety of operational modes made it necessary to Investigate 
the general characteristics of each configuration, then conduct FTP tests to 
obtain the reportable data. No attempt was made to conduct road tests or to 
consider the vehicle driveability characteristics. 

1.3 TEST RESULTS 

Test results of the Taxi's tvo basic operational modes are listed in Figure 1-3. 
""he measured performance ot the VW bus Is also listed. When comparing the 
results of Figure 1-3, the Taxi's old engine technology and lack of control 
optimization should be considered. Note that the CO and HC emissions of the 
Bus have been increased by a factor that approximates the catalytic converter 
efficiency. This has been done to permit a better comparison ot the Taxi and 
Bus performance. 

The Taxi's energy performance for actual test data is shown in Figure 1-4. The 
energy economy advantages of tiie On/Off mode are apparent. The small energy 
consumption increase for larger inertia weights is surprising and requires 
further analysis. 



1-5 



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21 



KEY: 

O HYMID, 1.2 lac "ME CONSTANT 
O HYMIO, 2.5 MC TIME CONSTANT 
O ON/OFF, 1.2 tacond TIME CONSTANT 
INERTIA WEIGHTS AtE NOTED 



3500 lb 



J EN< 



COMPOSITE TEST 



ENGINE SPEEDS: 

CUT-IN: 27 mph 
CUT-OUT: 22 mph 



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3500 lb 

D ENGINE SPEEDS: 

CUT-IN: 26 mph 
CUT-OUT: 21 mph 



F 



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.3500 lb 



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ENGINE SPEEDS: 

CUT-IN: 22 mph 
CUT-OUT: 19 mph 



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3900 lb 



O3900 lb, 2.;; >«eand THROTTLE DELAY 



15 



()4900 lb 



O 
4000 lb 



14 



T- 



HYBRID MODE 



to 15 20 25 

ELECTRICAL ENERGYAOTAL ENERGY 1%) 



30 



35 



Figure 1-4. Relationship of Electrical/Gasolim? 
Energy Ratio to Ga.soline-Equivalent MFC 



1^7 



900-851 

SECTION 2 
INTRODUCTION 

This report is concerned with tests on a gasoline/electric hybrid vehicle. The 
test program was conducted to support a state-of-the-art (SOA) report on electric 
and hybrid vehicles. This report was required by Public Law 94-413, the Electric 
and Hybrid Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1976. This Law 
required that the administrator of ERDA shdll develop data characterizing the 
present SOA with respect to electric and hybrid vehicles within a year after 
the passage of the Act. The data that was developed from the SOA work was to 
serve as baseline data to be utilized to: 

1) Compare improvements on electric and hybrid vehicle technology. 

2) Assist in establishing performance standards for electric and 
hybrid vehicles. 

3) Otherwise assist in carrying out the inti..'_ of the Public Law. 

ERDA requested that NASA provide the necessary data. Primary responsibility for 
the program was given to Lewis Research Center (LeRC) . LeRC tested nine electric 
vehicles and assigned JPL responsibility for testing two additional electric 
vehicles and a hybrid vehicle. 

Only one hybrid vehicle was thus tested in direct support of the SOA report, 
but LeRC woulf". include other data on hybrid vehicles for the SOA report. The 
JPL testing was thus only one part of the overall hybrid SOA assessment. 

The tests to support the state-of-the-art report were conducted from June 14 
to July 15, 1977. These tests indicated that the energy economy in the On/Off 
mode should be investigated further, so the Taxi's lease period was extended 
to September 1. Test^3 during the second period concentrated on the energy 
economy of the un/Off mode and effects of inertia weight changes. 

Results of the uest series were surprising, particularly the very small 
influence of inertia weight on energy economy. Investigation of this charac- 
teristic and potential energy advantages of a he^t engine-electric hybrid 
operated in an On/Off mode are continuing. This work will require development 



2-. 



-4 



■K 



900-851 

of computer programs to process test data; this is oeing done at the present 
time. However, the test results and information related to the tests is being 
disseminated now so interested persons can use the test data jnd -Iso comment 



*f on additional information that would be helpful in the final report. 

2.1 VEHICLE SELECTION 

Data on other hybrid vehicles was somewhat limited, so it was essential that 
the vehicle tested by JPL be representative of the best hybrid technology 
available at this time. Discussions with persons familiar with hybrid vehicles 
indicated that the most sophisticated operational hybrid vehicle at the present 
time was a VW Taxi. This idxi was constructed by the VW Research and Develop- 
ment Center in Wolfsburg, West Germany, as part of a W interest in electric and 
hybrid vehicles. Arrangements to lease the vehicle for a period of 60 days 
were negotiated through VW of America. In addition, the leasing arrangements 
provided for ^he services of a VW engineer to accompany the vehicle to JPL for 
a period of approximately one month. After the contractual negotiations were 
complete, the vehicle was flown to the U.S. and arrived at JPL on May 24. 

Although the primary objective of the program was to investigate the performance 
of the VW Taxi, it was desired to obtain a comparison with a conventional 
gasoline powered vehicle. Accordingly, arrangements for a loan of a production 
VW Bus were made. The VW Bus was supplied by the VW of America Emission Test 
Lab at Woodland Hills, CA. This lab is located approximately 45 min from JPL 
and „o provided a convenient resource to check emission results as well as 
providing accessible support for the VW Taxi and Bus. 

2.2 VEHICLE AND REPORT CONSIDERATIONS 

Two vehicle-related factors should be considered when reviewing the data 
presented in this report : 

a. The VW engine, which is the old "Beatle" carbureted design, and 
control strategy were apparently not optimized to obtain the maximum performance 
for this particular vehicle configuration. This is particularly true of 
emissions performance. The Taxi is described in Section 4, which discusses its 



2-2 



I 

1 900-851 



. development work. The Taxi's performance should thus be considered to represent 

j only an early attempt to produce an energy and emissions efficient hybrid vehicle. 

f 

I The mechanical implementation and many of the components represent good techno- 
logy, but the control strategy, EGR, and electronic throttle actuation have not 

' received the extensive fine tuning that is common with present day emission 

control systems. However, it is reasonable to expect that the VW Bus received 
the extensive engineering development necessary to optimize the performance of 
its modern two liter fuel injected engine and related emission controls. 



^^ 



i f 



h\ 



It should therefore be expected that the Taxi's performance could be improved 
with additional detailed development work. 

b. No attempt has been made to test the Taxi in either the gasoline- 
only or electric-only mode. Initial thoughts may be that such operation could 
be used to compare the two operating modes with pure gasoline or electric 
vehicles. However, such comparisons can be expected to be highly unfavorable 
to the Taxi since it attempts to size both the heat engine and electrical power 
sources for a combined propulsion system. If the Taxi's analytical and 
engineering design work are properly done, neither power source will be ade- 
quate to provide good performance separately. In the case of the Taxi, it 
appears that the combined gasoline engine and the electric motor power sources 
are reasonably well matched to provide the performance necessary to meet the 
FTP driving cycle requirements. 

Because of the system design that shares the propulsive effort between the two 
power sources, it does not appear reasonable to make any direct comparisons 
between the Taxi's gasoline-only mode or the electric-only mode to pure gasoline 
or electric vehicles. 

2.2.1 Test Cycle 

JPL was directed to conduct only chassis dynamometer tests on the hybrid 
vehicle, so this report does not consider: 

1) Road-to-dynamometer data correlation. 

2) Driveability characteristics. 

3) Performance (acceleration, deceleration, handling) characteristics. 



2-3 



*-^^«liwaw; 



900-851 



Since chassis dynam(»ieter tests were to be used to acquire all data, the Federal 
Test Procedure (FTP) was used as the base for all tests. The FTP uses chassis 
dynamometer tests; its method of reporting fuel economy and emissions data is 
:^|. Internatiunally known. VW had conducted FTP tests on the Taxi prior to its 
I shipment, so it was known that the Taxi could be tested on this cycle. Only 
|1 the urban part of the tests were conducted. The JPL chassis dyno facility is 



if 



I not air conditioned , so tanperatures approaching 100°F were noticed in the VW | 

I electronics compartment during the urban test cycle. The warmtip procedure and \ 

higher speeds of the highway cycle were certain to Increase the room temperature. 

Since the Taxi was a leased and valuable vehicle, risks associated with the '> 

I highway cycle operation were not Incurred. The VW project engineer strongly 

supported this decision. 
h 
: 2.2.2 VW Project Engineer 

;' The lack of detailed information on the Taxi and its degree of flexibility placed 
* certain limitations on the testing plans before -fts arrival at JPL. However, 
the VW project engineer accompanied the Taxi and was thoroughly familiar with 
its construction, history, and characteristics. Since the project engineer was 
'; going to be available at JFL for a period of approximately 30 days. It was 
' decided to follow his general direction concerning testing activities and care 
of the vehicle during this period. The initial testing activities and some 
details related to the testing, particularly the battery energy and electrical 
power measurements, were thus conducted in the general manner defxi ')y the 
VW project engineer. 

2.3 ORDER OF REPORTING 

The next section discusses the results of the testing program, in g. ".;>is 
discussion is limited to treatment of the major features; more detn' u. Jata is 
contained in an Appendix. The next section is concerned wlch a description 
I of the overall test results. Section 4 describes the VW Taxi. Sections 3 and 6 

;^ discuss the measurement performance of the JPL facility an-^ the testing sequence 
'M that was used to derive the test data. The former describes the most Important 

m measurements while the latter section Includes a description of che test phllo- 

i sophy, problems, and related actlvlfies that occurreJ during the testing program. 



2-4 



"*^i\^ 



U 



900-851 

Section 7 contains a brief description of the major facility equipment and 
Instrumentation. 

References are listed at the end of this text. A short glossary that "includes • 

terms unique to this report or a general understanding of the fcm:,.ssions testing .■- 

technology is included before the Table of Contents. - 






•r 



'i 2-5 






900-851 

SECTION 3 
TEST DATA 

This section Is concerned with presentation and discission of the VW Taxi tests 
that were conducted over a period of approximately 2 1/2 months. Interpretation 
of this data and comments concerning its implication to heat engine-electric 
hybrids will be contained in a future reporu. 

Tests were also conducted on a 1977 production VW Bus to provide an approximate 
comparison between the hybrid Ta:ci and a conventional vehicle. These data are 
included after the Taxi data and ai.^ discussed only briefly since the Taxi's 
energy economy is of primary "irterest. 

As discussed in Section 4, the VW control strategy and hardware permitted 
changes to three parameters to be made easily: 

a. Engine operating mode - A circuit card changed the operating mo'e 
of the gasolire engine from the normal hybrid to one when the erglne was off 
at low vehicle speeds. In the hybrid mode, the engine was on at all times, 
including idle, so torque from both the engine and motor were available to 
propel the Taxi. In the o*-' " mode, the engine would autoiuatically turn on 
and off at certain vehicle speeds. The cut-in speed and the difference between 
the cut-in ar.. cut-out speeds were Individually adjustable. The ct-ln speed 
was set in the range of 22 to 27 mjis for the tests; cut-out speeds were approx- 
imately 3 to 3 mph lower than the cut-in sp^^ed. In this Fode, the electric 
motoi provided all the torque whenever the engine was off. This mode is termed 
the "On/Off" modi in this report. 

b. Maximum mo: or current -■ The maximum allowable motor current limit 
could be continuously varied from 200 to 290 amperes. However, early tests 
showed that the current had to I- .at to at least 230 amps to provide acceler- 
atlor close to that specified by the FTP speed-time profile. Further tests 
Indicated that settings of 260 amps caused small changes in the energy data. 
Accordingly, the motor current was set at 230 amps for all tests except those 
used to investigate the On/Off mode performance and the progr -a concentrated 
on variables that produced a more significant change. 



3-1 



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I 

900-851 I 



c. Throttle time constant - A circuit card provided a time constant 
between the accelerator pedal motion and the throttle response. The time 
constant could be changed to 1.2 or 2.5 sec by switching circuit cards; no 
ether values were available. The objective of this time constant was to per- 
mit the engine to .>^spond relatively slowly to accelerator pedal motions, thus 
reducing amissions which are greatly increased by rapid engine transients. 
During l' '-: time the engine speed was changing, the torque change required to 
meet the accelerator pedal inp'^t command was provided by the electric power 
train. 

The inertia weight was the other test variable. 

The data presentation in this section is generally related to a specific test, 
or the average of several tests on the same test configuration. Test number 
is frequently used as the reference for tables and graphs, so a listing of the 
test numbers and basic information of the 51 tests conducted in this program 
is shown in Table 3-1. Table 3-2 gives a summary of the primary measurements. 

3.1 APPROACH TO THE TESTING PROGRAM 

The emphasis of this program was the investigation of the effect of different 
parameters on tue energy utilization of a heat engine-electric hybrid. Because 
of the flexibility offered by the VW control implementation and chassis dyno 
testing, it was possible to conduct tests with several combinations of test 
parameters without disturbing the Taxi's mechanical configuration. Results 
from the different combinations can then be compared to investigate the effect 
of the different parameters. 

The general approach to the test series was thus to obtain comparative data 
for different test configurations. Even though the Taxi's specific hea«- 
engine-electric hybrid implementation may not be op'-imum, the test results 
should show the effect of the parameters that were changed. 



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900-851 



3.2 ENERGY REPORTING 

The two energy sources made it necessary to report the overall energy economy 

in an easily understood manner. Since the Taxi uses gasoline as its primary ^ 

energy source with a relatively small proportion of electrical energy, the 

total energy will be reported in the familiar miles per gallon units. The term 

"equivalent mpg" will be used to define the total gasoline and electrical energy j 



consumption. The equivalent .upg values were derived from measurements of the 
on-board gasoline and electrical energy required to complete a test plus the 
energy necessary to recharge the batteries. 

3.2.1 Test Measurements 

Energy measurements were concerned with the gasoline and electrical energy that 
were consumed during a test. Since these two measurements defined the energy 
economy of the vehicle, considerable work was done to provide accurate measure- 
ments. The gasoline measurement was based on weigh tank data that measured the 
total weight of gasoline consumed during a test. The electrical power was 
measured by a special circuit that provided data of power into and out of both 
batteries and motor, Basic calibration data for these two measurements are 
given in Paragraphs 5.1.4 and 5.1.5. 

3.2.2 Battery Recharging Energy 

The VW Project Engineer provided an external charger that was matched to the 
VW control system. This charger had been designed for the Taxi and included a 
special multi-conductor cable and connector that provided interlocks between 
the charger and the on-board control system. The charger was a separate device 
designed for the Taxi but with no consideration for its overall efficiency. Its 
exact efficiency was not known. 

Because of the interlocks, it would have been a significant task to replace 
the charger. The VW Project Engineer had a strong preference to use the unit 
that had proven to be compatible with the Taxi so no attempt was made to use 
a different charger. 



J 



3-7 



f ; 






900-851 



Since the charger could not be readily replaced and its efficiency was unknown, 
only minimal effort was made during the tests to define the energy required to 
recharge the batteries after a test. Using energy based on the inefficient VW 
charger would certainly not give a good comparison to current technology, so this 
procedure as adopted: 

1) Measure the battery power out (discharge) and power in (charge) during 
a test. Subtract the two to obtair the net battery power used during 
a test. 

2) Assume an overall charge/discharge efficiency of 0.7 during a test. 
The net battery power consumed during a test was thus increased by the 
0.77 efficiency to estimate the energy remaining in the battery after 
the test. 

3) Assume that a 10 percent overcharge is necessary during the charging 
cycle. 

4) Assume an efficiency of 0.77 for the charger and battel ies during the 
recharging cycle. This value Is the average of the efficiencies 
reported for a recent vehicle that represents good current 
technology (ref. 1) 

Gasoline provided the dominant energy source; electrical energy accounted for 2 to 
25 percent of the total energy. Since the gasoline weight measurement was repeat- 
able to within 0.5 percent, this procedure should minimize overall variations in the 
energy economy values by providing a consistent treatment of the recharging energy. 

In order to report the combined gasoline and electrical energy in easily under- 
stood units, energy values are defined in "equivalent miles per gallon" units. 
This term includes both the gasoline and electrical energy used during a test plus 
the recharging energy defined above. Table 3-3 shows the derivation and constants 
used for this value. It should be noted that the gasoline data is based on the 
weight of gasoline consumed during a test, not emissions-based calculations of 
gasoline that are defined by the FTP. Potential errors of the FTP techniques, 
particularly as related to the Taxi, are discussed in Paragraph 5.2.1. Actual 
mileage driven for all tests Is also used, not the nominal value used for the 
FTP cycle of SAE J227a cycles. 

Fossil fuel conversion efficiencies to either energy or emissicj'S at the vehicle 
are not considered in this report. 

3-8 



900-851 



Table 3-3. Equivalent MPG Units 



MEASURED PARAMETERS 

Gasoline weight for the test (grans) 

Power out of the batteries (discharge) for the test (watt hrs) 

Power Into the batteries (charge) for the test (watt hrs) 

GASOLINE 10 KW-hr CONVERSION 

Energy of gasoline: 19,600 BTU/lb 
BTU to kW-hr: 2.93xlO~* kW-hr/BTU 

(Grams of gasoline) (1.266x10 ) = kW-hrs of gasoline energy 

BATTERY POWER 

Power required to conduct a test 

Power out-power In = net measured battery power 

Net measured battery power - vu h rf f y, tt - 

0.77 battery charge/discharge efflclencyl 



Power required to recharge the batteries 

(kW-hrs removed from battery) + (10% for overcharge) 



= kW-hrs of electrical energy 



0.77 battery charge + charger efflclency2 
EQUIVALENT MPG 

Grams to gallons conversion: 2798 grams/gallon^ 

(kW-hrs gasoline) + (kW-hrs electrical)! (- — 10-2/ ~ ^lui^^l^"' grams of gasoli 

^ „-^„ — ° ;; — 7T^ = Equivalent gallons for the test 

2798 grams/gallon ^ " 

Equivalent gallons „ j ■. ^ 
— 3 a _ _ Equivalent mpg 

Actual miles driven'* 



% ELECTRICAL ENERGY 



kW-hrs of electrical energy 



IkW-hrs of gasoline energy + kW-hrs of electrical energy 



llOO = % electrical energy 
/ 



1. Value provided by W. Rippel of JPL as representative of current technology 

2. Value taken from reference 1 

3. Conversion factor specified by the Federal Test Procedure 

4. Actual miles driven, with a resolution of 0.01 miles, was used because the Taxi's 
power was inadequate to meet the test profile under certain conditions. ThLs resulted 
in less miles actually driven than specified by the test's speed-time profile. 



3-9 



^-.■ 



900-851 



3.3 TEST INFORMATION 

Since the heat engine-electric hybrid configuration will have exhaust emissions, 
it was necessary to define emission performance for the work that supported the 
state-of-the-art report. Tests according to the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) 
were thus given primary emphasis because they provided an internationally- 
understood method of reporting both gasoline fuel economy and emissions per- 
formance. The widely accepted SAE J227C and J227D cycles were also used to 
provide performance comparison with electric vehicles. In addition, these 
cycles are more amenable to analytical treatment than the FTP so J227 data 
would be useful for future analytical work. 



3.3.1 Federal Test Procedure Tests 

FTP tests were conducted throughout the 2-1/2 month test period. The variability 
of the FTP (ref . 1) is recognized, so tests to define the facility repeatability 
were conducted at intervals throughout the testing activities. Paragraph 5.2.1 
describes these repeatability tests in detail. A summary of these results Is 
shown in Table 3-4. 



Table 3-4. Test Repeatability 



I:. 



a'. 



A 








Repeatability + (%) 


Full FTP 
Urban Cycle 


Hot 505 
Cycle 


Gasoline fuel economy (mpg) 

Emissions-weigh tank fuel 
economy agreement 

Emissions 
HC 
CO 

^°x 


3 
5 

10 
20 

5 


2 
2 

5 

10 

4 



3-10 



*1CTl*W|l»w«„» 



f 



900-851 

Two met?iods were used to measure fuel economy. The FTP specifies a procedure 
that Ifi based on emission measurements; JPL also uses a weighing system as an 
independent check. The values in Table 3-4 show the maximum spread of the data 
for ';he baseline configuration over a two month period. Data from two or more 
tests on a single vehicle configuration were conducted within a few days time 
and have better agreement. 

Only the FTP urban cycle was run; the combination of hot weather in the Los 
Angeles area during the summer months and limited air conditioning in the test 
facility did not permit the EPA highway cycle tests to be conducted. Experience 
early in the program showed that temperatures within the vehicles, particularly 
the torque converter fluid and in the electronics area, were very near the 
maximum limits specified by VW. The additional heat load of the highway cycle 
would certainly have caused the temperatures to exceed these limits. Accord- 
ingly, all references to the FTP in this report assume the urban driving cycle. 

3.3.2 SAE J227C and J227D Tests 

These tests were conducted near the end of the test program. A series of tests 
that included several inertia weights and different sp"'ed settings of the 
engine On/Off mode would have been desireable, but time limitations precluded 
getting all the desired data. 

3.3.3 Other Considerations 

Several other factors entered into the testing program. The most apparent was 
the combination of the value of the vehicle and its unfamiliarity to JPL 
personnel. The vehicle was Insured for $400,000; its maintenance was dependent 
on the VW project engineer who accompanied the vehicle for the first 45 days of 
testing. After this period, he returned to West Germany for his scheduled 
vacation and so was unavailable for even phone conversations. Testing continued, 
but conservative approaches were used at all times since a mistake could make 
the vehicle useless for the remainder of the lease period. Tests were therefore 
limited to those that could be conducted with minimum risk while obtaining the 
maximum information concerning the vehicle's energy performance 



3-11 



"•? 



900-851 

3.3.4 Reporting Sequence 

The tests obtained both energy (gasoline weight and battery electrical power) 
and emissions data. Even though the emissions data are available, this section 
emphasizes energy considerations and only reports the emission data. Th:'.s is 
necessary because the scope of the test program did not permit the complex work 
necessary to thoroughly investigate emissions parameters. In addition, the 
vehicle characteristics discussed in Section 4 makes it probable that the Taxi's 
emission performance does not represent the state-of-the-art nearly as well as 
does its energy performance. Accordingly, the emission data are reported but 
have relatively little discussion. 

A baseline configuration of the Hybrid mode, 1.2 sec throttle time constant, 
230 amps motor current, and 3500 lb inertia weight was established for the Taxi. 
This configuration was defined by discussions with the VW Project Engineer and 
from early test data. In particular, the Hybrid mode and 1.2 sec time constant 
provided the best driving characteristics; this was Important for the repeat- 
ability tests discussed in Paragraph 5.2.1. 

As discussed, previously the test program included two types of tests and three 
different combinations of test parameters. Test results of general Interest 
Include energy economy, emissions, and range. This number of divisions in the 
data makes it necessary to subdivide this section in as clear a manner as pos- 
sible. Since the test type (FTP or EAE J227a) is probably the division of 
interest to most readers, test type will be used as the major subdivision of 
this section. Paragraphs 3.4 and 3.5 will thus deal with these test types. 
The engine operating mode, either Hybrid or On/Off, has the dominant affect on 
energy performance so the next subdivision will concern the two engine operating 
mod2S. The affect of ^unertia weight and throttle time constant will be dis- 
cussed for both engine modes. The VW Bus tests are included in Paragraph 3.6. 



3-12 



900-851 



3.4 FEDERAL TEST PROCEDURE TESTS 

There were 18 successful Federal Test Procedure (FTP) tests conducted during 
the 2-1/2 month test period. Table 3-5 shows the number of tests conducted 
for each test configuration. 



The average data for these ti?st& of each configuration are si. own in Fig're 3-]. 
The abcissa defines the ratio of electrical energy to the total energy required 
for a test; the ordinate includes both gasoline and electrical energy in the 
"Equivalent MPG" values. 



For this section, a set of bar graphs shows the energy and emission performance 
for each test configuration. These graphs include gasoline energy; battery 
power; and NOjj, CO, and HC emissions (weighted grams per mile). Gasoline con- 
sumption is based on weigh tank data and is stated in mpg units. Battery power 
for these graphs is defined as the net battery watt-hours during a test, and is 
the difference between the measured charge and discharge power. The battery 
power data in these bar graphs Included a battery efficiency of 77 percent for 
the charge/discharge during a test. The energy needed to restore the batteries 
to their initial charge is included in all the Equivalent MPG and electrical 
energy .-atio values for the plots with the format of Figure 3-1. This shows 
the average results of the FTP tests as a reference for the rest of this section. 



Table 3-5. Federal Test "Procedure Tests 



■ V 
'X 





Throttle 

Time Constant 

(Seconds) 


Number of Tests at Different Inertia Weights 


Mode 


3500 lb 


4000 lb 


4500 lb 


Hybrid 


1.2 


5 


2 


2 


Hybrid 


2.5 


4 






On /Off 


1.2 


3 




2 



3-13 



900-851 



ID 


MODE 


INERTIA 


MBER 




WEIGHT 


1 


HYBRID 


3500 


2 


HYBRID 


3500 


3 


HYBRID 


4000 


4 


HYBRID 


4500 


5 


ON/OFF 


3500 


6 


ON/OFF 


4500 


7 


ON/OFF 


3500 



THROTTLE ENGINE SPEEDS 

TIME CONSTANT CUT-IN CUT-OUT 

1.2 
2.5 
1.2 
1.2 
1.2 
1.2 
1.2 



22 


19 


22 


19 


26 


2". 



APPLICABLE ONLY TO THE ON/OFF MODE 



20 



19 



9-18 



< 
> 



17 



16 



15 



14 











7° 




















5 


kn 


















, 2 












f\' 




1 







5 10 15 20 25 30 

ELECTRICAL ENERGY/TOTAL ENERGY (%) , 



Figure 3-1. Averaged FTP TesL Oata 



3.4.1 Hybrid Mode Data 

Energy and emission results from four Hybrid mode test configurations are shown 
in Figures 3-2 through 3-16. 

a. Baseline Configuration - Figur 5-2 shows data for the 15 tests 
(8, 10, 13, 30, and 42) of the baseline configuration. No emissions data are 
available for Test 8 because of equipment failure in the diuissions measuring 
system, but the energy data are valid. With the exception of Test 42, the 
energy data are within +2 percent of the average. Test 42 was conducted ]ate 
in the series. There was a severe backfire one day prior to the test, but 
there is no evidence of any unusual characteristics in this test. Figure 
3-3 shows the energy data in the same format as that used for the average 



3-14 



p^ 



... .«"f«W«*«*L'?'**M8' 



900-851 



TEST NUA BER 

8 
10 
13 
30 
42 



8 
10 
13 
30 
42 



8 
10 

13 
30 
42 



8" 

10 

13 

30 

42 



8** 

10 

13 

30 

42 



a*' 

10 
13 
30 
42 



MODE: HYBRID 

THROHLE TIME CON$TAh4T: 

INERTIA WEIGHT: 3S0O lb 



1.2 i«c 



[> 








J 


5 








10 






EQUIVAUNT 
IS 


mpg: 
20 








25 








30 




































_1C ^A 






























































14.88 
15.13 
-15.61 
































_^ 


_ 






_ 


_ 





















J 








5 








GASOLINE CONSUMPTION (inps): 
10 15... .. 20 


25 








30 




































— 1C KA 


1- 




- 








_ 




_ 












































15.17 

»1C cc 










































_ 




— 
















— is.y 



100 



200 



NcT BAHERY POWER (nott-hows)* 
300 400 500 600 700 



800 



NOx EMISSIONS (weighted graro/miU) 
3 4 5 6 7 



CO EMISSIONS (veighted grams/mile) 
10 15 20 25 30 35 



40 



900 1000 

















348 
350 

■358 


































































349 - 


1 



10 



















1 

■B. i HI 




























































, ' 


34 






















3.9; 


t 



AS 



50 





























1 

r» AA 






































' 




































48.27 


































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1 
4.22 



) 


1 




2 


HC EMISSIONS (weighted gram 
3 4 5 6 


/mile 


) 
7 


8 


? 


t 


10 










_o 


11 
i.35 


73 
2.84 












.. 














































4 



MEASURED CHARGE AND DISCHARGE BATTERY POWER PLUS BAHERY EFFICIENCY OF 0.77, OR 
NET BAHERY POWER 



DISCHARGE - CHARGE 
577? 



** NO EMISSIONS DATA FROM TEST 8 BECAUSE OF EQUIPMENT FAILURE 



Figure 3-2. Test Results for Baseline Configuration 



3-15 



900-851 



MODE: HYBRID 

THROniE TIME CONSTANT: 1.2 sac 

INERTIA WEIGHT: 3500 lb 



16 



O) 

►- 
Z 
S 15 



U 





42( 


) 












IOC 


NUMBERS DE 

AVERAGE 
• 30O 


FINE TEST NUA 


IBER 








:3% 



























2 3 4 5 

ELECTRICAL ENERGYAOTAL ENERGY ( % ) 



Figure 3-3. Graph of Baseline FTP Test Data 



J-16 



mPHP'WftfllMPBNl 



>iwwaMwnw>»wwiiii <i I iiriitiu i 



900-851 

data of Figure 3-1. Since the electrical energy accounted for only 1.5 percent 
of the total energy for the test, a small deviation in the battery power (either 
charge or discharge) can cause a significant shift in the abcissa value of 
Figure 3-3. This characteristic is true of all the Hybrid mode tests. 

Tests were conducted at inertia weights of 3500 lb, 4000 lb, and 4300 lb. The 
Taxi's performance was not quite adequate to meet the acceleration of one part 
of the FTP speed-time profile as shown in Figure 3-4. The greatest lag between 
the specified and actual acceleration occurred during the ramp from 187 to 204 
sec into the transient phase, so this particular segment will be shown for all 
the t<^st configurations. With the 3500 lb inertia weight, the Taxi's perform- 
ance was inadequate for about half this ramp as shown in Figure 3-4. The speed 
lags the specified value by about 1.5 mph in this case. Since this particular 
acceleration ramp represents the area where the Taxi's performance lagged the 
FTP the greatest amount, it will be used as a reference for all configurations. 

The dip at 175 sec in Figure 3-4 was caused by driver error. This part-'-:ular 
section of chart was selected to show a relatively large error. The thi :tle 
time constant made the Taxi rather difficult to drive to match the FTP driving 
cycle when compared to other cars. As an example, the driver used for all the 
Taxi tests rfas able to closely match the driving cycle with few deviations with 
either a conventional VW Bus or a Chevrolet. 

b. 2.5 Second Throttle Time Constant - The next data set shows the 
effect of changing the throttle time constant from the baseline configuration 
value of 1.2 sec to 2.5 sec. With this change, the throttle position will lag 
the accelerator pedal input signal to a greater degree than that of the baseline 
configuration. Results are shown in Figures 3-5 and 3-6, which correspond to 
those for the baseline data. 



3-17 



900-851 














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3-18 



900-851 






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49 



4 
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17 
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4 
5 
17 
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4 
5 

17 
49 



4 
$ 

17 

49 



4 
5 

17 
49 



MODE: HYMID 

THROTTU TIME CONSTANT: 

INERTIA WEIGHT: 3500 lb 



2.5 SM 



B 










5 








10 






EQUIVAUNT 
15 


mpg; 
20 








25 








30 




































I4,9C| 

-1« M 




























































































15.|C 
































-|5.?8 
15.20 












_ 





















I 








1 


i 








GASOLINE CONSUMPTION (nipo): 
10 15 20 


25 








30 . 






































16.15 
15.93 
15.73 
15.95 

. 1.1 












































































































































. 


















-i 


l_ 



100 



200 



NET BATTERY POWER (vraH-houn)* 
300 400 500 600 700 



800 



900 



1000 

































75< 
































•557 














































■wy 







































NOv EMISSIONS (watghtwl gram/mil«) 
3 4 5 6 7 



10 

































































































_ i 


"4-55 














. 







10 



CO EMISSIONS (watghtwi gnam/mil*) 
15 20 25 30 35 



40 



50 

























7fl 


.57 




1 




_ J 


1.99 




















































































1 






























1 




1 



a 


1 




HC EMISSIONS (watghlwl grams/mili 
2 3 4 5 6/ 


; 


{ 


t 


s 


» 


i( 










a'-" 


































.9 09 














1 










1.91 

[ 











l/t«SURED CHARGE AND DISCHARGE BATTERY POWER PLUS BATTERY EFFICIENCY OF 0.77, OR 
NET BATTERY POWER - P'SCHAR^E^. gHAKgg 



Figure 3-5. Test Results for Baseline Configuration Except for 
2.5 Sec Throttle Time Constant 



3-19 



900-851 



MODE: HYBRID 

THROnLE TIME CONSTANT: 2.5 sac 

INERTIA V^JIGHT: 3500 lb 



16 



a 
E 

•a 15 

< 
> 

o 



14 







J" 














17 
O 


O^ 
















• 




^TEST NUMBER 










AVERAGE 




49 
















O4 





















4 3 4 5 

ELECTRICAL ENERGi'AOTAL ENERGY ( % ) 



Figure 3-6. Graph of 2.5 Sec Throttle Time Constant Tests 



The speed lag in the vicinity of 200 sec shovm in Figure 3-7 is slightly less 
than that for the 1.2 sec throttle delay shown in Figure 3-4. This is caused 
by a too rapid acceleration at the start of the rarap. There should be no 
difference between the 1.2 and 2.5 sec test configurations after the maximum 
power condition, when the throttle has reached its maximum opening, is reached. 
The driver's difficulty in controlling the speed-time profile with the 2.5 
sec throttle delay is shown by the trace during the initial ramp (about 170 sec) 
and at nearly steady-state speeds after the accelerations were completed (about 
240 sec). The actual speed time trace of the other Hybrid mode tests during 
the initial ramp closely follows the FTP profile (Figures 3-4 and 3-10). 



f** 



3-20 



900-851 






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MODE: HYB 

THROTTLE Tl 
INERTIA WEI 


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900-851 I i 



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► > 



c. AOOO Pound Inertia Weight - The effect of changing the Inertia 
weight from the 3500 lb baseline value to 4000 lb Is shown In Figures 3-8 and 
3-9. Note that the throttle time constant Is 1.2 sec, so these two tests should 

Kif be compared to the baseline configuration shown In Figures 3-2 and 3-3. Since 

the two 4000 lb tests showed good repeatability, no further tests were conducted. 

The acceleration with the 4000 lb Inertia weight, shown In Figure 3-10, Is very 
similar to that of the 3500 lb inertia weight of Figure 3-4. This Indicates 
no substantial differences between the adherence to the FTP speed-time profile 
for the 3500 lb and 4000 lb configurations. Since these two tests were run on 
consecutive days, repeatability is good. The 211 watt-hour difference in the 
battery power represents less than 0.8 percent of the total energy required for 
a test, yet causes a significant shift in the abcissa value of Figure 3-9. 

d. 4500 Pound Inertia Weight - Two additional tests provide another 
point for the inertia weight effect. The throttle time constant remains at 
1.2 sec. Figures 3-11 and 3-12 show this data. These tests were also run on 
consecutive days so the repeatability is similar to that of the 4000 lb tests. 

A review of the speed-time profile of Figure 3-13 shows that the Taxi definitely 
had Inadequate power to maintain the accelerations of the FTP with the 4500 lb 
inertia weight. This was particularly true of the ramp near 205 sec. Note that 
the Taxi's perform.ance was slightly below the specified profile during the time 
at about 170 sec, although this part of the trace was followed with the 4000 lb 
inertia weight. The total distance actually travelled was about 3.52 miles 
Instead of the 3.6 miles specified by the FTP, which is another indication of 
the lack of adequate acceleration at this inertia weight. Since all data use 
the actual distance travelled, not the nominal FTP distance, the reported 
energy economy values consider the shorter distance. 

■t (.1 



3-22 



iMMta 



H iw awwi—iOTit-apw 



|i»M*-Ml IIWiWlTtB" >»I*IW> >' 



900-851 






MODE: HYBRID 

THROTTLE TIME CONSTANT: 1.2 lac 

INERTIA WEIGHT: 4000 lb 















TEST NUMBER 

25 
26 



25 
26 



25 
26 



25 
26 



25 
26 



5 










5 








10 






EQUIVALENT 
IS 


mpg: 
20 








25 








30 




































1 1 
4.55 

U.76 

1 1 





























































































3 








1 


) 








GASOLINE CONSUMPTION (mpg 
10 15 20 


): 


25 








30 




































1 
15.07 

15.11 










































































~ 










" 




■~ 





100 200 



NET BATTERY POWER (wott-houn ) * 
300 400 500 600 700 



800 



NOx EMISSIONS (WEIGHTED grams/mile) 
3 4 5 6 7 



10 



CO EMISSIONS (WEIGHTED graim/mlU) 
15 20 25 30 35 



40 



900 1000 





























642 
































131 































10 





















1 1 

J oo 




































^^_ i Ol 




















1 1 



45 



50 



- 






























1 1 

37.39 

19 1 A 


































































1 1 



HC EMISSIONS (WEIGHTED grams/mil*) 
3 4 5 6 7 



10 















































"2.13 
. 9 19 










1 1 



25 
26 



•MEASURED CHARGE AND DISCHARGE BAnERY POWER PLUS BATTERY EFFICIENCY OF 0.77, OR 
NET BATTERY POWER - DISCHARGE ^ - CHARQE 






Figure 3-8. Test Results for Hybrid Mode 4000 lb Inertia Weight 

3-23 



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INERTIA WEIGHT: 4000 lb 









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-TEST NUMBER 





















2 3 4 5 

ELECTRICAL ENERGYAOTAL ENERGY ( % ) 



Figure 3-9. Graph of Hybrid Mode 4000 lb Inertia Weight Tests 



3-24 



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MODE: HYBRID 

THUOHLE TIME CONSTANT! 1.2 lec 

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TEST NUMBER 

44 
45 



44 
45 



44 
45 



44 
45 



44 
45 



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45 



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EQUIVALENT 
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GASOLINE CONSUMPTION (mpg): 
10 15 20 


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30 






































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1 
































































































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100 200 



NET BATTERY POWER (waM-hoor$) * 
300 400 500 600 700 



800 900 1000 











































































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NO^ EMISSIONS (weightad graim/intl«) 

3 4 5 6 7 8 



10 



CO EMISSIONS (weightad grann/miU): 
15 20 25 30 35 



1066 



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HC EMISSIONS (weighted grarm/mlle): 
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1 



MEASURED CHARGE AND DISCHARGE BATTERY POWER PLUS BATTERY EFFICIENCY OF 0.77, OR 
NET BATTERY POWER - D'SCHAR^E^- CHARGE 



Figure 3-11. Test Res'iTts for Hybrid Mode 4500 lb Inertia Weight 



3-26 



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MODE: HYBRID 

THROTTLE TIME CONSTANT: 1.2 sac 

INERTIA WEIGHT: 4500 lb 



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Ul 










^TEST NUMBER 

/ 
45 













AVERAGE 

• 

44 



14 















2 3 4 

ELECTRICAL ENERGY/TOTAL ENERGY (%) 



Figure 3-12. Graph of Hybrid Mode 4500 lb Inertia Weight Tests 



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900-851 

e. Test Repeatability - Since test results over a 2-1/2 month period 
using a test cycle with known variability problems (ref . 1) are used to compare 
energy performance, it is necessary to consider the variability of the data 
shown in the previous figures. The variability can best be estimated by 
reviewing the results of the two data sets for the baseline configuration and 
those with only the throttle time constant changed. These 9 tests (5 baseline 
and 4 with the 2.5 se<- throttle time constant) were conducted throughout the 
2-1/2 month test period. Since the throttle time constant had a relatively 
small affect on the energy performance, both data sets have similar character- 
istics. The energy data for these two configurations are plotted against time 
in Figure 3~''i^ to show the energy repeatability during the test period. The 
two or three tests for other configurations were generally conducted within a 
few days so their energy data spread is typically +1 percent. The data spread 
of Figure 3-14 thus provides a good indication of the probable variation in the 
energy data for all tests including those in the On/Off mode discussed in the 
next section. A reasonable vrlue is +3 percent; all the results for the 9 tests 
are within th^'-^ range. 

f . Summary of the Hybrid Mode Data - The energy economy and anissions 
performance for the four Hybrid mode test configurations are shown in the bar 
graphs of Figure 3-15. The energy economy is also shown in the graph format of 
Figure 3-16. In this graph, the points are the averages of the previous graphs; 
the maximum spread of the tests used for each average is also shown. 

In all the hybrid configurations, the gasoline energy provides the dominant 
energy source. The electrical energy us .?. during a test is on the order of 
1 ,'4 percent (3500 lb) to 3-3/4 percent (4.00 lb) of the total energy; these 
amounts include the battery recharge energy so the amount actually used during 
the test is less by the recharge efficiency. Since the gasoline energy is 
dominant, the energy variation caused by the scatter of the battery power data 
will have a relatively small effect on the overall energy results. 



3-29 






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MOPE: HYBRID 1.2 AND 2.5 lac 

THROTTLE TIME CONSTANT: 1.2 AND 2.5 t«c 

INERTIA WEIGHT: 3500 lb, 4000 lb, 4500 lb 



CONRGURATION 


BASELINE 
2.5 sMondk 
4000 lb 
4500 lb 



10 



EQUIVALENT mpg 
15 20 



30 



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15.16 
15.22 
14.65 
14.83 

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GASOLINE CONSUMPTION (mpg) 
15 20 


25 








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BASELINE 

4000 lb 
4500 lb 
































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BASELINE 
2.5 sacondk 
4000 lb 

4500 lb 



100 



200 



NET BATTERY POWER (woH-boun)* 
300 400 500 600 700 



800 



900 1000 

















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36 




































































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BASELINE 
2.5 sacondk 
4000 lb 
4500 lb 



NOx EMISSIONS (WEIGHTED graim/iniU) 
3 4 5 6 7 



10 





















r 

4.46 
4.56 










































































— 4 72 























BASELINE 
2.5 sacontk 
4000 lb 
4500 lb 



10 



CO EMISSIONS (WEIGHTED grann/miU) 
15 20 25 X 35 



40 



45 



50 































■Til 
































34.77 


1 

1 
























































































1 










1 






HC EMISSIONS (wcightad graim, 
2 3 4 5 6 


/milt 


) 
7 


{ 


1 


9 


IC 


BASELINE 
2.5 sacondi 
4000 lb 
4500 lb 










— I2M 


































































. _ L _!-__ 



• MEASURED CHARGE AND DISCHARGE POWER PLUS bATTERY EFrlCIENCY OF 0.77, OR 



NET BATTERY POWER = P'^H^H^S^- CHAR06 






Figure 3-15. Summary of Hybrid Mode Tests 



«■ 



3-31 






900-851 



DATA INCLUDES BAHERY RECHARGING ENERGY. 

ALL TESTS CONDUCTED WITH 1.2 $*c THROHLE DELAY UNLESS NOTED 



16 



a 
a. 
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t- 
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EQUIVALENT inpg SPREAD.^ JL,~«, .. 
OF ALL TESTS -"^SSOO lb 



I 



3500 lb, 2.5 sac THROTTLE DELAY 



04GX) lb 



)4500 lb 



14 



2 3 4 5 

ELECTRICAL ENERGYAOTAL ENERGY (%) 



Figure 3-16. Hybrid Mode Energy Economy 



3-32 



^ 



900-851 

Perhaps the only clear trend of the data In Figures 3-15 and 3-16 is the 
general direction of the tradeoff between the gasoline consumption and battery 
power discharge between the baseline (1.2 sec throttle time constant) and the 
2.5 sec time constant tests. As this time constant is Increased, the engine's 
throttle will open more slcvly so the motor must provide more power to accel- 
erate the vehicle. The electrical energy will thus increase wliile the gasoline 
consumption decreases. The gasoline decreased 0.80 kW-hr while the electrical 
power inc r < .:3ed 0.27 kW-hr . 

The energy differences between the three inertia weights need considerable 
analysis to explain the values shown in Figures 3-15 and 3-16. Results of a 
program that predicts vehicle performance over the FTP cycle show that an 
energy increase of about 9 percent would be expected when the inertia weight 
was changed from 3500 lb to 4000 lb for a vehicle with the Taxi's general 
characteristics. Other references (ref . 3 and 4) agree with the 9 percent 
valu"». A similar magnitude would be required when the inertia weight was 
further Increased to 4500 lb. These values assume that the vehicle actually 
followed the entire FTP profile. This was not the case for the 4500 lb config- 
uration, as shown in Figure 3-13, but the speed-time trace followed the specified 
profile for all but 49 of t' e 1874 sec driving time, or 2.6 percent. The trace 
of Figure 3-13 shows the most serious deviation; no other part of the profile 
has a deviation that approaches the one shown in Figure 3-13, Both the Cold 
Transient and Hot Transient phases of the FTP cycle include this identical 
profile, so this error is included twice. However, the traces of Figures 3-4 
(3500 lb) and 3-10 (4000 lb) are essentially the same during these ramps so 
acceleration performance differences should not have a large influence on the 
energy required for the FTP cycle for these two Inertia weights. 

The differences in the emission performance for the four hybrid configurations 
are within normal test-to-test variations in fhe FTP. Perhaps the decrease in 
the CO emissions (]6.5 percent) and HC (6 percent) between the 1.2 and 2.5 sec 
throttle time constant configurations represent the effect of the slower 
throttle opening, but carefully controlled tests (preferably on an engine 
dynamometer) would be required to verify this. The gradual Increase In the 
CO emissions shown In Figures 3-2 and 3-5 may represent a change in the Taxi's 



3-33 



1 



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^P^^'fc>^iSO«V>!B>*M»-J 



900-851 

engine or throttle control mechanism. Nine Hot 505 tests throughout the test 
period also show an increase in CO enissions, but correlation between the 
Hot 505 and full FTP cannot be made with the available data. 

3.4.2 On/Off Mode Tests 

The first attempt to conduct a test in the On/Off mode was made about 2 weeks 
after the initial tests. Because the VW Project Engineer was uncertain of the 
performance in this mode., a series of Hot 505 tests were run to investigate the 
approximate performance and also provide time for driver familiarity. Later 
tests were concerned with different inertia weights and engine Cn/Off speed 
settings. 

a. Initial On/Off Tests - The On/Off mode will require considerably 
more electrical energy than the Hybrid since the engine is not operating at 
lower vehicle speeds. Th > difference in the amount of electrical energy is 
clearly shown by computer plots of battery and motor power for the Hybrid and 
On/Off configurations. The plot format shows the difference between the power 
out of the battery and the power into the batterv that is provided by charging 
currents during a test. The difference between the motor power out and motor 
power in is also shown. No battery or motor efficiencies are included in these 
plots. In this plot format, the battery power can be identified by its greater 
magnitude. Time is shown along the X axis. Figures 3-17 and 3-18 are both for 
a Hot 505 test, so the duration of the actual test period is 505 sec. The 
short time before the traces move is the time between the start of the data 
recording process and the actual start of the test. The upper of the two plots 
shows the instantaneous power during a test, while the lower shows the power 
integral. 

Figure 3-17 shows the electrical power during a Hybrid Hot 505 test; Figure 
3-18 shows an On/Off Hot 505 test. The differences between the integral data 
for the Hybrid and On/Off modes clearly show that the On/Off mode has a greater 
dependency on electrical power. Since the Hot 505 test include i one period 
where the vehicle operates in the vicinity of 50 mph, the batteries are charged 
during this time. This is shown in Figure 3-17 in the time around the 473 sec 
marking. 

3-34 



900-851 



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VW TAXI TEST - IDAC TAPE N929 



1 F kW-h 



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273 



373 



473 



573 



673 



TIME, sec 



Figure 3-17. Hybrid Mode-Electrical Power Use 



3-35 



900-851 




5B8 



VW TAXI TEST - IDAC TAPE 0032 



1 c- kWh 




: i- fT i T I ii TJl I I I I 11 M I I I ! I I : M I I I I I I I i M I I I I I I I I I I I I 



188 288 

TIME, sec 



388 



488 



588 



Figure 3-18. On/Off Mode-Electrical Power Use 



3-36 



^■"'. IM 



I 900-851 

I The general characteristics of the On/Off mode were initially determined I 

I by Tests 14, 16, and 19. These tests were conducted with engine cut-in and 

r cut-out speeds of approximately 27 and 22 mph. Due to control system charac- j 

I teristics, the cut-in and cut-out speeds varied during the testing cycle. In j 

^ general, the variations were +0.5 mph (cut-in) and +1 mph (cut-out) although 

» 

t the cut-out variation appeared to increase to about +2 mph at the lower speeds j 

i 

I used in the jlater tests. All these investigatory tests used the Hot 505 

Procedure to speed the testing process. The first test in the On/Off mode. 
Test 14, showed a large reduction in the gasoline consumption and a relatively 
small increase in the net watt-hours out of the battery. Since the total 

j energy consumed during this test was much less than in the Hybrid mode, 

additional tests were conducted to verify the results. Figure 3-19 shows 
the data from three On/Off Hot 505 tests. During the first cycle of Test 16, 
the driver commented that he was unable to maintain the acceleration required 

'i to follow some segments of the FTP driving cycle. The motor current was 

thus increased from 230 amps to 260 amps during the second and third cycles 
of Test 16. The same configuration was continued for Test 19. Even with 
the increased motor current, the Taxi's perfonaance was not inadequate to 
meet the higher acceleration parts of the FT? driving cycle. Differences 
between the 230 and 260 amp performance are shown in Figures 3-20 and 3-21. 



t 



The difference between the Hybrid and On/Off modes is evident from the 
three Hot 505 tests shown in Figure 3-22. These tests were conducted at a 
3500 lb inertia weight; the throttle time constant and maximum motor current 
parameters used for the tests are listed. It should be noted that these 
tests included only the Hot Transient phase of the FTP and so reflect only 
part of the FTP driving conditions. In particular, the effects of the 
cold starting mechanism are not included. 



3-37 



*'Wfr'^r^i^*t-f-' 



900-851 



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TEST NUMBER 

U 
16 
19 



U 
16 
19 



14 
16 
19 



14 
16 
19 



14 
16 
19 



14 
16 
19 



MODE: ON/OFF 
THROTTLE TIME CONSTANT: 
INERTIA WEIGHT: 3500 lb 
MAXIMUM MOTOR CURRENT: 



1.2 OR 2.5 lac 



230 OR 260 ampi 



ENGINE SPEEDS: 

CUT-IN: 26.5 mph 
CUT-OUT: 22 tnph 



3 










5 








10 






EQUIVALENT 
15 


tnpg: 
20 






25 






30 




















































-51 ^A. 




























































— yt IK 
















































'23.35 

1 1 


























. 























GASOLINE CONSUMPTION (mpg): 
10 15 20 



25 



100 



200 



NET BATTERY POWER (vwtt-houn) 
300 400 500 600 700 



800 



NOx EMISSIONS (weighted grams/mile): 
3 4 5 6 7 



10 



CO EMISSIONS (weighted gram/mile): 
IS 20 25 30 35 



40 



HC EMISSIONS (weighted graira/mlle) 
3 4 5 6 7 



T r 

■1.836 



T 



- 2.27 

2.15 

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30 





















































1 1 

25.36 














































































































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1 1 



10 



1. TIME CONSTANTS AND MAXIMUM MOTOR CURRENTS WERE: 

TEST TIME CONSTANT MOTOR CURRENT 

14 1.2 230 

16 2.5 230 (FIRST CYCLES), 260 (SECOND AND THIRD CYCLE) 

19 2.5 260 

• MEASURED CHARGE AND DISCHARGE BATTERY POWER PLUS BATTERY EFFICIENCY OF 0.77, OR 
NET BATTERY POWER - P'SCHARGE^y CHARGE 



% 



Figure 3-19. Data From On/Off Mode Hot 505 Tests 

3-38 






900-851 



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THROnLE TIME C 
INERTIA WEIGHT: 
MAXIMUM MOTO 

ENGINE SPEEDS: 
CUT-IN: 26 
CUT-OUT: 22 




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900-851 






TEST NUMBER 
6 

19 
21 



MODE: HYBRID AND ON/OFF 

THROHLE TIME CONSTANT: 1.2 AND 2.5 <«e 

INERTIA WEIGHT: 3500 lb 



10 



EQUIVALENT mpg: 
15 20 



ENGINE SPEEDS: 
CUT-IN: V mph 
CUT-OUT: 22 mph 

25 30 





































1 I 

•17.10 








.91 Q7 




















































































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6 
19 
21 



6 
19 
21 



6 
19 

21 



3 








5 








GASOLIt-E CONSUMPTION (mpg 
10 15 20 


): 


25 








30 








































1 1 
■17.29 














oc "in 














































































16.97 
1 J 


















































,/ 





100 



200 



NET BATTERY POWER (watt-houB) 
300 400 500 600 700 



800 



NOx EMISSIONS (weighfwl grami/mile) 

3 4 5 6 7 6 



900 1000 





1 

— 1.69 
1 












— 1 


11 
























1 

10^ 


















1 



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5.39 
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3.54 




III ' 


































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6 
19 
21 



3 


5 


10 


CO EMISSIONS (welflhlwJ grwm/mlle) 
15 20 25 30 35 


40 


45 


50 






















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?9 9 








































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1 



6 

19 
21 



HC EMISSIONS (weights! greim/mlU) 
3 4 5 6 7 8 



■1.65 
— 1-2.15 
-1.74 



TEST CONFIGURATIONS WERE: 
TEST MODE TIME CONSTANT 

6 HYBRID 2.5 

19 ON/OFF 2.5 

21 HYBRID 1.2 



10 



• MEASURED CHARGE AND DISCHARGE BATTERY POWER PLUS BATTERY EFFICIENCY OF 0.77, OR 
NET BATTERY PO^tR 



DISCHARGE - CHARGE 
OT 



Figure 3-22. Comparison of Hybrid and On/Off Mode Hot 505 Tests 



3-41 



*5fSU^*^?Ci^-»'.jT.-.,v 



> 



900-851 

Data from Tests 14, 16, and 19 indicated that it would be difficult for the 
Taxi to negotiate the entire FTP cycle without exceeding the battery discharge 
limitations defined by the VW Project Engineer. Accordingly, the first attempt 
to conduct the On/Off FTP was started with fully charged batteries instead of 
following the normal procedure of reducing the battery discharge to the 85 
percent value indicated by the VW Taxi's BATTERIE meter. Test 20 was thus 
conducted with the 2.5 sec throttle time constant and 260 amp maximum motOi.- 
current settings unchanged from Test 19. Even though Test 20 waj started with 
the batteries fully charged, both the xaxi's BATTERIE meter and th-^ minimum 
battery voltage reached the limitations (110 volts, 40 percent discharge) 
defined by the VW Project Engineer. Accordingly, the test was terminated 
approximately 3 min before the Stabilized phase; the second of the rhree 
FTP phases, was completed. However, data from the first phase, the .'old 
Transient phase, appeared to be valid. After results of Test 20 were 
reviewed, it was decided to decrease the maximum motor current to 230 amps 
and change the throttle time constant from 2.5 to 1.2 sec in order to conserve 
the battery energy. Although Test 20 was terminated prematurely because of 
battery discharge, it was evident that the FTPs first and second phases could 
be completed with the minor reduction to the battery energy usage that would 
be caused by these changes. Changes in the cut-in and cut-out speeds, which 
were difficult to adjust, were not made. 

Test 2,1 wcis ""nducted with the changed parameters. It was possible to complete 
both the Cold Transient and Stabilized phases of the FTP with this t--*-, 
although both the BATTERIE meter and the minimum battery voltage liai t!J.xgh\;lv 
exceeded the nominal battery discharge limits. In particular, the batterv 
meter read 55 percent, while the minimum value desired by VW was 60 percent. 
However, constant monitoring of the battery voltage during the tests showed 
that the voltage fell below the llOV minimum value (1.^-7 volts/cell) only 
briefly during maximum acceleration. The Hot 505 tests had shown that the 
battery discharge during the Hot Transient phase would be too great to even 
attempt continuing the test, so Test 22 was term-'nated at the end of the 
Stabilized phase. 



3-42 



f;- 



- tM», ' ■« *• ',1 v^tnuMI W^llplW 



^ 



900-851 

*^ Since the Taxi's batteries could not complete the entire FTP test at the 27/22 

E mph on/off engine speed settings without exceeding the discharge limitations, 

:/ construction of a composite On/Off FTP based on the two partial FTP tests (20 

i and 22) and the Hot 505 tests had different throttle time constant and motor 

I 

^. current limit settings, but their energy and emissions had reasonable agreement 

?r as shown in Table 3-6- Further, comparison of the data from the Hot Transient 
^ phase of the full FTF and the three identical cycles of Hot 505 tests for the 
t Hybrid mode showed good agreement; this data is shown in Table 3-7. It thus 
5 appeared reasonable to construct a composite On/Off FTP based on the Cold 
f Transient phase of Tests 20 and 22, the Stabilized phase of Test 22, and the 

Hot Transient phase of the On/Off Hot 505 tests. Test 14 was selected for the 
- latter since it had the 1.2 sec throttle time constant and the 230 amp motor 
current limit used for Test 22. Data used for this composite On/Off test are 
shown in Table 3-C. The fuel economy and emissions data at the bottome of Table 
3-7 are used as a good estimate of the On/Off FTP performance with the limi- 
tations imposed by the battery discharge. 

The Taxi's lo^ic card for the On/Off mode permitted adjustment of the engine 

cut-£;i and cuc-out speeds, but time limitations did not permit further tests 

to be conducted during the initial test period. In addition, the taxi's 

mechanical configuration made it impossible to set the engine cut-in and cut- 

out speeds for the On/Off mode over a wide speed range. The torque converter 

imposed the primary limitation. The converter's low speed characteristics I 

made it impossible for adequate torque to be transmitted from the electrical \ 

i 

motor to crank the engine to a starting speed. During testing activities, ; 

it was observed that the initial engine rotation would usually consist of a i 

partial revolution at an electric motor speed of approximately 1600 rpm. The 1 

engine was generally rotating steadily when the motor reached 2000 rpm, but | 

infrequent stops occurred at this speed. The engine rotation was steady at I 

2200 rpm so reliable starting was possible. Since the motor speed/vehicle {i 
speed ratio is very close to 100:1, the lowest engine cut-in speed that could 

•',' be achieved was about 22 mph. ] 



r 






3-43 



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3-45 



I 



900-851 



Table 3-8. Composite Taxi On/Off Mode FTP 



1 



t^ 



Test No. Phase 


Fuel 

Economy 

(ttpg) 


Net Battery 

Power 
(watt-hours) 


Emissions 
(grams per phase) 


«°x 


CO 


HC 


Test Data 


21.13 






6.487 


257.85 


13.842 


020 Cold Transient 


022 Cold Transient 
Stabilized 


19.41 
50.84 


} 


-2125 


6.414 
3.796 


294.42 
47.76^ 


14.766 
7.789 


014 Hot Trans ient^ 


25.36 

20.27 
50.84 




-608 

-2125 


12.554 

6.45 
3.80 


80.50 

276.1 
47.76 


6.65 

14.30 
7.79 


Composite Test 


020, 022 Cold Transient 
022 Stabilized 


014 Hot Transient^ 


25.36 




-608 


12.55 


80.50 


6.65 


Energy Comsumptlon 














Total gallons 


.3837 












Battery power 














Test data 






2733 








With battery effic- 
ieacy 






3215 








With rec'.iargfc energy 






3537 








Equivalent mpg 


21.47 












Emissions 

(weighted grams/mile) 








1.83 


28.3 


2.36 


NOTES: 








1. Based on weigh tank data 


. 






2. Average of three consecu 


tive cycles 







'I? 






3-46 



mm 



IJMIIIM 



-•■ar**- 



^^^ 



y^- 



*-:■. 



900-851 



The On/Off mode data for the composite test were obtained from tests with an 
engine cut-in at a motor speed close to 2700 rpm, which corresponds to a vehicle 
'•.V speed of about 27 mph. The cut-in speed could thus be lowered to approximately 
-r 2200 motor rpm or 22 mph vehicle speed. However, adjustment in the vicinity of 
^c-i 2000 to 2200 rpm motor speed was felt to be risky. On two occasions, there was 
fr^ significant backfiring when the Taxi was operated in the On/Off mode. Since the 

•i" engine start up consists of turning on the spark and opening the throttle in a 

3V closely coordinated time sequence, adequate engine rpm must be assured before 

-'-A 

^\ the engine turn-on signal is given. 

k 

" Engine operation in the On/Off mode with the 27/22 mph cut-in and cut-out speeds 

' is shown in the x-y plot of vehicle speed versus engine rpm shown in Figure 3-23. 

The concentrated areas of the pen trace provide a good indication of the areas 
_:-" where the engine spent a relatively large part of its operating time. 

b. 3500 Pound Inertia Weight Tests - After the On/Off performance of 
the composite test was known, the next set of tests were done to obtain data at 
intermediate on/off engine speed settings. Two tests, at 3500 lb and A500 lb 
inertia weights, were conducted. Plans for AOOO lb tests had to be cancelled 
because of the test time available within the lease period. 

Figures 3-24 and 3-25 show the results of the 3500 lb inertia weight tests with 

engine cut-in and cut-out speeds of 22 and 19 mph. As noted previously, 22 mph 

was the lowest cut-in speed that could be used and have reliable engine rotation 

when the start sequence was initiated. The lack of power during the englne-off 

period is shown in Figure 3-26 during the initial ramp at about 170 sec. The 

engine cut-in speed is shown; after this, the acceleration is adequate to match 

the FTP profile for the short time until 25 mph was reached. It appears that 

the engine did not turn off at the 19 mph speed at about 187 sec. For the ramp 

starting at 190 sec, the acceleration is essentially the same as that for the 

Hybrid mode when the engine was on all the time (Figure 3-4) . Motor-only power 

hj is inadequate for the required acceleration above 15 mph as demonstrated by the 

'm trace at 190 sec so the engine evldentally did not turn off in the brief time 

^^f^ below 19 mph. The cut-out speed showed -onsiderable scatter when set for 19 
■ f. 
,t / mph; a +2 mph variation was noted. It is thus assumed that the control circuit 

,.s>r- did not operate during this particular time. 

3-47 



■'s5^^#r"; 



900-851 




a. 
E 



X 
> 



1 .1 



(uidj) a33ds 3NION3 



3-48 



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lig^ 



900-851 



MODE: ON/OFF 
THROniE TIME CONSTANT: 
INERTIA WEIGHT: 3500 lb 



1.2 sac 



ENGINE SPEEDS: 
CUT-IN: 22 mph 
CUT-OUT: 19 mph 



TEST NUMBER 



39 
40 



39 

40 



39 

40 



39 

40 



39 

40 



39 
40 



3 










5 








10 






EQUIVALENT mpg: 
15 20 








25 








30 










































7.53 

1 
.27 





































































































3 








5 








GASOLINE CONSUMPTION (mpg 
10 15 20 


): 


25 








30 














































































































-i 


!0.66 

1 
0.40 

1 










































-2 



600 



NET BAHERY POWER (v«i«-l.oon ): * 

1200 1800 2400 



10 



CO EMISSIONS (WEIGHTED 
15 20 25 30 



i/mtU) 
35 



40 



HC EMISSIONS (WEIGHTED gcwra/tntU) 
3 4 5 6 7 



45 



3000 

































•2326 




































































1 



a 


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', 


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( 


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MEASURED CHARGE AND DISCHARGE BATTERY POWER PLUS BAHERY EFFICIENCY OF 0.77, OR 
NET SATTERY POWER - DISCHAR^E ^^ - CHARQE 



Figure 3-24. Test T.esults for On/Off Mode, 3500 lb 
Inertia Weight FTP Tests 



3-49 



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900-851 



18 



8 

E 



I " 



16 



MOOEt OtVbFF 
THROTTLE TIME CONSTANT: 
INERTIA WEIGHT: 3500 lb 

ENGINE SPEEDS: 

cut-in: 22 mph 
CUT-OUT: I9niph 



1.2 itc 













39-^ — TEST NUMBER 
O 












• AVERAGE 

O 
40 

































6 9 12 15 

ELECTRICAL ENERGYAOTAL ENERGY (%) 



18 



21 



Figure 3-25. Graph of On/Off Mode, 3500 lb 
Inertia Weight FTP Tests 



3-50 



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900-851 



c. 4500 Pound Inertia Weight Tests - Two tests were conducted with the 
22 and 19 mph cut-in and cut-out speeds at 4500 lb inertia weight. Results are 
shown in Vigures 3-27 and 3-28. The acceleration in the motor-only mode has a 
considerable lag from the specified FTP profile as shown in Figure 3-29. The 
engine cut-off characteristic is the same in this figure as that for the 3500 lb 

^ inertia weight test; the engine did not turn off during the brief period below 

19 mph at 187 sec. In this trace, the engine turned on at 19 mph. In general, 
the cut-in repeatability was +0.5 mph and had considerably less variation than 
the cuc-out speed. 

d. 3500 Pound Inertia Weight, 26/21 mph Engine Speed Tests - Test 51 
was intended to duplicate the conditions of the composite tests discussed in 
part (a) of this section. The speed adjustments were rather (difficult to set 
at a specific speed, so the cut-in and cut-out speeds did not exactly match 
those for the tests that comprised the composite test. Figure 3-30 shows the 
vehicle speed-engine speed graph comparable to that of Figure 3-23, the condi- 
tions for the composite test. The increased scatter of the engine cut-off 
compared to Figure 3-23 is evident. 

Test results are shown in Figure 3-31. Only one test could be conducted in 
this configuration because of time limitations. The speed-time profile of 
Figure 3-32 shows a significant departure from the FTP profile with this 
engine cut-in and cut-out settings. Note that the engine did turn off during 
the time near 187 sec, so the acceleration during the initial part of the ramp 
starting at 190 sec depended only on motor power and was inadequate. 

e. Summary of On/Off Mode Data - The relative insensitivity of energy 
economy to inertia weight changes is shown in the Equivalent MPG bar chart of 
Figure 3-33. The relationship of the 3500 lb and 4500 lb tests is essentially 
the same as that of the Hybrid mode shown in Figure 3-15. The NOjj emissions 
reduction for the tests with the higher engine speeds is greater than the +5 
percent test-to-test variation and so is slgniflcanc. The lower CO data for 
the 27/22 mph engine speed (the composite test) is probably not significant 
because of the variations in CO data throughout the test series. 






3-52 






00-851 



MODE: ON/OFF 

THROTTLE TIME CONSTANT: 1.2 sec 

INERTIA WEIGHT: 4500 lb 



ENGINE SPEEDS: 
CUT-IN: 22 mph 
CUT-OUT: 19 mph 



TEST NUMBER 

I 

36 
37 



36 
37 



36 

37 



36 
37 



36 
37 



36 
37 



3 








5 








10 






EQUIVALENT mpg: 
15 20 








25 








30 










































.18 

1 

7.30 





































































































GASOLINE CONSUMPTION (mpg): 
10 15 20 25 



600 



NET BATTERY POWER (watt-hoors): * 
1200 1800 



2400 



NOy emission: 



'WEIGHTED grams/mile): 
'- 6 7 



10 



CO EMISSIONS (WEIGHTED gratnj/mile): 
15 20 25 30 35 



40 



30 













































».82 
1 1 
21.07 

1 1 
















































































,. 

























3000 







































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1 












~ i.65 



45 



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1 1 






























1 1 



3 






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HC EMISSIONS (WEIGHTED grams/mile 
3 4 5 6 / 


h 
r 


« 


i 




? 


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*> 


80 


J 















MEASURED CHARGE AND DISCHARGE BATTERY POWER PLUS BAHERY EFFICIENCY OF 0.77, OR 



NET BAHERY POWER « PISCHARgf^- Q^fQl 



Figure 3-27. Test Results for On/Off Mode, 
4500 lb Inertia Weight 



3-53 



^ifyip;. 



i:- 



900-851 



I 



18 



s 

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o 



17 



16 



MODE: OfVOFF 
THROnLE TIME CONSTANT: 
INERTIA WEIGHT: 4500 lb 

ENGINE SPEEDS: 
cut-in: 22 mph 
CUT-OUT: 19 mph 



1 2 lec 



TEST NUMBER 



36 



AVERAGE 



6 " 12 15 

ELECTRICAL ENERGYAOTAL ENERGY (%) 



18 



2.1 



^^ 



Figure 3-28. Graph of On/Off Mode, 
4500 lb Inertia Weight FTP Tests 



3-54 



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900-851 



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3-56 



900-851 



MODE: OH/OFF 

THROTTLE 1IME CONSTANT: 1.2 iceondi 

INERTIA WEIGHT: 3500 lb 



ENGINE SPEEDS: 
CUT-IN: 26 mph 
CUT-OUT: 21 mph 



TEST NUMBER 



51 



3 








5 








10 






EQUIVALENT 
15 


mpg: 
20 








25 








30 












































1.35 

































































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GASOLINE CONSUMPTION (mpg 
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600 




NET BaHERY POWER (watt-tioun) 
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3018 



51 



NOx EMISSIONS (WEIGHTED groro/Riil*) 
3 4 5 6 7 



■1.76 

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51 



CO EMISSIONS (WEIGHTED grams/ipiU) 
10 15 20 25 30 35 



40 



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I 




























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51 



HC EMISSIONS (WEIGHTED grarra/mlli) 
3 4 5 6 7 



10 













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Figure 3-31. Test Results for On/Off Mode, 3500 lb 
Inertia Weight 26/21 MPH Engine Cut-In/Cut-Out Speeds 



■i 



3-57 



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900-851 



-I 



CONFIGURATION 



3S00 lb. 22/19 

4500 lb. 22/19 

3*90 lb, aa/21 

3500 lb. 27/22^ 



3S00 lb. 22/19 

4500 lb. 22/19 

3500 lb. 26/21 

3500 lb. 27/22^ 



3500 lb, 22/19 

4500 lb. 22/19 

3500 lb, 26i/2l 

3500 lb, 27/22^ 



3500 lb, 2VI9 
4500 lb, 22/19 
3500 lb, 26/21 
3500 lb. 27/22^ 



3500 lb, 22/19 

4500 lb. 22/19 

3500 lb, 2^1 

3500 lb, 27/222 



3500 lb, 22/19 

4500 lb, 22/19 

3500 lb, 26/21 

3500 lb, 27/22^ 



MOOC: OH/IOFF 

THKOnit TIME CONSTANT: 1.2 tae 

INERTIA WEIGHT: NOTED KLOW 



10 



EQUIVALENT 
IS 



20 



ENGINE SPKDS: 
NOTED KLOW 



» 















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u 






















































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GASOLINE CONSUMPTION (inpfl): 
10 IS 20 25 



30 













" 






























— 1 


1 

(0.53 
20.94 




























































































































































_ 






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600 



NET BATTERY POWER (oMtt-lioun) * 
1200 1800 



2400 



3000 

































I 




1 

■2722 





















































































































































3018 
»-3215 



-1.76 

-1.83 

_l 



NO,( EMISSIONS (WEIGHTED gracn/mlla) 

3 4 5 4 7 

"— 1 

— 2.91 

-2.74 



10 



10 



CO EMISSIONS (WEIGHTED gram/mlU) 



15 



20 



30 



35 



40 



45 



50 

































1 

-37 97 






































■37.17 

^^O tie 
































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HC EMISSIONS (WEIGHTED 
3 4 5 6 



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7 



10 













I 


















































M O XJ 














2.36 

1 










1 



^^ 1 



* MEASURED CHARGE AND DISCHARGE BATTERY POWER PLUS BAHERY EFFICIENCY OF 0.77, OR 
NET BAHERY POWER - DISCHA^^E ^ - CHARpE 



^r- 



1. FORMAT IS: INERTIA WEIGHT, CUT-IN SPEED/CUT-OUT SPEED 

2. THIS IS THE COMPOSITE TEST DISCUSSED IN SECTION 4.1.2 (a) 



f 



Figure 3-33. Summary of On/Off Mode Tests 



3-59 



900-851 



3.4.3 FTP Data Results 

The FTP data are shown in Figure 3-34. The energy advantages of the On/Off mode 
are clear. However, the increased energy economy is gained at the expense of 
range when only the FTP urban cycle is considered. If a 60 percent discharge is 
assumed, the Taxi would have a range of about 3 slightly over 30 miles when 
driving consecutive FTP urban cycles in the On/Off mode with 22/19 mph cut-in 
and cut-out speeds. The range for the SAE J227a 'D' cycle is 100 miles, so any 
conclusions regarding range for a vehicle similar to the Taxi must give primary 
consideration to the driving cycle, A test sequence of the FTP urban cycle 
followed by the EPA highway cycle, then repeating this sequence, could extend 
the range to the limit of the gasoline supply; but a more thorough analysis of 
the charging characteristics is necessary to define the range limit under these 
conditions. Range will be limited by the gasoline supply at average speeds 
above approximately 45 mph with the On/Off mode. Since the On/Off speed settings 
will have a strong influence in driving cycles with stop-and-go profiles, the 
range of a Heat engine-electric hybrid similar to the Taxi requires careful 
definition of its operating parameters. 

The energy economy with the battery recharge considered is shown in Figure 3-34. 
The use of on-board energy, which does not consider the recharge, is shown in 
Figure 3-35. The On/Off mode, with 26/21 cut-in and cut-out speed settings, 
provides a 40 percent better increase in the on-board energy economy. When the 
recharge energy is included, this drops to about 25 percent as shown in 
Figure 3-34. 



3-60 



ti'- ^''"\B*- 



900-851 



22 



21 



20 



19 



S 

E 

> 



17 



16 



15 



U 



KEY: 

O HYBRID, 1.2 lec TIME CONSTANT 
O HYBKtO, 2.5 sac TIME CONSTANT 
D OH/OFF, 1.2 »econd TIME CONSTANT 
INERTIA WEIGHTS ARE NOTED 



ON/OFF MODE 



3500 lb 



O3500 lb, 2.5 second THROTTLE DEUY 



.3500 lb 



3500 lb 



JEN< 



COMPOSITE TEST 
I 



ENGINE SPEEDS: 

CUT-IN: 27 mph 
CUT-OUT: 22 mph 



3500 lb 

D ENGINF SPEEDS: 

CUT-.N: 26 mph 
CUT-OUT: 21 mph 



04500 lb 



t 



o 

4000 lb 



4500 lb 



T- 



ENGINE SPEEDS: 

CUT-IN: 22 mph 
CUT-OUT: 19 mph 



HYBRID MODE 



10 15 20 25 

ELECTRICAL ENERGYAOTAL ENERGY (%) 



30 



35 



Figure 3-34. Energy Economy of Hybrid and On/Off Modes 



3-61 



.j««ijp«i,«iimpii 



900-851 






24 






COMPOSITE TEST ->^ 








23 


KEY: 






n 3500 lb ENGINE SPEEDS: 

CUT-IN: 27 mph 
CUT-OUT: 22 mph 




HYBRID, 1.2 sac TIME CONSTAI4T 










O HYBRID, 2.S sec TIME CONSTANT 










D ON/OFF, 1.2 second TIME CONSTANT 








22 

2\ 


INERTIA WEIGHTS ARE NOTED 












3500 lb D ENGINE SPEEDS: 

CUT-IN: 26 mph 
CUT-OUT: 21 mph 




20 
















f 
















»- 
Z 

UJ 

18 
17 


ON/OFF MOD 

t 








MODE WITH T 
L SEniNGS: 
IN; 22 mph 
OUT: 19 mph 






3500 


D45O0 

bD 


4r Oh'/OFF 
'" CONTRO 
' CUT- 
CUT- 


HE SAME 


















16 


3500 lb, 
O 


2.5 second THR( 


3TTLE DELAY 


1 










1 


1 


HYBRID MODI 








15 


35M lb o « 


[X) lb 












O 
4000 lb 














14 










_ 







10 IS 20 25 

ELECTRICAL ENERGY/TOTAL ENERGY (%) 



30 



35 






Figure 3-35. Energy Economy Without Battery Recharge 



3-62 



i. 



900-851 

3.5 SA£ J227a 'C AND 'D' CYCLE TESTS 

Three sets of the SAE J227a tests commonly used for electric vehicles were 
conducted late in the test series. These tests were conducted in both the 
Hybrid and On/Off modes. 

The first two were the Hybrid mode for the 'C' and 'D' cycles. A problem with 
the Taxi's controller caused the vehicle to be out of service after the Hybrid 
tests until the VW Project Engineer arrived to return the vehicle at the end of 
the lease period. Only a short testing period was then available, so all the 
desired SAE cycle tests could not be conducted. 

Test results are shown in Figure 3-36. The On/Off mode shows a 12.5 percent 
improvement in energy economy over the Hybrid mode for the J227a 'D' cycle. 
Comparable FTP results are 12.9 percent for the 22/19 mph engine speed and 
21.7 percent for the 26/21 mph engine speeds. 

Energy economy in the kW-hr/mile units normally used for electric vehicles is 
shown in Figure 3-36. 



3-63 



i?'^iri_t^^-^>^ oMi * * ' ...^^.^ '"J." 



900-851 



VEHICIE CONFIGUKATtON 

THROTTLE TIME CONSTANT: 1.2 >«c 
INERTIA WEIGHT: 3500 lb 



20 



19 



18 



17 



l« 



15 



AVERAGE OF S cyclas 



/ 



I 



AVERAGE OF 15 cyclas 

(ACTUAL BATTERY CHARGE ~ tOl IcW-lir/cycle ) 



ON/OFF MODE 
ENGINE SPEEDS: 

CUT-IN: 24 mph. 

CUT-OUT: 21 mph 



- 1.8 



ut 



AVERAGE OF 9 C cycles 
(SLIGHT BATTERY CHARGE) 



-2.0 



E 



2.2 



2.4 



12 3 4 5 6 

ELECTRICAL ENERGYAOTAL ENERGY (%) 



Figure 3-36. SAE J227a Driving Cycle Tests 



3-6A 



900-851 



3.6 VW BUS TEST DATA 

The VW Bus tests were conducted to provide a comparison between the emissions j 

i 

and fuel economy of a vehicle that Is approximately comparable to the VW Taxi. < 

Both vehicles are based on the same chassis. However, there are three major 

differences when energy and emissions data are considered: i 

1) The Taxi Is a heavier vehicle. The additional weight Is comprised I 
of features that are required for a taxi as well as those that are | 
related to the extra weight of the electrical propulsion system. j 

2) The VW Taxi has a 1.6 liter carbureted engine as compared to the • 
2.0 liter fuel injected engine for the Bus. The Taxi's engine i 
represents technology about 10 years earlier than that of the Bus. 

3) The Bus has an oxidizing catalytic converter; the Taxi does not. 
The HC and CO emissions from the Bus will be significantly reduced 
by the converter . 

Even though the vehicles have different engines, the comparison of these two 
vehicles offered the only reasonable way to assess the potential of a hybrid 
vehicle within the time constraints of this program. If the hybrid vehicle, 
with its old engine, has comparable emissions and fuel economy to the bus it 
would appear thet the hybrid concept may offer significant advantages if it 
were fully developed and optimized. 

3.6.1 Bus Background Information 

The Bus was delivered to JPL on May 25, 1977. It had been driven approximately 
200 miles; a vehicle with approximately 2000 miles was requested, but this Bus 
was the only one available for the tests. The Bus had been tested twice at 
the VW emissions lab in Woodland Hills, California. Results of these tests 
were: 

Fuel Economy 16.0 mpg 

Emissions (weighted grams/mile) 
NO 1.562 

X 

CO 15.13 

HC 0,695 



3-65 



tt--.'^j' 



900-851 



3.6.2 Bus Test Data 

Test data are shown in Figures 3-37 and 3-40; fuel economy and emissions data 

for several tests are shown. Tests at both the VW Emissions Lab and JPL are 

I included. The vehicle was tested at JPL for the first time on May 25. At this 

I time, the JPL driver had no experience with the Bus so the test results could 

* not be expected to compare with that of the VW facility, which had an exper- 

I 

i ienced driver. The Bus was tested the next day. May 26. Results of this test 

f were: 

f Difference from VW (%) 

.; Fuel Economy 16.77 mpg 4.6 

Emissions (weighted gramsAnlle) 

NO 1.297 -20.4 

X 



I 



t^i. 



i r 



■9- 



CO 16.388 7.7 I 



3-66 



t 



HC 0.574 -21.1 ] 

Although the fuel economy and CO data are within nominal facility-to-facility ! 

deviation, the NO and HC are well outside the expected deviation. 

In order to confirm the JPL data, the Bus was tested again on June 1. Results 
from this test were significantly different from the May 26 data. Driver and/or 
facility errors were suspected at this time. Further tests showed even greater 
test-to-test variation. The reason for this deviatior. was not clear because 
data from the reference Chevrolet, using the same driver ac that for the bus, 
showed good repeatability during this time as discussed in Paragi-aph 5.2.1. 
Tests conducted on June 14 and 15 showed excellent repeatability, so che VW 
Emissions Lab was contacted to determine if the Bus was still operating in .■'ts 
normal manner. The Bus was sent to the VW Emissions Lab for a check. The 
initial test at this facility agreed with the JPL data, thus indicating that 
the Bus was not operating properly and that the scatter experienced in the 
JPL tests was probably caused by a failing part in the Bus. 



900-851 




5/18 


5/20 


5/26 


6/20 


6/24 


6/28 


VW 


VW 


JPL 


VW 


JPL 


JPL 



Figure 3-37 . VW Bus Emission Fuel Economy 
(Miles per Gallon) 






























o- 
<> 




























a 

z 

i 

o 


^ 






^ 







5/18 


5/20 


5/26 


6/20 


6/24 


6/28 


VW 


VW 


JPL 


</W 


JPL 


JPL 



■A 



Figure 3-38. VW Bus NO^ Data (Weighted Grams per Mile) 

3-67 



TJ^-P^CT" 



900-851 




5/18 


5/20 


5,/^6 


6/20 


6/24 


6/28 


VW 


VW 


JPL 


VW 


JPL 


JPL 



Figure 3-39. VW Ljs CO Data (Weighted Grams per Mile) 



'<<i 



8^ 



5/18 


5/20 


5/26 


V20 


6/24 


6/28 


VW 


VW 


JPL 


VW 


JPL 


JPL 



Figure 3-40. VW Bus HC Data (Weighted Grains per Mile) 



?3< 



3-68 



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The VW Emissions Lab found a failure in the air flow metering section of the 

fuel injection controller. The part was replaced, the bus was tested, adjusteH 
I tested again, and then returned to JPL. JPL then conducted two additional tests, 

;' 12 and 18, to obtain reportable data on the VW Bus. Data from the May 26 JPL 

test has reasonable agreement with that from Tests 12 and 18, so the May 26 test 

data has been considered in the following discussion. 

The fuel economy data from all tests agrea well. The data from the May 26, 
June 24, and June 28 tests agree within 2 percent. The average of these values 
will be used. 

The N0„ data from Test 12 are invalid. The instrument to measure N0„ has two 
operating modes. One measures only NO, while the other measures both NO and 
NO2; the combination of NO and NO2 is defined as NOj^. This instrument had been 
set to the NO mode for a different test and the switch setting was not returned 
to the NOjj mode to read the data from Test 12. Consequently, the readings were 
only for NO and were thus lower than that which would be read If both NO and 
NO^ were measured. This particular data point, the NO^ data from Test 12, Is 
thus Invalid. The NOj. data from the JPL tests of May 26 and June 28 agree 
within 3 percent, so the data from Test 18 will be used. 

CO emission data typically show a greater scatter than auy of the other 
measurements. Tests conducted on May 18, 20, and 26 show increasing CO. It 
cannot be definitely established If this continuou'^j Increase Is the result of 
the failure of the VW Bus air flow measurement or simply normal scatter typical 

r of CO measurements. However, the same charact.-rlstic is noticed on the tests 

of June 20, 24, and 28. Since the retest at the VW facility, after the Bus was 
returned from JPL, showed good agreement between JPL's CO measurement and that 
of the VW emissions Lab, there Is no reason to suspert measurement errors in the 
JPL facility. Further tests were impossible because of time limitations. The 

■r. ; data from the May 26 test. Test 12 and Test 18 agree within +10 percent with 

5»; the May 26 test data near the center. The average of Tests 12 and 18 will thus 

/'^ be used. 



•1 J-69 



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900-851 

The test-to-test deviation of nydrocarbon data typically shows less scatter than 
that of the CO emissions. This is the case for ''he VW Bus data. The average 
data from the June 24 and June 28 tests, which agree with 3 percent, will be 
used. 



JFL's VW Bus tests show that the best values for this vehicle are: 

Fuel Economy 16.75 

Emissions (weighted grams/mile) 

JPL Tests 



NO 
CO 
HC 



Federal Standards 



1.33 


2.0 


16.78 


20.0 


0.628 


3.1 



Ttstlng the VW Bus on the same facility as that used for the Taxi uests provides 
assurance that the data from the two vehicles are comparab e by tiliminatlng nor- 
mal facillty-to-faclllty variations. Without this approach, norm.al faclllty- 
to-facility variations (ref . 1) would have a high probability of masking 
significant differences between the Bus and the Taxi. 

3.6.3 Bus Oxidizing Converter 

One significant difference between the Taxi and Bus emission data concerns the 
oxidizing converter Installed on the Bus, but not the Taxi. In order to obtain 
more comparable emission data, estimated oxidizing converter efficiencies were 
used to indicate the Bus emissions if no converter were installed. Converter 
efficiencies were: 



MT 



- •; 



Phase 



Cold Transient 



Stabilized 



Hot Transient 



Ef ficiency 
30% 

60% 
70% 



Rationale 

Converter efficiency is low during 

warikjp 
Converter efficiency is higher, but 

relatively slow vehicle speeds will 

limit itb temperature 
Converter is warm 



3-70 



900-851 



A composite FTP cycle for the Bus was constructed with the data fron Tests 12 
and 18, then this data were used to derive emission values with and without the 
oxidizing converter. Results are shown in Table 3-9 and Figure 3-41, which 
permits comparison of the Taxi's performance for the average Hybrid configuration 
and the On/Off mode. 

Figure 3-41 indicat-^s that the parallel hybrid shows reasonable performance in 
1 

the Hybrid mode when its relatively young development state is considered. The 

t] On/Off mode may offer significant energy advantages, but extensive work to 

";■ define its exact potential and practical limitations will be required, 1 



.-,#<, 



3-71 



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900-851 



Table 3-9. Composite VW Bus FTP Test 



Test 


Phase 


Fuel Economy 
(Emission-based mpg) 


Emissions 
(grams-phase 





NO 

X 


CO 


HC 


012 














Cold transient 


15.087 





163.54 


7.392 




Stabilized 


17.004 





13.567 


0.525 




Hot transient 


17.809 





50.362 


1.478 


018 














Cold transient 


15.216 


5.309 


159.77 


6.941 




Stabilized 


17.278 


5.339 


18.868 


0.555 




Hot transient 


18.188 


4.139 
5.31 


90.372 
161.7 


2.357 
7.17 


Composlte-with cataJytic converter 




Cold transient 


15.15 




Stabilized 


17.14 


5.34 


16.22 


1.08 




Hot transient 


18.00 


4.14 
5.31 


70.37 
210.1 


1.92 
9.32 


Composite-without catalytic converter 




Cold transient 


15.15 




Stabilized 


17.14 


5.34 


25.95 


1.73 




Hot transient 


18.00 


4.14 


119.6 


3.26 


FIT Urban Cycle Data 


Enissions 
(weighted grams/mile) 


Composite - with converter 16.76 


1.33 


16.78 


.70 


Composite - without converter 16.76 


1.33 


24.59 


1.01 



3-72 



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SECTION 4 
VEHICLE DESCRIPTION 

The current VW Taxi is the second gasoline/electric hybrid built by the VW 
Research and Development Center in Wolfsburg, West Germany. The Taxi is shovm 
in Figure 4-1. 

The first hybrid was based on a production VW Microbus and had a configuration 
similar to the vehicle tested at JPL. This first hybrid vehicle had been 
developed to the point where one of the key variables, the time constant 
between the accelerator pedal motion and throttle response, was optimized. The 
optimum value for this time constant from both emissions and energy economy 
considerations was 2.3 sec. 

After the engineering data on the first prototype had been obtained, VW was 
considering building a second hybrid vehicle to determine the technical 
advantages of a more advanced vehicle. At this time, the New York Museum of 
Modern Art started their Taxi Project. This project was concerned with 
developing a taxi which will be suitable for use in the city of New York and 
also considered both energy economy and low air pollution (ref . VW decided 
to participate in this Museum of Modern Art Project, so the VW Tax is the 
result of previous VW research and the New York Museum of Modern Art Taxi 
Project. 

The remaining part of this section will be concerned with only technical 
aspects of the vehicle, and will not discuss items related to its use as a 
taxi. 

4.1 TAXI'S BACKGROUND 

This particular vehicle is rather u..asual when compared to the treatment of 
many research vehicles. Most research vehicles represent considerable expendi- 
tures, typically well over $100,000, and so are treated with extreme care to 
Igr* minimize risk to the vehicle. Consequently, a research vehicle is typically 
] limited to proving ground roads if It is an experimental engineering vehicle 
or auto shows if it is Intended for publicity purposes. The VW Taxi has both 

' 4-1 



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I of these characteristics. From the technical viewpoint, the VW Taxi is the 

I world's most sophisticated operational hybrid vehicle at this time. In addl- 

f tion, it is a show car. It has been to many auto shows throughout Europe and 

g the U.S. and was on an extended trip of the Eastern and Midwestern parts of 

f the U.S. approximately one year ago. 

,s 

5 
l 
I 

I However, the VW Taxi is certainly a practical vehicle, not merely a show 

I 

;• car or one that Is confined to proving ground roads. It has been driven approx- 

^ imately 8000 miles; since the vehicle was developed for the New York Museum Taxi 
Project, the odometer is calibrated in miles, not kilometers. Most of these 
miles have been driven over public highways in normal West German traffic. The 
VW Project Engineer used this vehicle as his dally transportation to and from 
work for about a year. It has also been driven to and from auto shows through- 
out Germany and other parts of Europe. Because of this use, this particular 
vehicle has reasonably demonstrated Its applicability for normal highway usage. 

In the remaining parts of this vehicle description, the term "engine" will refer 
to the gasoline internal combustion engine (ICE): "motor" will refer to the 
electric motor. All other terminology will follow normal practices for either 
the ICE or electric components. 

4.2 MECHANICAL MODIFICATIONS 

Only relatively minor modifications to the basic VW power train were necessary 
because of the rear engine configuration and the interior room of the production 
VW microbus. This basic VW power train made it possible to remove the front 
cover of the production VW transaxle assembly, add a special gear box that 
coupled the power from the gasoline engine and the electrical motor, add a drive 
shaft from the electric motor into this special gear box, and Install an elec- 
tric motor in the center of the vehicle's passenger compartment. Figure 4-2 
shows a drawing of the key elements of this mechanical assembly. From the 
mechanical viewpoint, this appears to be the major modification necessary to 
conve"t the VW production power train into a parallel electric hybrid. 

ft 
■i It should be noted that the vehicle contains many other modifications necessary 

.' for use as a taxi, but these are not pertinent to this discussion. 
[ 4-3 



900-851 




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900-851 

4.3 POWER TRAIN 

The basic power train Is shown in Figure 4-3. The inset shows the gearing 
between the engine and the motor that provides the parallel hybrid mechanical 
configuration. The gear ratio between the engine and the motor is approximately 
1 to 1.7, with the motor operating at a higher speed. Since the engine and the 
motor are continuously and directly coupled by the hybrid gear box. power to the 
rear wheels can be driven by both the engine and motor at any time. This 
parallel hybrid configuration thus permits the system control strategy to pro- 
vide very flexible operation between the two* power sources. 



I 







Figure 4-3. VW ElecL.ic Motor Correction 

A-5 



i 






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900-851 



4.4 ENGINE 1 



The engine Is the basic 1600 cc carbureted VW engine that has been Installed j 

In millions of vehicles up to 1974, vhen production of this engine was stopped | 

for U.S. sales because It was unable to meet emissions constraints. However, | 

It Is still produced for nations with less stringent emissions. The production ; 

termination date Is a key point; the engine does not represent current emis- j 

slons or fuel economy technology. Even though the engine design is old, the j 

particular engine Installed in the Taxi is new. The engine was run about 24 > 

hours at high power on an engine dynamometer, then tested before it was instal- * 

led in the Taxi. After brier testing in the vehicle, it was shipped to the ! 

U.S. for the SOA tests. ! 

The engine is fitted with a production EGR system designed for the Japanese 
market. No testing was done to optimize the EGR system for the hybrid appli- 
cation, so it is reasonable to expect that better tradeoffs between NOj^ emis- 
sions and fuel economy would result if the EGR were optimized for the hybrid's 
unique operating characteristics. 

The vehicle has no other emissions control systems. In particular, there is 
no catalytic converter. HC and CO emissions should be significantly reduced 
if a catalytic converter were installed . 

The engine has a standard VW carburetor with normal production calibration 
selected for low CO idle emissions. Spark timing is also standard. 

The throttle is actuated by a small servo motor and gear reduction unit (Figure 
4-4) that receives its electrical signals from the system controller. There 
is no mechanical linkage in this system, nor provision for any. The throttle 
is set to open very slightly in the "off" position for idle air flow. The 
system control scheme also limits the maximum throttle opening to a value that 
provides a maximum of about 35 HP from the engine, even though its nomal rating 
is 50 HP. This limitation is part of the overall control strategy and is 
intended to minimize emissions while providing performance that is essentially 
equal to that required to negotiate the speed-time profile of the Federal Test 



4-6 



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900-851 



Procedure (FTP) for the urban test cycle. It should be noted that a combination 
of the 16 kW (approximately 20 HP) motor and the 35 HP engine gives about the 
same total power as the standard VW engine. The motor will provide approxi- 
mately 24 kW for accelerations over short periods. 

The cold start mechanism consists of a conventional bimetallic choke mechanism. 
This is heated by a production electrical heater. The throttle opening neces- 
sary foi the choked condition is defined by the VW system controller; engine 
oil temperature is the sensed parameter. It is not definitely known if the 
choke actuation is optimized for cold starts, but it is believed that little 
work has been done to optimize the combined effects of the choke actuation, 
engine operation during the Initial start, and motor power during this period. 

4.5 MOTOR 

The electrical motor is rated at 16 kW, or about 2/3 the power of the engine 
when the engine's reduced power is considered. Up to 2000 rpm, the armature 
current controls the motor power. From 2000 rpm to the maximum rated speed 
of 6000 rpm, field weakening is used to control the power. The motor can 
provide full torque throughout the armature control range. Maximum efficiency 
is on the order of 90 percent at about 2500 rpm. 

4.6 BATTERIES 

Eleven lead-acid batteries, each rated at 90 ampere hours at a 20 ampere-hour 
discharge rate, are used for the primary electrical propulsion system. The 
batteries were installed shortly before the Taxi was shipped to the U.S. and 
so were treated as new batteries for the JPL tests. Since detailed character- 
istics of the new batteries were not known, maximum permissible battery dis- 
charge characteristics during tests were defined by the VW Project Engineer. 
These were: 

1) Primary limitation - minimum voltage of llOV during testing. 

2) Secondary limitation - a minimum reading of 60 percent on the VW 
"BATTERIE" meter. (This meter is discussed in Paragraph 4.9). 

The primary limitation was not to be exceeded. 

4-8 



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4.7 MODE SELECTION 

The vehicle Includes a vacuum actuated clutch. The clutch Is used only when a 
mode selector lever, equivalent to a transmission selector lever. Is moved into 
or out of the "Hybrid" position. In the "'Hybrid" operating mode, both the 
gasoline and electric power systems are operational. When the lever is moved 
into the "Hybrid" position, the clutch automatically actuates for a short period 
of time while the gear shift lever mechanically moves the transmission gear into 
position. 

The other positions of the mode selector lever are: 

N Neutral . The electrical power system is off. The primary relay for 
the electrical power system is not actuated so the entire electrical 
/ power system is active. 

Electrical Drive Mode . The vehicle is powered by the electrical 
system in the forward direction. 

Hybrid Reverse . In this mode, the vehicle is driven in the reverse 
direction by the electric motor; the ICE engine is inactive. 

Hybrid . This mode used both power systems in the forward direction. 

Only the shift to and from the HR to the H mode requires any appreciable force 
since this motion mechanically engages the transmission third gear. Only the 
standard VW third gear is used in the Taxi. Shifts to and from other modes 
require essentially zero force and actuate only switches that send s ^nals to 
the /controller. 

In the E Mode, there is normally a small vacuum motor that provides vacuum for 
the power brakes. This pump was disconnected for the tests since it was not 
needed. 






•I- 



u 



4.8 POWER CONTROLLER 

The electrical power controller is a standard Bosch product with slight modifi- 
cations for the VW Taxi. VW has an electrical car program with 20 vehicles that 
use the same, but unmodified, controller. The power controller occupies the 
r^ajority of the space on the top right side of the engine (Figure 4-5). 

4-9 



■Wip^l. l.l.utWlMP'- 



900-851 




Figure 4-5. Bosch Power 



4.9 SYSTEM CONTROLLER 

The system controller (Figure 4-6) w.s bui]t b; VW, The syste:. receives 
signals fron, the accelerator pedal, throttle opening feedback transducer 
vehicle speed, and the Bosch controller to control .he normal driving mode. 
In addition. ...gine oil temperature is used to determine if the engine is cold 
The VW system controller then provides output signals to the Bosch controller 
and the throttle servo motor. 



4-10 






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900-831 




Figure 4-6. VW System Control Logic 

The regenerative braking cu.-rent is limited to 100 air'ps. The VW .\-oject 
Engineer stated th^t this .^alue was selected for severe! reasons. In addition 
to the normal limitation cont.erning the maximum power that can be absorbed by 
the batteries, vehicle handling was ali,a consi.lereri. If more regenerative 
braking power were used, it was stated that the vehicle handling under maximum 
braking conditions would be adversely effecteo. The regenerative braking limi- 
tation was not a test variable because of time limitations In addition, both 
VW theoretical studies and long-term data from their fleet of 20 electrical 
vei: ;ies indicated that the maximum regenerative efficiency that cou''.d be 
practically obtained was about 20 percent. 



4.9.1 Maximum Motor Current 

The maximum motor current could be set from 2C0 amps, a practical lower limit 
that would provide adequate power, up to a laximum of 290 amps by changing an 
adjustment pot. The procedure was straightforward and arp<aared to be repeat- 
able from the viewpoint of the adjuptment rotation/current relationship. Veri- 
fi^=ition of the setting was al^o simple, so changes could readily be madp. 



ORJCriAL PAGE (S 
OF PO'yR QUALITY 



4-11 



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4.9.2 Time Constant Between the Accelerator Pedal and Throttle 

A basic element of the VW control strategy is to open and close the throttle 

slowly regardless of the accelerator pedal velocity. The time constant between 

the two could be se' to either 1.2 or 2.5 sec by changing a c^rd in the VW 

controller (Figure ^-6). When the accelerator pedal is depressed quickly ; the i 

throttle will open slowly wit) a velocity defined by the selected time constant f 

until it reaches the position defined by accelerator pedal input signal. In a ! 

conventional ICE engine, the slow throttle opening will cause an objectionable t 

delay hesitation in the torque response requested by the accelerator pedal 

motion. However, tae hybrid motor provides the necessary torque to meet the 

requested load inc::ease wi.ile the ICE engine accelerates more slowly than in 

a conventional power train. This strategy is intended to reduce the HC and CO 

emissions that are greatly effected by engine transients. 

4.9.3 Operating Mode 

A SAE paper on H>orl«i Vehicle for Fuel Economy (ref. 4) indicated that 
considerable fuel economy savings could be realised if the engine were shut off 
during idle periods. A card in the VW controller (Figure 4-6) permitted an 
approximation to this control strategy to be investigated. This card permitted 
the engine to be turned on and off during normal driving operation. The spark 
was turned off to stop the engine. The carburetor includes an electrically 
actuated valve to completely shut off fuel flow, so fuel flow was blocked during 
the engine jff period. The Taxi operates as an all-electri> vehicle when the 
engine is off. Engine startup is Initiated by turning the dpark and ruel on 
when the engine speed is adequate. Engine cranking i^ provided from motor 
power drivirg t.e torque converter's output shaft via the hybrid gear box. 

The engine cut-in and cut-out ;jpeeds were both adjustable. One adjustment sets 
the cut-in speed, while another defines the difference between the cut-in and 
cut-o«r. o, eeds. A minimum cut-in speed of about 22 mph exists because of the 
torque converter. At speeds below 22 mph, converter slip is too great to 
trarsmit power adequate to cranV the engli. . 



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900-851 

A change in this card thus permitted the vehicle to be operated in the 
nonnal hybrid mode or the engine on/off mode. This mode had evidently been 
investigated to a minimum extent by VW since the VW Project Engineer termed 
this the "Kangaroo" mode because of potential Jerking motion when the engine 
started. 

The clutch is uitomatically actuated, and so could be opened when the engine 
speed was off and then closed shortly before the engine was started. However, 
this type of operation probably would have resulted in uneven operation if 
closely timed phasing beiv^en the clutch actuation and the engine starting was 
not attained. The VW Project Engineer conducted some brief investigations of 
the clutch On/Off mode, but preferred not to include this capability in the 
normal tests. 

A.tj 4 "BATTERIE" Meter 

The VK controller provided an output signal that was an indication of the 
battery state-of -charge (SOC). This signal was derived from a circuit that 
measured the net ampere-hour flow to/from the batteries; the circuit included 
an approximation to the non-linear SOC-ampere hour relationship that exists 
near the fully charged condition. This circuit was designed for, and marched 
to, the previouf' batteries and was not changed when the new batteries wore 
installed. Il was thus only an approximation of the SOC for the new batteries. 

The output signal was connected to a "BATTERIE" meter on the dash. This meter 
read from to 100 percent. The meter reading was manually .adjusted to read 
100 percent after the batteries were fully charged, then mon cored during a 
testing sequence to obtain real-time information on the batteiy SOC. 

The SOC signal was not used bv the VW controller. 



A-13 



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' "^*'^'^M4hJiMfi£iali^ttttdk. 



900-851 

SECTION 5 
M^SUREMENT PERFORMANCE 

This section Is concerned with the measurement performance of the hybrid vehicle 
tests; the basic facility and instrumentation are described in Appendix B. It 
discusses the calibration of the major elements in the JPL facility, the checks 
made to verify satisfactory performance during the hybrid testing program, and 
coonents concerning specific items that may influence the hybrid testing data. 

This section is divided into two parts. The first describes the facility 
calibrations that were done prior to the hybrid testing program to provide 
maximum assurance of accurate data for the hybrid testing program. The second 
part discusses two system-level calibrations and procedures used to verify 
the overall measurement performance. 

5.1 FACILITY CALIBRATIONS 

The facility calibrations discussed here are concerned with the key elemeuts of 
the JPL test facility: chassis dynamometer, constant volume sampler (CVS) 
emission instruments, gasoline weigh tank, and the data system. Letailed infor- 
mation is contained in the appendices; only the primary points are discussed 
in this text. 

5.1.1 Dynamometer 

The JPL chassis dynamometer inertia weights were changed from a belt drive 
system to a direct drive system immediately before the hybrid testing program 
to eliminate the uncertainties associated with the belt losses. In previous 
test activities on an electric vehicle (ref. 6), it was determined that the 
belt losses were signifies"'-, particularly when the vehicle being tested had 
relatively low power. OtWi-r internal JPL documentation also verifies that the 
belt losses are unacceowable for tests of low-power vehicles (ref. 7). Because 
of this, it was essential that the direct drive inertia weights be installed to 
eliminate a major uncertainty in the VW Taxi tests. After the new weights were 
installed, a break-in process was conducted to reduce bearing friction changes 



5-1 



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900-851 

to essentially zero. Calibrations were made at regular intervals during this 
break-in process; when the chant^e from a previous calibration was undetectable, 
final dynamometer calibrations were made. 

The manufacturer's dynamometer power measurement components had been previously 
* augmented by a load cell to measure force and a digital transducer to measure 

dyncunometer roll rpm. The data system converted these measurements into real- 
^ time power measurements. Data were displayed with a resolution of 0.01 HP. 

Overall measurement system errors, including transducers and real-time calcu- 
lations, ere less than 0.05 HP during the time required to conduct an FTP test. 
Hc*ever, the primary limitation to attaining repeatable test-to-test dynamometer 
loads was the settability of the power absorption controls and temperature- 
dependent dynamometer characteristics. The test-to-test variation of these 
factors is approximately 0.1 HP. 

5.1.2 Constant Volume Sampler (CVS) 

The CVS was given a complete calibration prior to the start of the hybrid 
testing program. This calibration accuracy is directly dependent on the mea- 
surement or an airflow transoucer. This transducer, a laminar flow element 
(LFE) was sent to a specific source to be calibrated. Previous JPL experience 
has shown that this is the only known vendor that can provide calibrations of 
various airflow transducers and have intercomparison data of these transducers 
agree within the specified accuracy. 

5.1.3 Emission Instruments 

Emission instruments were calibrated in the conventional manner. This requires 
introduction of calibration gasses with known concentrations into the emission 
instruments to t'erlve the calibration curve. Experience has shown that the 
concentrations specified by a vendor are not always correct. Corrcl.iti n of 
f several gasses, measured on tho; same range of one instrument, can assist resolu- 

1 *. tion of this problem. However, JPL has been able to use the resources of a 
I*^ local emission testing facility that has a large supply of calibration gasses 

- ; that have extencive correlation with other gasses throughout the nation. This 

1: i' resource has been used to resolve conflicts between the specified ccncenlrations 

-' tf • 

■' ^- and agreement with other gasses of similar concentration. 

5-2 



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> 5.1.4 Power Measurements 

/. The overall power measurement accuracy is derived from two lab calibrations plus 
'r the system-level check discussed in paragraph 5.2.2. This discussion will be 
limited to the two lab calibrations. 

{r/ a) Transducers — The two current transducers and two voltage dividers were 

V calibrated by the JPL Standards Lab. These calibrations we'-e stated 

> to be within 1/4 percent, the requested accuracy. 

^' The Standards Lab found that the current transducers were susceptible 

to drift during a warm-up period. The drift was essentially within 
4^- 0.1 percent after a period of about 15 min. Adequate warmup time for 

each hybrid t-'St was provided by connecting the measurement system to 
the power in the vehicle storage area for a period of at least 30 min 
s prior to the time that the vehicle was driven to th * test area. Power 

4; was the last item to be disconnected when the vehicle left the storage 

g buildings, but was on for a period of about 15 min between the time the 

the test sits. Typically, the power was off for 3 to 4 min between 
buildings bur was on for a period of about 15 min between the time the 
vehicle arrived at the test site until the test was started. 

b) Power Measurement Circuit — These circuits were calibrated to within 
0.1 percent on a dc basis after construction and lab checkout was com- 
pleted. Calibration data is shown in Figure 5-1. 

The voltage dividers contain a compensation network to trim their 
response. This compensation network and other circuit adjustments were 
set to provide minimum distortion to a square wave input. The response 
of the power measurement circuits inside the chassis is less than 
i 10 microseconds except ff>r the voltage-to-frequency converter. This 

j^' unit, which has a full-scale output of 10 kHz, is specified to reach 1 

'■'y the new frequency within one cycle after the input voltage is changed. ^ 

1 



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5.1.5 Gasoline Weight Measurements 

All gasoline fuel economy measurements were based on a gasoline weighing system 
(Figure 5-2). The lightweight tank is filled before a test and contains enough 
fuel to conduct an urban FTP test. The gasoline weight measurement is within 
±0.5 percent, and probably better; the most recent calibration Jata is shown in 
' Figure 5-3. 

The total weight of gasoline consumed during a test is a more certain measurement 
than one based on the complex emission measurement system, so the weigh tank data 
are used as the basis for the gasoline energy consumption data in this report. 
Paragraph 5.2.1 discusses use of the weigh tank data. 

5.2 SYSTEM CHKCKS 

Two different system-level checks were used to verify the energy and emission 
measurements for the Hybrid testing program. The first concerned use of a refer- 
ence vehicle to conduct repeated tests at intervals of several weeks to determine 
the repeatability of the facility. The second checked the calibration of the 
I power measurement circuits used to measure battery and motor power. 

5.2.1 Reference Vehicle Tests 

A common approach to verification of facility repeatability for the complex 
Federal Test Procedure (FTP) tests is use of a specific vehicle to conduct 
repeated tests over a period of time. Auto firms use this technique to determine 
the time-varying repeatability of a single test site and also to correlate the 
measurements between various test sites. Typically, the reference vehicle is 
modified to remove items that could create varying economy or emissions perform- 
ance. Modifications include: 

1) Remove the alternator and supply vehicle power from an external power 
source. 

^^ 2) Remove the fuel pump and supply gasoline from an external pressurized 

source. 



5-4 



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900-851 



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900-851 



3) Install bias-ply tires and interchange the tires frequently to minimize 
the wear effects. 

4) Remove the air conditioner. 

5) Remove all eaission control devices. 

6) Remove the rear brake automatic adjustment mechanism. 

7) Check the engine to accurately verify critical parameters (compression 
ratio of each cylinder, distributor characteristics, carburetor, etc.). 

8) Controlled break-in for at least 4000 miles. 

9) Install special rear wheels to measure torque at r.he dynamometer rolls. 

JPL uses a 1975 Chevrolet for its reference vehicle. The 'vehicle does not 
include all the listed changes, but does have a reasonable history of recent 
testing performance. Its fuel economy and emissions repeatability during the 
time of the hybrid tests is shown in Figures 5-4 through 5-7. Three consecutive 
cycles of the hot transient phase of the FTP are used for JPL repeatability 
tests. Each cycle is 505 seconds long, so these tests are referred to as "Hot 
505" tests. The graphs show the results of the three individual cycles as well 
as the average of the three cycles. 

Cycle-to-cycle and test-to-test repeatability are good indicators of overall 
facility performance, including the driver. 

Although facility repeatability can be established with this technique, the 
agreement between the fuel economy calculated from the weigh tank fuel measure- 
ment, discussed in Paragraph 7.2, and the economy calculated from the emission 
instrument data is more important. Use of the two entirely different measurement 
techniques, weigh tank and emissions, to determine fuel economy pro^^ides an 
excellent check that all components of both measuring processes are operating 
satisfactorily. The emission instrument fuel economy measurement is specified 



5-6 



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5-7 



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Figure 5-7. Reference Chevrolet 
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by the FTP. However, the emissions based fuel economy measurement will include 
effects of exhaust leaks in the vehicle, flexible hose and all related fittings 
between the vehicle exhaust pipe and the J.S, the CVS and all its related cali- 
brations, and the emissions instruments and all their related calibrations. 
There is the possibility of many leaks in this flow path; about 50 solenoid 
valves are Included as well as many flexible hoses and tubing fittings. If the 
fuel economy calculated from the emissions Instruments agrees within ±3 percent 
of the economy calculated from the weigh tank, the entire emissions measurement 
system is in good condition. 

Figure 5-8 shows the agreement between the emissions and weigh tank fuel economy 
for the reference vehicle. Twelve of the 15 individual cycles provide agreement 
within ±1 percent; only one point is outside of 2 percent. This shows that the 
JPL facility has good performance for both the emissions and weigh tank data 
during the hybrid testing period. 

The good agreement between the weigh tank and emissions fuel economy for the ref- 
erence vehicle during the hybrid testing program was used to deduce that the VW 



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Figure 5-8. Agreement Between Weigh Tank and Emissions 
Fuel Economy — Reference Chevrolet 



Taxi had developed a leak in its exhaust. The agreement between the two fuel 
economy measurements for two early Taxi Hot 505 tests was less than 2 percent as 
shown in Figure 5-9. The agre'^ment became poorer, but careful inspections dis- 
closed no leaks. After the reference vehicle tests conducted on June 27 con- 
tinued to show good agreement, the Taxi's exhaust system was examined by searching 
with a gas sample probe connected to the emission measurement instruments. This 
technique found one leak. During disassembly to correct the leak, another leak 
source was indicated by black discoloration in a normally inaccessible area. 

Retests of the Taxi on July 15, after the leak had been located and repairs made, 
showed agreement between the weigh tank and emissions based fuel economy within 
2 percent, the value originally obtained on June 21. 



i 



5.2.2 Power Measurement Checks 

After the power measurement c^ ■ uits had been installed, initial checkout com- 
pleted and the circuits were o^'erating satisfactorily, a check of the calibration 
of all components except for the transducers and buffer amplifiers was conducted. 
For this check, the input signals to the power measurement circuits were discon- 
nected by removing the input connectors for both the voltage and current signals. 

5-9 



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I Voltages equivalent to specific current and voltage values were then Introduced 

1 into the measurement circuit at the same point as the input connector signal. 

^- These input signals were derived from stable, accurate voltage sources as shown 

in Figure 5-10. The calibration voltage was set to the desired value when meas- 
* ured by a digital voltmeter with specified accuracy of 0.02 percent. The cali- 
^ bration voltages were selected to provide signals proportional to 135 volts and 

two different currents, 100 and 200 amps. The 135 volt level was selected as an 

approximation of a typical Taxi operating point. 

The output of the power measurement circuit was sent through the entire measure- 
ment system and recorded on the data system printer. The printer was set to 
automatically print at 1 min intervals. The internal timing of the data system 
t and its priority structure will start the print -"ut well within a millisecond of 
the exact 1 min interval, so time deviation between the 1 min printout is negli- 
gible. The test was continued for at least 6 min. The printed record thus con- 
tained six values of the instantaneous power, in kilowatts, and six values of 
the integrated watt hours. The data were averaged and are shown in Figure 5-11. 
The dc calibration accuracy of the measurement system from the input to the 
^ measurement chassis to the output data is thus better than 0.5 percent. 

Response of the Isolation amplifiers was defined by removinj^ t.' . ctions to 
the motor voltage terminals and Inserting a calibration voltage ' j .an 'llo- 
scope into these measurement terminals. The signal flowed through r*^ jL,\e 
divider and isolation amplifier, then was measured at the input to uronic 
circuits on the voltage measurement card. The response is shown in ^^arB 5-12. 
Since the frequency response checks conducted on the internal electronic cir- 
cuits, discussed in Paragraph 5.1.4, showed that these circuits were mucb faster 
than the isolation amplifiers, the response of the entire power measurement cir- 
cuit for the voltage channel is defined by the waveform shown in Figure 5-12. 



<•■': 



The response of the current transducers is stated as 5 kHz by the manufacturer. 
Checks which showed the current rise and fall under square wave response Inputs 
*4- indicated that this specification is conservative. 



5-10 



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TEST NUMBER 



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Figure 5.9. Agreement Between Weigh Tank and Emissions 
Fuel Economy - VW Taxi 




Figure 5-10. Test Setup for Power Measurement Checks 



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CALIBRATION 'NPUT POWER (kW) DATA CHANNEL 

Figure 5-11. Calibration of Electrical Power 
Measurements — VW Taxi 



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900-851 



The circuit response permits measurement of very short negative pulses that may 
occur when the average signal level is positive. This signal characteristic is 
typical of a chopper power controller operating at low power levels. Waveforms 
of three different current signals, each at relatively low power, are shown in 
Figure 5-13. The negative spikes represent a significant portion of the total 
power. The tpl measurements sum the power for a period of 0.1 sec, then crans- 
t rs the pc er data for this time to the data system memory. Separate measure- 
T -iic circuits are used for the current flow into and out of the battery. If both 
positive and negative areas occur withiti the 0.1 sec measurement period, the data 
system will measure both positive and negative powers. The resulting display is 
shown in Figures 5-14 and 5-15. In these photos, the sequence of readings from 
the top is: 

1) Power out of the battery 

2) Power into the battery 

3) Power into the motor 

4) Power out of the motor. 

Readings are in kilowatts. The right display shows motor rpm. 

This measurement technique will probably provide dlfferenc data than one which 
has a slower response, so JPL data will not necessarily compare directly to other 
power measurements. 



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Figure 5-13. Current Waveforms of Low Power Levels 



5-U 



900-851 








Figure 5-14. Data Display Showing Typical Fewer 
Measurements at 1000 rpm 




Figure 5-15. Data Display Showing Typical Power 
Measurements at 1100 rpm 



5-15 



900-851 

SECTION 6 
TESTING SEQUENCE 

This section outlines the basic philosophy and the testing program that was used 
to define the performance of the VW Taxi. In general, the testing sequence was 
dictated by the necessity to test a valuable and unfamiliar vehicle in a short 
period of time. 

6.1 PHILOSOPHY 

6.1.1 Prior to Vehicle Arrival 

Several discussions prior to the time the VW Taxi arrived at JPL provided 
prellcinary information on the vehicle, its configuration, and its character- 
istics. Several key points were clear: 

1) Valuable Vehicle . The initial discussions with VW of America, which 
had the contractual responsibility for the VW Taxi, Indicated the 
vehicle would be insured for $400,000 during its stay at JPL. This 
is a reasonable figure for a vehicle which represents both an 
engineering prototype and a show vehicle. Accordingly, it was 
clear that the vehicle would have to be treated with a great deal 

of care in the testing program. As an example. It would be impos- 
sible to drill holes to facilitate cable routing or mechanical 
Installation of testing components. This would be normal practice 
with a vehicle which was only an engineering prototype or even a 
standard American passenger vehicle. The initial plans for the 
instrumentation that would be required on the Taxi included this 
limitation because of the Taxi's value. 

2) VW Project Enginee r. The contract called for the assistance of a 
VW engineer at the JPL testing site for a period of up to 45 days. 
During the initial discussions, including several phone calls to 
the VW Research and Development Ce-.ter in Germany, the exact status 
of this engineer was not clear. Only one phone call was made 
directly to R. Mlersch, the project engineer in charge of the Taxi. 
During this particular call, it \'as apparent that he was 
thoroughly familiar w^th the vehicle and spoke English. However, 



6-1 



900-851 

It was not defined at this time that Mr. Mlersch would actually be 
the person who would aci npany the vehicle to the U.S. It was 
possible that a senior person, possibly from the upper management 
level, would accompany the vehicle to represent VU and provide 
assurance that the vehicle was treated properly during the testing 
program. If this were the case, the assistance available for the 
vehicle and the test program could be relatively limited. However, 
it was certain chat the VW representative would be a key person in 
all test activities. 
3^ Available Information . The available information prior to the 

vehicle's arrival consisted of a copy of the excerpts dealing with 
the VW Taxi from a New York Museum of Modern Art publication 
(ref . 5) and some detailed technical information provided by VW. 
The latter information was sent in answer to a JPL request for 
certain technical information that would assist testing preparations 
prior to the time the Taxi arrived in the U.S. 

The VW reply was comprehensive and included information on the 
engine, torque converter, electric motor, and electric motor 
controller. There was essentially no information available on 
details of the system control strategy. Consequently, plans for 
a key part of the testing program had to be delayed until the 
details of the control straf y were specifically known. 

This summarizes the information that was available to define the test sequence 
prior to the arrival of the VW Taxi at JPL. 

6.1.2 After Vehicle Arrival 

The vehicle arrived at the Los Angeles Airport accompanied by R. Mlersch, the 
VW project engineer. Mr. Mlersch has been associated with electric and hybrid 

• vehicles for over five years at VW. He had participated in both the design 

• and construction of the previous prototype and did a great deal of the detail 
work of the present Taxi. He therefore knows the vehicle very well. As 
mentioned in the previous paragraph, JPL was uncertain as to the amount of 



6-2 



900-851 

modification to the vehicle or even the addition of measurement instruments 

that would be permitted. However, early discussions with Mr. Miersch indicated 

that JPL would have the freedom to implement measurements which were far beyond 

the scope permitted by time and funding constraints. The combination of Mr. 

Miersch' s personal knowledge of the vehicle and his extreme interest in | 

obtaining test data promised to make the test program very interesting. } 

Mr. Miersch also defined '^ome of the basic control aspects of the Taxi and 
related Its characteristics to other publications dealing with hybrid 
vehicles. Since data from publications concerned with other hybrids were of 
interest to the JPL testing program, his personal knowledge promised to be 
very beneficial. 

6.1.3 Testing Sequence 

The events described in the previous two sections made it clear that the testing 
sequence should be divided into two general phases: 

1) Tests During Presence of VW Project Engineer . R. Miersch's 
knowledge of the vehicle and his interest in obtaining all possible 
information make it apparent that the maximum testing rate should 
be done during the time that Mr. Miersch would be available. He 
was scheduled to leave on June 29th, so the testing program was 
direii'id toward conducting a maximum number of tests during June. 
It was hoped that these tests would adequately define the basic 
operating characteristics of the VW Taxi and also provide the 
learning curve necessary so JPL could continue at least limited 
tests after Mr. Miersch returned to Germany. The c-ntract called 
for the Taxi to stay in the U.S. for 60 days, so i period of 
approximately three weeks was available for testing after Mr. 
Mitarsch returned to Germany. 

2) Completion of Tests . After Mr. Miersch left for Germany, it was 
planned to conduct repeat tests necessary to verify previous tests, 
fill in gaps between previous tests, ar-" conduct other activities 
which would be either time consuming or not profitably use Mr. 
Miersch's technical knowledge of the Taxi. 

In general, this testing sequence was followed. 



900-851 

There is one specific consequence of this testing sequence; detailed battery 
tests were not conducted during the time that Mr. Miersch was available at JPL. 
In order to closely check the battery energy, it was necessary to measure the 
specific gravity of each cell after the batteries were fully charged, conduct 
the test, and then return the vehicle to its storage place for a period of 
approximately four hours before th^' specific gravities of each cell were 
checked again. The delay was necessary to allow adequate diffusion time in 
the electrolyte. After this, it would be necessary to fully recharge the 
batteries prior tp the next day's testing activities. This entire procedure 
would require a long working day and rlearly would limit the number of tests 
to one per day. In addition, it would preclude any experimental work on the 
Taxi, the instrumentation, or the facility that is normal in the checkout 
period when a new vehicle arrives for engineering tests. Consequently, the 
detailed battery tests were delayed until after Mr. Miersch returned to Germany. 

6.2 TESTING PROGRAM 

The testing program was divided into three phases: cheokort, primary test, 
and completion of test data. 

6.2.1 Checkout 

The checkout phase was associated vvith the nornial checkout necessary to define 
the correct information and procedure problems. It was expected that the 
checkout phase would be more difficult than usual because the prvigram dealt 
with an unfamiliar and sophisticated vehicle. This degree of difficulty 
occurred. However, unexpected problems had a severe Imj-act on the schedule. 
In particular, problems associated with the gasoline supply to the W Taxi 
caused a large gasoline flow from the gasoline source into the carburetor. 
Intake manifold, combustion chamber, and other parts of the Taxi's engine. 
Two such problems were encountered. The cause of these problems was traced 
to a very small nylon particle which probably came from the scat of a valve 
that was installed to connect the JPL gasoline weigh tank system to the VK 
carburetor. Even though the valve was new and shipped in a sealed package, 
it is believed that the valve contained a very small particle of the seat 
material loose within the valve. This small particle eventually worked its 



6-4 



900-851 

way into the VW carburetor needle valve, causing the needle valve to be stuck 
upen. TL^e JPL weigh tank system provides gasoline to the Taxi during tests. 
The system is operated at a pressure of approximately 3 psi, so the combination 
of this constant pressure and the leaking needle valve caused a continuous 
gasoline flow into the W engine even when the engine was shut off. 

The checkout also disclosed a design error in the power measurement circuitry 
provided by JPL. This error, which was corrected shortly after Taxi tests 
started, is discussed in Paragraph 7.1. 

There were also soiie problems associated with the Taxi. On five occasions, 
the taxi backfired, its engine stopped during a test, or the transmission 
would not shift into the Hybrid operating mode. Each of these problems made 
retests necessary. 

The overall result in dealing with an unfamiliar vehicle, the gasoline flow 
problem, and the Taxi problems resulted in an extended and rather frantic 
checkout phase. 

6.2.2 Primary Data Acquisition 

During the primary data acquisition period, it was imperative that the maximum 
number of tests be conducted while the VW project engineer was available. 
This was particularly true because of the problems associated with the Taxi 
mentioned in the previous section. It was also apparent that the Taxi's 
detailed performance was only approximately known at this stage in the Taxi's 
development. Even though the vehicle had been driven for 8000 miles, the 
opportunities to conduct comprehensive tests at the VW Research and Development 
Center were relatively limited. This limlt.ition was Imposed by two VW 
activities; the public relation aspects of the taxi and the electric vehicle 
program, which used the same resources as those for the hybrid vehicle. The 
VW project engineer stated that the public relations efforts wore a major 
limitation to obtaining comprehensive engineering information on the 
VW Taxi. Because of this llmltaticn, the \H project engineer indicated that 
he could not accurately predict the detailed performance that would result from 
some of the operating modes that were within the Taxi's capabilities. It 

6-5 



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T**«** ?.i«rt^ 



900-851 

therefore became necessary to conduct a series of tests which would provide 
guidelines concerning the Taxi's nominal performance with several of the 
variables that could be readily changed. These tests were conducted immedi- 
ately after the checkout was complete. After these tests were completed, it 
was felt that the nominal performance that could be expected of the Taxi's 
basic operating modes was reasonably well Vnown. In addition, performance of 
both the facility and Taxi had also been reliable for a series of tests. 

After the period starting about June 20, the testing rate was good. A typical 
day's activity would consist of specific gravity tests to verify the state of 
charge of each battery, conducting a FTP Urban Cycle Test with the Taxi con- 
figuration defined by the tests of the previous several days, recharging the 
batteries for a period of about two hours, and then conducting a set of three 
hot 505 tests in a different operating mode. The data from the later tests 
would be combined with that of previous tests to define the FTP test that would 
be conducted the next day. After this, the batteries were recharged, the 
vehicle was allowed to sit in the temperature controlled room for the 12 hour 
period specified by the F^P, and the cycle would be repeated. This sequence 
made It possible to get one FTP test and a set of three hot 505 cycle tests 
in one day along with the required battery charging, normal test support, and 
related work. 

The VW Bus tests were also conducted during this time. The VW Bus was stored 
in the same room as the Taxi, and would be tested in the morning according to 
the FTP immediately before or after the Taxi test. 

6.2.3 Completion of Tests 

After the VW project engineer left JPL, the testing pace was slowed to get the 
data necessary to fill in voids between the previous tests, verify previous 
tests, and obtain comprehensive battery performance data. The latter was 
especially important, since it had not been obtained during June. In addition 
to the emphasis on FTP and hot 505 tests during late June, there were four 
^ separate occasions when the daily test plan called for a test sequence that 



m 



6-6 



900-851 

would provide battery data. However, failures either with the Taxi or the 
facility prohibited following the plan on the first three occasions. Battery 
data were finally obtained In early July. 

A suspected leak In the Taxi's exhaust, discussed in Paragraph 5.2.1, was 
found and corrected July 15. A baseline test was conducted to verify the fix; 
this was the last test of the program. 



6-7 



900-851 

SECTION 7 
FACILITY AND INSTRUMENTATION 

JPL's chassis dyno test facility includes the normal complement of equipment 
needed to conduct Federal Test Procedure (FTP) tests. Photos of the t<>; . at^ 
and Constant Volume Sampler are shown in Figures 7-1 through 7-4. 

The instrumentation for the VW Taxi tests includes both anf.Iog and digital • juip- 
ment. Digital data are recorded on magentic tape and reduced by a large central 
computer. The digital data system provides real-time display of test data to 
facilitate tests and checkout procedures. Emission instruments are located in 
the instrumentation area. Photos of the central instrumentation and emission 
benches are shown in Figures 7-5 and 7-6. 

In addition to the normal facility equipment, two measurements were basic to the 
VW Taxi testing program, the electrical power measurements and the gasoline weigh 
system. These are discussed in the next sections. 

7.1 BATTERY AND MOTOR POWER MEASUREMENTS 

A photo and block diagram of the battery and motor power measurement circuits are 
shown in Figures 7-7 and 7-8. Identical circuits, within normal construction 
technology, were used for these battery and motor power measurements. 

7.1.1 Description of Power Measurement Circuits 
Functions of the blocks are: 

1) Isolation amplifiers. The Taxi electrical power grou'' ing technique 
was unknown until the Taxi arrived and had been initially tested. The 
entire electrical power circuit floats; common mode voltages of 60V with 
rise times of IV/^s were observed. Initial planG were to isolate the 
c itire battery and motor power measurement circuits from the chassis and 
let each circuit float at the voltage established by the low side of its 
voltage terminal, as shown in Figure 7-8. However, this approach 
appeared to be marginal during initial checkout since the power 



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Figure 7-3. Rear View of VW Taxi Idst Installation 




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900-851 

measurements had considerable noise. Instrumentation amplifiers 
Installed In a conventional rack mount case, with a 300V CMV capability, 
were then Inserted Into the voltage cabling before the power measurement 
circuits (Figure 7-7). These circuits could then be operated at the 
potential of the normal Instrumentation ground. However, a design 
problem In the measurement circuit was later found to have caused, or 
at least contributed to, the apparent noise. The Isolation amplifiers 
were left In the circuit since they provided good safety margins for 
checkout procedures during test operation. 

2) Buffer Amplifiers. The voltage divider provides a lOV full scale signal 
so this buffer amplifier has a gain of 1. The current channel has a 
gain of 2 to raise the 5 volt maximum current signal to lOV. 

1) Multiplier. The analog multiplier multiplies essentially Instantaneous 
values of voltage and current to provide power. The multiplier oper- 
ates in 4 quadrants, so Its output voltage can be positive or negative. 

4) Absolute Value. This circuit converts either positive of negative 
vol* ges to a positive voltage that is fed to the V/F converter. 

5) Polarity Circuit. The polarity circuit detects the polarity of the 
multiplier signal and sends an output signal that is at one of two 
fixed voltages, one for positive and the other for negative polarity. 
The pilr.rity circuit is sensitive to less than 1 mv changes around zero. 

6) )itage to Frequency (V/F) Converter. This circuit provides an output 
frequency proportional to the input voltage. Since the absolute value 
circuit provides only positive voltages, the V/F will send an output 
frequency proportional to either the positive or negative power measure- 
ment from the multiplier. 

At this point, the power measurement consists of a frequency propor- 
tional to the absolute value of the instantaneous power and a polarity 
signal that defines either a power out or power in condition. 



7-8 



I 



900-851 

7) Isolators. The isolators permit the output signal to the data system to 
be referenced to the data system ground. 

8) Gating Circuits. These circuits use the polarity information to direct 
each pulse from the V/F converter to either the power out or the power 
in channels that are sent to the data system. 

Two signals, power out and power in, are thus provided for both the battery and 
motor power measurements. The calibration of each channel is approximately 
10 watts/Hz so excellent resolution is attained. 

7.1.2 Real-Time Data Readout 

The four output signals, two for the battery and two for the motor, are sent 
through short cables to a connector panel that is attached to the taxi body 
(Figure 7-9). In addition to the power measurements, other signals from the taxi 
transducers are also routed through this connector panel. This connector panel 
thus serves as a junction between the taxi measurements and the facility instru- 
mentation system. Power measurements are sent through the instrumentation 
cabling system as a frequency with a relatively slow rise time and low voltage 
amplitude to minimize cross talk. The frequency data is then sent to the digital 
data system. Both hardware and software, which are a part of the standard data 
system capability, are used to convert the frequency data into real-time engi- 
neering units display of power and energy. Power readings are displayed as 
kilowatts with O.Ol kilowatts resolution; the power integral is displayed in 
watt-hour units with 0.1 watt hour resolution (Figure 7-10). Power integrals are 
reset at the start of each test. During a test, the kilowatt data thus defines 
the instantaneous power while the watt-hour data shows the power integral since 
the start of the test. In addition, the data system will display all four power 
measurements In a sequence on a single video display (Figure 7-11). The sequence 
for the video display of power and integrated power data, starting from the top, 
is: 

Channel ID Measurement 

PBO Power out of battery 

PBI Power into battery 

PMI Power into motor 

PMO Power out of motor 

7-9 



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Figure 7-l(j. Kilowatt and Watt-hour Power Readings; 

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Figure 7-11. Four Channel Power Display 



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900-851 



This display format was typically used during the tests since It provided an 
excellent means of determining the approximate real-time power flow in the taxi's 
various operational modes. Subtraction of the two battery power channels also 
provided a real-time indication of the net charge or discharge from the battery. 
For this information, nominal battery efficiencies were used to convert the dis- 
played data, which does not include battery efficiencies, into an approximate 
Indication of the net battery power during the test. 

7.1.3 Computer Plots of Power Data 

The data system also logs all the power measurements on digital magnetic tape. 
Data art transferred to tape at 0.1 sec Intervals, with a time variation of 
approximately 50 microseconds. A program that produced a computer plot from this 
data was developed for the hybrid testing. A portion of a typical plot for 
equivalent parts of the FTP cycle for the hybrid and on/off modes is shovm in 
Figures 7-12 and 7-13. These f igr.r. - quickly display the difference in the utili- 
zation of electric power for tlie two tjxl operating modes. 

The electrical power data can aiGo be printed at specified intervals to investi- 
gate the power flow during a test cycle. The minimum interval is 0.1 sec 
although the computer printout length makes 1 sec intervals reasonable minimum. 

7.1.4 Circi'.ic Design Problems 

The early checkout activities indicated that the power measurements had consid- 
erable noise, as discussed in Paragraph 7.1.1 (1). However, later checkout and 
analysis activities indicated that the rapid change of current, shown in Fig- 
ure 5-13, was causing the polarity signal from the power measurement circuit to 
change rapidly. At this time, the design of the gating circuits (para 7.1.1 (8)) 
permitted a polarity change to provide an output pulse in the same manner as that 
of a frequency pulse that was proportional to the instantaneous power. This had 
the effect of generat .ng false additional pulses so both the output and input 
power measi\rements '■'cre too great. The error was on the order of 10 percent. 
This design error was corrected after test no. 7. Checks after this time have 
Indicated that the circuit is operating satisfactorily. 



7-12 



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The Baseline Hybrid Configuration 




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Configuration. Test was Terminated at End of The 
Stabilized Phase Because of Battery Discharge 



7-13 



'WT™pW*'^1 |fl 



900-851 



7.2 GASOLINE FLOW MEASUREMENTS 

A recurring rroblem with emission testing is the possibility of very minor 
malfunctions inserting undetected errors in the emission measurements. This is 
especially true of leaks in any part of the exhaust gas measurement system. 
Since a leak in any part of the piping from the engine head-to-exhaust manifold 
connection through to the internal parts of the emission instruments may effect 
the measureme"nt , many potential leak sources are involved in both the vehicle 
and -"cility. JPL uses a gasoline weighing system both as a check against these 
errors and to provide an accurate and easily checked method of determining the 
actual fuel economy of an emissions test. 

The FTP specifies that emission measurements of exhaust gasses be used to define 
the fuel economy of vehicles. However, this procedure depends on the proper 
functioning of many electromechanical cc ^ ^nents and highly sensitive emission 
measuring instruments. As a check of the entire emission measurement system, 
JPL weighs the gasoline that is used during each test. The weigh system is 
shown in Figure 7-14. It consists of a small specially fabricated tank that is 
reasonably light (2 pounds) yet meets safety standards for gasoline, a load cell 
and related plumbing. The load cell range is 10 pounds so about 7 pounds of 
gasoline can be used during a test; this is adequate for tests where the vehicle 
gets 10 mpg. The tank is pressurized with dry nitrogen to approximately 3 psl 
to force gasoline from the weigh tank to the test vehicle. 

A set of calibration weights (Figure .-15) calibrated to 0.001 grams each is 
used to define the linearity and hysteresis characteristics of this system. The 
20 small weights permit linearity performance and hysteresis to be carefully 
investigated at intervals of several months. The larger weights are used for 
more frequent single point checks of the calibrations. The calibrations are done 
end-to-end with the physical weights being suspended from the weigh tank (Fig- 
ure 7-16) while the data system shows the value in grams. Linearity, taken in 
the decreasing direction associated with gasoline flow during a test, is better 
than 0.1 percent. Hysteresis, which is not normally an error with the technique 
used, is about 0.1 percent. Combined effects with the procedure used during a 
test is less than 0.3 percent. 



7-14 



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Figure 7-14. Gasoline Weighing 
System 




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7-15 



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900-851 



In addition, temperature and pressure errors will add to the linearily and 
hysteresis errors. Invei,tigations of temperature effects show this error to be 
less than 0.05 percent even when a severe gradient is imposed acros'!' the weighing 
system. The effects due to pressure forces on the connecting lines are less than 
0.02 percent in the pressure range used for tests. 

The overall system error is thus less than 0.3 percent ana probably oi the order 
of 0.2 percent. Further calibrations over an extended period will be required 
to be certain of the lower value. 



7-17 



900-851 



REFERENCES 

Ref. 1 Milks, D. & Matula, R. A.; "Emissions and Fuel Economy Test Methods 
and Procedures for Light Duty Motor Vehicles - A Critique"; 
SAE paper 760141. 

Ref. 2 Blumberg, Paul N. "Powertrain Simulation: A Tool for the Design 
and Evaluation of Engine Control Strategies in Vehicles; 
SAE Paper 76012. 

Ref. 3 Unnewehr, L. E., et. al; "Hybrid Vehicle for Fuel Economy"; 
SAE Paper 760121. 

Ref. 4 "The Taxi Project: Realistic Solutions for Today"; The Museum 
of Modern Art, Nev York. 

Ref. 5 Frank, H. A. and Rippel, W. ; "Evaluation of W. Rippel's Electric 
Datsun 1200"; JPL Report 900-759; October lo76. 

Ref. 6 "Chassis Dyno Problems as Related to the Electric Car; Internal 
JPL communication. 



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